原标题: 呼和浩特京美整形美容医院做祛疤手术多少钱网上对话
For a man who once weighed 980 pounds and had aly lost 650 of them, the loss of 50 more — the amount that vanished after Paul Mason#39;s nine-and-a-half-hour operation last month — might not seem like a big deal.对于一个曾重达980磅(约为445公斤),并已经减掉650磅(约为295公斤)的人来说,再减掉50磅好像根本不算什么。保罗·梅森就是这样,他上个月刚刚通过9个半小时的手术减掉了50磅(23公斤)。But Mr. Mason, who at his heaviest was known informally as the world#39;s fattest man, had been all but crippled by those 50 pounds, loose skin that hung over his body like melted wax over a candlestick. And so its absence has made all the difference.但是对于梅森——这个体重最重时被民间传为世界上最胖的人来说, 身上50磅松松垮垮的皮肤就像融化的烛蜡堪堪挂在烛台上一样,这50磅消失后,一切都不一样了。It means he can get out of his wheelchair and go for a walk. It means he can take a shower standing up. It means that his knees no longer ache, that he can slip easily in and out of bed without feeling like he has anvils strapped to his thighs, that he has sensation in his feet, and that when he puts his pants on he does not have to contend with an apron of extra flesh flopping from his waist to his thighs.现在的他可以甩掉轮椅独立行走;可以站着洗澡。现在的他膝盖不再疼痛;上下床时不再像大腿绑着铁砧一样;双脚也有了知觉;穿裤子时也不用再和从腰上耷拉到大腿的一圈肉做斗争。;It seems a bit weird,; Mr. Mason said recently. ;I#39;d got so used to maneuvering my excess skin out of the way.;;感觉有点诡异,;梅森最近说道。;毕竟我已经习惯随时把我多余的皮肤想办法拨开了。;It took a lot of planning and a great deal of good fortune for Mr. Mason, who is 54 and comes from Ipswich, England, to have the operation at all. Lenox Hill Hospital on the Upper East Side of Manhattan, where it was performed, waived all its fees. So did the four plastic surgeons who operated, and so did the general surgeon, the anesthesiologist and the nurses who took part.来自英国伊普斯维奇现年54岁的梅森做足了准备才终于完成了这项手术。进行手术的曼哈顿上东区勒诺克斯山医院免去了一切手术费用。同时,执刀的四名整形外科医生、普通外科医生、麻醉师和参加手术的护士都没收取任何费用。Mr. Mason#39;s bills would probably have exceeded 0,000, said Dr. Jennifer Capla, the surgeon who led the team at Lenox Hill.据勒诺克斯山医院领导这手术队伍的医师珍妮弗·卡普拉说,梅森的账单大概会超出25万美元(约合155.2万元)。It took Mr. Mason a long time to get as fat as he was, and it has taken him a long time to try to shed all that weight and find a life approaching normalcy. Bullied, sexually abused and unloved as a child, he said he dulled his feelings with more and more food. Eventually he got into bed and kept eating until he became too heavy to get out. Finally, spurred by a sympathetic therapist, he had gastric bypass surgery, in England, overhauled his diet and dropped to 350 pounds.梅森经历了很长时间才变得这么胖,又花了很长时间瘦下来,过上正常人的生活。幼年时期遭遇的欺凌、性虐待、失宠让他依赖越来越多地进食来发泄情绪。结果他躺到床上,一直不停地吃,吃到胖得没法下床。最终,在一名同情他的临床医师的鼓励下,他在英国进行了胃分流手术,彻底改变了饮食,把体重减到了350磅。Back at home now in Orange, Mass., where Mr. Mason has moved to be with Ms. Mountain, the couple still faces many obstacles.如今梅森已经回到家乡马萨诸塞州的奥兰治市,并和蒙特恩住在了一起。然而这对眷侣面前的路途依旧坎坷。Though her cat-furniture business is beginning to take off, Ms. Mountain said, she does all the work herself and she struggles to keep up with orders. Money is very tight, and there are issues surrounding Mr. Mason#39;s immigration status.蒙特恩说,尽管她的猫家具事业正有所起色,但她要独立负担所有工作,疲于及时处理接到的订单。家里财政紧缺,同时梅森的移民身份也有些问题。