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楚州区中医院药流多少钱淮安/清浦区治疗睾丸炎多少钱淮安/中山医院是不是私立医院 LIKE most sins, tax breaks are easier to condemn than to resist. Politicians regularly decry the inefficiency and complexity that tax breaks introduce to the overall tax system, while merrily adding to the pile. Bill Clinton created the child tax credit. George W. Bush slashed the rates on capital gains and dividends. Barack Obama created a new “American Opportunity” credit for university expenses while showering temporary tax benefits on renewable energy companies, homebuyers and employers who hired the unemployed.如同对待众多罪恶一样,税收减免谴责易,抵制难。政客们常常一边大声谴责税收减免使得整个税收系统变得低效而冗杂,一边乐此不疲的引入更多减免政策。比尔克林顿创造了儿童课税津贴,乔治W.布什大幅削减了资本利得和股息的税率。巴拉克奥巴马设立一种新的为大学花费所设的“美国机会”津贴的同时,他对可再生能源公司,买房者和雇佣失业人员的公司也提供大量暂时性的税收优惠。These exemptions, deductions and credits (collectively known as “tax expenditures”) will cost America’s Treasury some .1 trillion in forgone collections this year, reckons Donald Marron of the Tax Policy Centre (TPC), a research group. The figure climbs to .3 trillion when forgone payroll taxes and the cash outlays for refundable credits are included. At around 6% of GDP, they are up sharply from 4.6% in 1990. Eliminate tax expenditures, and a big chunk of the deficit would vanish.根据一家调查组织,税收政策中心的唐纳德马兰所说,今年,这些免税,减税,补助(合计称为税收出)将使美国财政部放弃1.1兆美元的税收。若将放弃的工资税和可退税收抵免的现金出包括在内,这一数字将攀升至1.3兆美元。在1990年,税收出大约占据了4.6%的国内生产总值,如今,这一比率骤升至6%。倘若消除税收出,将减少大笔赤字。Tax expenditures now look likely to play a central role in the economic debates that are raging in this year’s election. Mitt Romney has promised to slash personal and corporate rates and pay for the cuts by eliminating tax expenditures. To fend off accusations that his plan is fiscally irresponsible and a giveaway to the rich, he has promised that it would not add to the deficit or favour the rich over the poor and the middle class.如今看来,税收出入似乎在今年越演越烈的总统竞选中的经济辩论里扮演了重要角色。米特罗姆尼承诺将削减个人和公司税率并通过消除税收出来付税收削减。有人谴责他的计划财政上并不可行,作为应对,罗姆尼承诺这一计划既不会增加赤字,也不会偏向富人,而不顾穷人和中产阶级。A closer examination of tax expenditures, however, suggests that achieving those two goals will be difficult. The TPC reckons his plans would cost 0 billion-900 billion in 2015, depending on how the amounts are calculated. Although in aggregate there are enough tax expenditures available to cover those cuts, the totals are deceptive. For one thing, Mr Romney’s lower rates would automatically reduce the value of any tax expenditures he chose to eliminate. That is because taxing previously sheltered income yields less revenue when rates are lower. For another, Mr Romney has aly ruled out touching some tax expenditures, such as the research credit, and others are highly unlikely to be eliminated, such as the fact that disabled workers don’t pay tax on some of their social security benefit.然而,进一步审视税收出表明,达到这两个目标并不容易。税收政策中心声称,根据计算数量的方法不同,罗姆尼的计划将在2015年花费5000亿至9000亿美元。尽管税收出总计足够付这些削减,这些总量是具有欺骗性的。就一方面来说,罗姆尼更低的税收政策将自动减少他选择消减的税收出的价值。这是因为先前的税收政策对收入免税,在税率更低时税收收入就更少了。再者,罗姆尼已经将一些税收出排除在外,不太可能消减诸如研究补贴税收出,还有比如残疾工人并不为他们享有的一些社会保障福利缴税。201205/180880淮安/中医院腋臭科