His visa is scheduled to run out in a few months. He and Ms. Mountain cannot get married and live together in the ed States until she can prove to the authorities that she has the means to support him as well as herself, she said.梅森的签还有几个月就到期了。如果蒙特恩不能明自己有能力同时养活他和自己,他们就不能在美国结婚生活,她解释道。;Somehow or other he will find a way to stay, and then he can maybe take a part-time job in town,; she said.;总有办法能留下的,到时候他大概可以在城里做份兼职吧,;她说。;Stacking shelves, whatever I can do,; Mr. Mason said. ;I don#39;t mind.;;摆架子,只要是我能做的就行,;梅森说。;我不在意具体是什么工作。;Down the line, he hopes to have at least one more operation, to remove the flesh that still hangs from his upper arms. But that is in the future. At the moment Mr. Mason is just adjusting to his new self, emerging into a different life; one with more possibility.梅森希望将来至少能再进行一次手术,切除他耷拉在上臂的肉。但这些都是后话,现在的梅森还在适应全新的自己,步入完全不同的人生,感受新人生的万千可能。He does not get as tired as he did just after the operation and is now walking his dog, Duke, in the garden every morning, something that was unthinkable before. He and Ms. Mountain have done some gardening, and are starting to make plans to grow vegetables and fruit.梅森觉得和术后初期相比已经没那么累了。现在他每天早上在花园里遛他的,杜克(Duke),这在以前想都不敢想。他和蒙特恩一起修建了花园,并筹划着种上蔬菜水果。The other day, they went to the movies. It seems like a small thing, but it wasn#39;t.前几天他们还一起去看了场电影。听上去没什么但实际上却很特别。;I was able to sit in a cinema seat for the first time in 30 years and hold hands and cuddle, like couples do,; he said.;这是我人生三十年来第一次能坐在电影院座位里,还能像情侣一样牵手拥抱,;他说。 /201509/400193A Turkish word for melancholy is huzun, and Orhan Pamuk’s writing soaks in it. Certain jazz musicians excepted, few artists conjure sweet sadness as unremittingly.帕慕克的行文中总是浸透着一个格外伤感的土耳其字眼:“呼愁”(huzun)。除了少数几个爵士乐手,几乎没有任何艺术家能够创作出这样绵绵不绝的甜蜜忧伤之情。Mr. Pamuk, who won the Nobel Prize in literature in 2006, sought to tap into “the huzun of an entire city” in his nonfiction book “Istanbul: Memories and the City” (2005). His sprawling new novel is after something similar.帕慕克是2006年诺贝尔文学奖得主,在他2005年的非虚构文集《伊斯坦布尔:一座城市的记忆》(Istanbul: Memories and the City)一书中努力写出了这种“整个城市笼罩的呼愁”。他最新一部篇幅铺漫的小说也是在追寻类似的东西。“A Strangeness in My Mind,” Mr. Pamuk’s first novel since “The Museum of Innocence” (2009), is a minor-key epic about life in Istanbul over the past half-century. It floats on a cushion of huzun, the way an air-hockey puck hovers above the game table.《我意识里的怪癖》(A Strangeness in My Mind)是帕慕克自2009年的《纯真物馆》(The Museum of Innocence)后的首部小说。它如同一曲小调史诗,吟咏伊斯坦布尔在过去半个世纪里的生活。它漂浮在一层呼愁之上,就像桌面冰球在球桌上方悬浮。The first thing to know about “A Strangeness in My Mind” is that it ranks with “A Confederacy of Dunces” as a major street-food vendor novel. Its primary character is Mevlut Karatas, who walks Istanbul’s neighborhoods at night calling out: “Booo-zaaaaa. Goooood boozaaaaa.”关于《我意识里的怪癖》,你要知道的第一件事就是它和《笨蛋联盟》(A Confederacy of Dunces)一样,堪称一本经典的路边食摊小贩小说。它的主角名叫梅弗卢特·卡拉塔斯(Mevlut Karatas),一到夜里就在伊斯坦布尔沿街叫卖:“卜——茶——,好喝的——卜茶——”Boza is an ancient fermented beverage, made in Turkey from wheat. It’s yellowish and thick and often topped with cinnamon and roasted chickpeas. Boza has a low alcohol content — so low that, as one character comments, it is “just something someone invented so Muslims could drink alcohol.”“卜茶”(Boza)是土耳其一种古老的发酵饮料,用小麦制成。颜色澄黄,口味浓郁,上面往往点缀着肉桂和烤鹰嘴豆,其中略含酒精,不过含量很低,正如书中一个角色的,“它被发明出来就是为了让穆斯林也能喝酒。”Boza sellers, Mr. Pamuk notes, have mostly disappeared from Istanbul. By the 1960s and ’70s, Mevlut is among the last of a breed. His call is ripe with huzun. One customer says, “You have a lovely voice, like a muezzin.” He replies, “It’s the emotion in the seller’s voice that really sells the boza.”帕慕克指出,卜茶小贩已经在伊斯坦布尔近乎绝迹。20世纪六七十年代,梅弗卢特是其中的最后一代人。他的叫卖声中充满了呼愁。一个顾客说,“你的声音真美,好像清真寺塔上的宣礼人。”他答道,“卜茶就是靠着小贩声音里的情感才能卖出去的。”“A Strangeness in My Mind” is not merely Mevlut’s story. This novel relates, through multiple voices, each jostling for airtime, the lives of a frazzled and often very funny cast of characters. Most are members of Mevlut’s extended family.《我意识里的怪癖》不仅仅是梅弗卢特的故事。这部小说通过许许多多的声音将一系列疲惫而又往往非常风趣的角色们的生活联系起来,而每一个声音都在力争更多的亮相时间。大多数角色是梅弗卢特大家庭中的亲戚。They arrive in Istanbul from poor villages in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey. They move into crumbling houses on the city’s outskirts before being raked by modernity into tall and disorienting apartment buildings. From this handful of people, Mr. Pamuk evokes the flow of generations of hopeful immigrants into the teeming city.他们从土耳其安纳托利亚中部贫困的村庄来到伊斯坦布尔,搬进城市郊区破旧的房子,然后又在现代化大潮中被抛进令人迷失的高楼大厦。帕慕克从这一小群人着手写起,描述出一代代充满希望的移民是如何涌入熙熙攘攘的城市。The primary theme in Mr. Pamuk’s work, powerfully evoked in his eerily fine novel “Snow” (2004), is mental dislocation — life lived between the competing attractions of Western and Eastern values, between secular doubt and religious conviction.帕慕克在2004年那本怪异而精致的小说《雪》(Snow)中强有力地写到了精神错位这个主题——生活在相互冲突的东西方价值观魅力之间、生活在世俗的怀疑与坚定的信仰之间。That’s true here, too. Mevlut is pulled, at trying moments, toward a deeper engagement with Islam. But “A Strangeness in My Mind” wears this topic lightly. The book is a hymn to life’s physical and mental chaos, not to the harmonies faith would impose.这个主题亦存在于《我意识里的怪癖》之中。在某些令人痛苦的艰难时刻,梅弗卢特被更深地推向伊斯兰信仰。但这本书对这个话题涉及不多,它是一曲对生活中灵与肉的混乱的赞歌,而不是信仰所能带来的身心和谐。A lot happens in “A Strangeness in My Mind.” There are timely births and untimely deaths, feuds and frauds, heartaches by the number. At its center is an unconventional love story.《我意识里的怪癖》中发生了很多事情。有适时的生育与过早的夭亡、世仇与欺骗、无数心痛。而故事的核心是一个不合传统的爱情故事。Mevlut is hoodwinked into eloping with the wrong girl, the less attractive older sister of a woman he admired. Theirs becomes a blissful marriage anyway, though they never quite make it out of poverty.梅弗卢特受到欺骗,和错误的女孩私奔,她是他爱慕的那个女人的,长相也不好看。不过他们毕竟是成了有福的一对,尽管一生都在受穷。There are many things to praise in “A Strangeness in My Mind,” which I’ll get to in a moment. What first needs to be said about this amiable novel is that, like boza, its alcohol content is not very high.. At nearly 600 pages, it has the stretch of an epic but not the impact of one. Like boza, it leaves a bit of film on your lip.《我意识里的怪癖》中有很多值得赞美之处,我会马上讲到。首先,它是一本温和的小说,和卜茶一样,酒精含量不是太高……它有着史诗般的篇幅,接近600页,但没有史诗的冲击力。和卜茶一样,只是在你唇边留下一丝回味。Melancholy is a hard emotion to sustain; over the long run, it cloys. Reading this novel, I was reminded of a passage in Elif Batuman’s lovely nonfiction book, “The Possessed” (2010). Ms. Batuman, an American writer born to Turkish parents, described how few people in Turkey novels, and how the melancholy Mr. Pamuk seemed somewhat miserable writing his.忧郁是一种很难去保持的感情,从长远角度来看会显得发腻。