淮安/包茎手术的多少钱淮安/二院治疗妇科炎症多少钱 Racial Stereotypes and Memory种族刻板印象Although there has been much debate about whether race has a biological or social basis, the bottom line is that race is a psychological reality for many people. That is, many folks assign other individuals to racial categories based on their appearance, and then make assumptions about them.对于种族歧视究竟是生物种群还是社会因素在作怪,虽然还未有定论,但至少对多数人来说是一种心理现象的现实反应——他们自动地将他人分门别类,然后定版结论。But racial stereotyping goes beyond classifying people into groups. When a group is assigned a negative stereotype, individuals that exhibit more of the physical characteristics identified with that group suffer more discrimination.但种族刻板印象远远不止如此。当一个人的行为被贴上低等族群的标签时,会遭受到更多的歧视。For example, in a recent study, participants were asked to one of four news articles about a hypothetical African American man. The first story was about a professor receiving an award. The second was about an athlete, a role stereotypically linked to African Americans. The third was about a white-collar criminal and the fourth about a violent criminal. No matter which story they , all participants saw the same photo of the man.例如在最近的一项研究中,有四篇关于非裔美国人的新闻,参与研究者被要求阅读其中的一篇,人们关于种族的印象在这里彰显无遗。第一篇是关于一名教授获奖的事件。第二篇是一名运动员,他身上非裔美国人的特质彰显无遗。最后两篇分别是一名白领罪犯和一名暴徒。不论选择哪篇,文章的附图都是同一名男子。Despite that fact, when participants were asked to reconstruct the mans face on a computer, they gave the man more stereotypically African features, such as darker skin tones, if he had been portrayed negatively as the white collar criminal, or—especially—as the violent criminal.参与者被要求在电脑上重塑这名男子的拼图,在让他们描述后两种负面情况时,他们更偏重男子的非洲人特质,例如黑皮肤,The fact that they didnt associate more African features with the athlete, who was portrayed positively, suggests the participants linked these features to negativity rather than stereotypes. And this happened regardless of the participantsself-reported racial attitudes, which means that they werent even aware they were having these troubling responses.事实上,他们并没有将更多非洲人的特质赋予正面的运动员形象。这就意味着参与者将这些特质与负面形象联系起来,而非刻板印象。而这一切无关参与者自己的种族观念,他们根本就没意识到自己的是存在问题的。If so, then its not enough to study the way the media portray racial groups. Its also important to study how the public interprets and remembers—or misremembers—the news in a way that sustains racism.果真如此,这对于研究媒体描述不同种族尚且存在不足。但对于研究基于一定的种族歧视人们是如何理解、记忆或遗漏这些新闻信息的还是有其重要的价值。 /201207/192052淮安/中山治疗龟头炎多少钱

盱眙县人民医院做孕检多少钱To commemorate his death, one of Vincents favorite Victoria sentimentalists Luke Fildes produced an unforgettable image of Dickenss empty chair, pushed away from his desk.为纪念他的离世,文森特最喜欢的维多利亚感伤主义者卢克·菲尔德斯绘制了一幅令人难忘的《狄更斯的空椅子》的画作。Vincent bought this illustration and learnt from it how an empty chair can stand in so poignantly for a missing person.文森特买了这张插图并从中学到了一张空椅子如何能够非常深刻的反映出一个人。Haunted by this image, Vincent went on to become the greatest painter of empty chairs theres ever been.被这幅图画所魂牵梦绕,文森特后来成为了自从空椅子后最伟大的画家。And to your humors changing而你的幽默风趣发生了改变I tune my supple song我定义我的轻柔歌声I tune my supple song我定义我的轻柔歌声Vincents landlady in Brixton, Mrs Loyer had a daughter Eugenie who was 19, a year younger than Vincent.文森特的女房东太太在布里克斯顿,劳尔夫人有一个19岁的女儿尤金妮娅,比文森特要年轻一点。Perhaps the chief reason why he enjoyed his first year in London so much was because Eugenie was here.或许他喜欢自己在伦敦的第一年主要原因在于尤金妮娅在这里。Vincent fell for here all the way.文森特自始至终一直爱她。He was besotted Whats extraordinary is that he didnt tell her he was in love with her for almost a year.他被冲昏头脑的与众不同之处在于他甚至没有告诉她自己已经爱上了这个姑娘将近一年。He kept it bottled up. He let it fester.他将此埋藏在心。他让此长眠于心。注:听力文本来源于普特201207/189769 江苏淮安/中山医院男科电话盱眙县妇保院检查妇科病多少钱




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