读这本小说的时候,我想起艾丽芙·巴图曼(Elif Batuman)可爱的非虚构作品,2010年的《附体》(The Possessed)。巴图曼是美国作家,她的父母是土耳其人,她在书中描述很少土耳其人读小说,而忧郁的、写小说的帕慕克有时候看上去真是可怜。About his novel “The Black Book” (1994), she writes: “It was about a man who had lost a woman called ‘Dream.’ This guy was walking around the streets of Istanbul calling: ‘Dream! Dream!’ I remember ing this on a bus in Turkey and feeling deeply, viscerally bored.”关于他1994年的小说《黑书》(The Black Book),她写道:“这是一个男人的故事,他失去了一个名叫‘梦’的女人,于是走遍伊斯坦布尔的街头,呼唤着:‘梦!梦!’我记得自己在土耳其的公共汽车读这本书,内心一阵深深的厌倦。”I was not deeply, viscerally bored by “A Strangeness in My Mind.” But I mostly turned its pages with polite interest rather than real desire. This novel hits its low points in its too frequent nods toward its title, to the strangeness in Mevlut’s mind. This “strangeness” is not so very strange; it comes to seem like little more than a variation on the author’s own brand of huzun.《我意识里的怪癖》并没有让我内心深深厌倦,但打开这本书的时候,我心中怀着的往往是礼节性的兴趣,而不是真正的渴望。这本小说写得最不好的地方就是它经常呼应标题,写到梅弗卢特意识里的怪癖。这个“怪癖”其实并不太怪;最后只不过是作家自己的呼愁的一个变种。Mr. Pamuk remains an estimable writer. One of his great gifts is for blending what is clearly a large amount of research, on many topics, into alert, humane, nonwonky prose. One example can stand in for many: his writing about street vendors.帕慕克仍然是一位非常难能可贵的作家。他最好的天赋就是把他对许多题材的大量研究混合在一起,成为敏锐、富于人文色而坚决的行文。举一个例子就够了,他对街头小贩的描写。He evokes “the golden years of Ottoman-style street food.” He expounds on many dishes, from stuffed mussels and lamb’s head to pan-fried liver. We learn the history of these food sellers. We witness them coping with onerous regulations, fickle customers, mean dogs.他描述“黄金时代的奥斯曼土耳其风格街头食物”。他详细地描写各种菜肴,从填馅青口、羊头到煎肝脏。我们通过这些食物小贩学到了历史。我们看到他们如何应付繁重的规则、暴躁的顾客和恶犬。Mr. Pamuk is a subtle writer on about social class. Once dishes like chicken with chickpeas and rice, eaten outside with plastic cutlery by office workers, begin to be seen as poor people’s food, sales shrivel.帕慕克擅长细微地描写社会阶层。办公室职员在外面用塑料餐具吃的鸡肉鹰嘴豆米饭一旦被视为穷人的食物,销量马上就跌下来了。Mevlut is among these sellers. At night, he peddles boza. During the day, he sells whatever he can. His wife, who helps prepare the food he hawks, describes herself as “the head chef of a three-wheeled restaurant.”梅弗卢特也是这些小贩之一。晚上,他兜售卜茶。白天他什么都卖。他的妻子帮他准备他卖的这些食物,说自己是“三轮餐馆的主厨”。The humor in this novel, which has been lucidly translated by Ekin Oklap, flows freely. The narrators interrupt and contradict one another as if they were talking heads in an early Spike Lee movie.小说中也包含了大量幽默,由翻译艾金·奥克拉普(Ekin Oklap)流畅地还原。叙事者们彼此打断,彼此矛盾,好像斯派克·李(Spike Lee)早期电影里的旁叙人。One woman notes the upside of dirt floors: “It took a month before I realized that the more I swept the floor, the higher the ceiling got.” Mevlut, who loves movies, comments on the downside of American and European ones: “You never quite knew who were the good guys and who were the bad guys.”一个女人说肮脏的地板也有好处:“我花了一个月才发现,我越扫地,房顶就显得越高。”梅弗卢特爱看电影,他说美国电影和欧洲电影有个缺点:“你永远都分不清谁是好人谁是坏人。”Yet “A Strangeness in My Mind” lacks the visceral and cerebral impact of Mr. Pamuk’s best novels, notably “Snow” and “My Name Is Red” (2001). For all its melancholy, it verges on being cute. You can say about it what one character says of Mevlut: “He’s a bit of a weirdo, but he’s got a heart of gold.”是的,《我意识里的怪癖》缺乏帕慕克那些最好的小说当中对心灵与头脑的冲击力,特别是《雪》和《我的名字是红》(My Name Is Red)。它虽有悲凉,却也不无喜乐。你可以用书中一个角色评价梅弗卢特的话来形容它:“他是个怪人,却有一颗金子般的心。” /201510/406137Those who find themselves easily distracted at work may be intellectually superior to their colleagues, according to research.研究发现,在工作中易被分散注意力的人可能比他们的同事智商更高。Intelligent workers may have difficulty concentrating due to the vast number of clever ideas popping into their gifted brains.高智商的人很难集中注意力,是因为他们总能灵光一闪,想出许多绝妙的主意。Bostjan Ljubic, vice president of Steelcase, a workplace solutions company that analysed the findings of neuroscientists and cognitive researchers, said: ;Employers are always on the lookout for the brightest people available, however the difficulty to withstand multiple tasks and distractions in the office affects smart people in the same way as everyone else, if not more.;斯迪凯斯公司通过对神经科学家和认知研究者的调研结果进行分析,为企业提供人力管理解决方案。斯迪凯斯副总裁斯扬·柳比奇说:“雇主们总是在寻找最聪明的人。然而,同其他人一样,聪明人在面对多重任务时也会无从下手,而且在容易走神这件事上,聪明人跟普通人差不多,甚至不如普通人。”The smartest individuals may find it more difficult to decide which ideas to prioritise with distraction leading to, what psychiatrist Dr Ned Hallowell cites as, ;a feeling of inadequacy and inability to deal with the workload as a whole,; the Telegraphreports.英国《每日电讯报》报道称,聪明人不容易分清事务的轻重缓急。引用精神病学士内德·哈洛韦尔的话说就是:这是因为“注意力不集中导致他们无法从全局的角度考虑事情,或者考虑的不够充分。”He added, the smartest brains can ultimately fall short of their own expected potential, as well as failing to live up to their employer#39;s hopes.他补充道,最聪明的脑瓜可能最终却并不能充分发挥它的潜力,达不到雇主原先的期望。Nearly half of more than 10,000 workers, surveyed in 17 countries, said they struggled to concentrate in the office, according to a wellbeing study by Steelcase.斯迪凯斯的幸福研究涵盖了17个国家,共有一万多人接受调查,其中有近一半的人都表示难以集中注意力工作。Increased access to technology has been cited as a possible reason for this lack of focus.影响注意力集中的可能因素之一是科技设备的频繁使用。Research from GlobalWebIndex, cited by Steelcase, says the average time spent on mobile devices has increased by 200 per cent since 2012; while the average smartphone user in the UK checks their phone 221 times every day and the average office worker checks their email around 30 times an hour.斯迪凯斯引用“全球网络指数”的研究称,目前人们在移动设备上平均花费的时间比2012年增长了200%;在英国,人们平均每天看手机221次,白领平均每小时查看邮件30次。The University of California suggest that, ultimately, the average office worker is interrupted or distracted every three minutes.加利福尼亚大学的研究发现,总的来说,白领平均每三分钟就要走一次神。Mr Ljubic said: ;The ways in which we work are changing more rapidly than ever before and the brain is being subjected to stresses and distractions which can lead to overload and statistics show that distractions in the workplace are on the rise.;柳比奇说:“我们的工作方式正在不断变化,变化频率比以前快多了。大脑易于焦虑、走神,由此导致脑部超负荷运转。数据显示,无法专心工作的人的数量正在上升。” /201601/423370

Some expectant mothers in China#39;s eastern city of Hangzhou recently chose to shift their scheduled childbirth dates earlier or later, in order to prevent their babies from getting birthdays only every four years, according to report recently.根据近日一则报道指出,中国东部城市杭州市的几位准妈妈为了防止她们的宝宝四年才过一次生日,选择了改变原本的分娩日期,早几天或者晚几天分娩。Since 2016 is a leap year, which comes around every four years and contains 29 days in February, those born on the last day of the month can only celebrate an actual birthday every four years.因为2016年是每四年轮一次的闰年,且二月有29天,所以该月最后一天出生的孩子以后只能每四年才庆祝一次真正的生日。Chen, a 37-year-old mother-to-be, was originally scheduled to give birth on Feb. 29, but decided to have her cesarean performed three days earlier than originally scheduled.37岁的陈女士原本的妊娠期是2月29日,但是她决定要比预产期早三天进行剖腹产。She explained that it could be disappointing for her baby to celebrate his birthday every four years while other kids get to celebrate every year.她对此解释称,如果29日生孩子,相比起其他孩子每年过一次生日,以后她的孩子每四年才能过一次生日,孩子会非常失望的。He Pei, a senior doctor in the obstetrics department of Hangzhou Women#39;s Hospital, said that Chen is not the only woman to do this. Many expectant mothers don#39;t want their babies to be born on Feb. 29.杭州女子医院妇产科的资深医生何培表示,陈女士不是唯一一位这样做的女士。许多准妈妈都不想自己的孩子在2月29日那天出生。At the same time, others believed that having a birthday every four years is a special experience, and those mothers-to-be weren#39;t worried about it.但是与此同时,很多人认为四年过一次生日也是一种很特别的经历,所以这些准妈妈们不需要为此担心。 /201603/429813

A healthy test tube baby was born Wednesday in northwest China#39;s Shaanxi Province from an embryo frozen 12 years ago, a record on the Chinese mainland.周三,一个健康的试管婴儿出生于中国西北部的陕西省一个冷冻了12年的胚胎,这也创造了中国大陆的一项纪录。On Wednesday morning, a 40-year-old woman gave birth to her second son, weighing 3,440 grams at birth at Tangdu Hospital in provincial capital Xi#39;an.周三早上,一名40岁的妇女在省会西安唐都医院生育出自己的第二个儿子,孩子重达3440克。She suffers from blocked fallopian tubes and polycystic ovary syndrome, a health problem that can affect a woman#39;s fertility and pregnancy. She began trying to get pregnant through IVF in 2003. That year, doctors harvested 12 of her eggs and created 12 embryos with her husband#39;s sperm. They implanted two fresh embryos to her womb, and froze the remaining seven that they considered viable.据悉,她患有输卵管阻塞和多卵巢囊综合征,这是会影响到妇女不的一个健康问题。2003年,她开始试图通过试管受精怀。那年,医生采集了12枚她的卵子,然后用她丈夫的精子创造出12个胚胎。他们把两个新鲜的胚胎植入她的子宫,然后冷冰了七个可用胚胎。Li gave birth to a healthy boy in 2004, and has since spent three yuan per day to store the embryos in the hospital in case of an emergency. Last year, when China dropped its one-child policy, she decided to have a second child.2004年,李某生育出了一个健康的男孩,自那以后,她每天花费三元在医院储存胚胎,以防万一。去年,当中国取消独生子政策后,她决定再生一个。Three embryos survived the thawing process. The two best were implanted in her womb, but only one survived.在解冻过程中,三枚胚胎存活了下来。两个品质最好的移植入了她的子宫,但是只有一个存活了下来。;The success rate of implanted thawed embryos is more than 40 percent in our hospital, so doctors usually place more than one embryo at a time,; said Wang Xiaohong, director of Tangdu Hospital reproductive medicine center.唐都医院生殖医药中心主任王晓红说道:“我们医院移植冷冻胚胎的成功率大于40%,因此,医生通常每次会多植入几个。”;Our first boy is 12 years old now. The purpose of freezing the embryos was to have a second child some day, and luckily, we succeeded,; said her husband.李某的丈夫说:“我们的第一个孩子已经12岁了。冷冻胚胎的目的就是为了有第二个孩子,幸运地是,我们成功了。”The infertility rate is high in China. China Population Association statistics from 2012 showed 40 million people with fertility issues, accounting for around 12.5 percent of the population at child-bearing age.中国的不率很高。中国人口学会2012年以来的数据显示,有4000万人患有不不育,占育龄人口的12.5%。;IVF is one of the most effective assisted reproduction techniques for treating of infertility,; said Wang.王晓红主任说:“试管婴儿是治疗不不育最有效的辅助生殖技术之一。”Tangdu Hospital began to freeze embryos for infertile couples in 2003. Up to now, it has frozen around 100,000 embryos, thawed more than 27,000, and created 4,293 healthy test-tube babies.2003年,唐都医院开始为不夫妇冷冻胚胎。迄今为止,已经冷冻了大约十万个胚胎,解冻27000多个,育了4293个健康的试管婴儿。 /201603/428958Founded by Li Yuanhao, known as Emperor Jingzong, the Western Xia was a dynasty of the Dangxiang people, with its capital in the Xingqing Prefecture (now Yinchuan in Ningxia).西夏是中国历史上以党项族为主体建立的王朝,建都兴庆府(今宁夏银川),开国皇帝为夏景宗李元昊。His empire extended as far east as the Yellow River, as far west as Yumen(west of Dunhuang, Gansu), as far south as Xiaoguan (north of Huan County, Gansu) and as far north as the Gobi desert.西夏疆域,东临黄河,西至玉门关(今甘肃敦煌),南接萧关(今甘肃环县北),北抵大漠。At its height, the Xi Xia consisted of 22 prefectures covering northern Ningxia and Shaanxi, northwestern Gansu, northeastern Qinghai and part of Inner Mongolia.盛时辖地22州,包括今宁夏及陕西北部、甘肃西北部、青海东北部及内蒙古部分地区。Ruled by 10 emperors, the Xi Xia lasted 190 years and was a rival of the Liao, the Northern Song, the Jin and the Southern Song.西夏共历十帝,前后190年。与辽、北宋及金、南宋并存。By origin, Dangxiang was a branch of the Qiang nationality and they formerly lived in the vicinity of the Yellow River valley located in the southeastern area of present-day Qinghai.党项族原属于羌族的一,居住在今青海东南部黄河曲一带。Since the late Tang Dynasty to the Northern Song Dynasty, theTuoba family of this nationality, working as satraps of the Central Plains government, had been governing the Xia Prefecture (now Hengshan in Shaaxi) and four other neighbouring prefectures.从唐末,经五代到北宋,党项拓跋氏均以中原王朝节度使的身分统辖以夏州(今陕西横山)为中心的五州之地。Due to the efforts of Li Jiqian (Li Yuanhao^ grandfather) and Li Deming (Li Yuanhao^ father), this nationality pursued a strategy of allying with the Liao. They made peace with the Song, attacked the Turbans and the Uygurs, and conquered the Xiliang Prefecture (now Wuwei in Gansu), the Ganzhou Prefecture (north of present-day Zhangye in Gansu) and the Guazhou Prefecture (present-day eastern Anxi in Gansu). Thus, the Dangxiang controlled all the areas along the western bank of the Yellow River and laid a solid foundation for Li Yuanhao to establish a dynasty.经过李继迁(元昊之祖父)、李德明(元昊之父)两代人的艰苦努力,实施依辽和宋、用兵吐蕃与回鹘的战略,向西发展占领西凉府(今甘肃武威)、甘州 (今甘肃张掖北)、瓜州(今甘肃安西东)等州,控制了河西走廊,为李元昊称帝建国打下了坚实的基础。In the 9th year of Tiansheng of Song Renzong (1031) Li Deming died and his throne went to his son Li Yuanhao. The new chief then refused the title conferred by the central government, replaced the surnames of Li and Zhao awarded by the Chinese court with Wei (on his own creation) and declared himself “Wuzu”(Son of Heaven).宋仁宗天圣九年(1031),李德明死,李元昊继位,不再接受封号,废除唐、宋所赐李、赵姓氏,改姓嵬名氏,自号“兀卒”(青天子)。Li Yuanhao then carried out a series of reform, including changing the hairstyle, the dress code, creating a written language, simplifying ceremonies and setting up an administrative system. At the same time, he made Xingzhou the Xingqing Prefecture, enlarged his palace and made preparations for declaring himself emperor.随后,李元昊实行变发式、定饰、造文字、简礼仪、立官制等一系列改革,并升兴州为兴庆府,扩建宫城,准备建国称帝。He attacked the Northern Song in the 1st year of Jingyou (1034) and defeated her forces in Fuzhou (now Fugu in Shanxi), Huanzhou (now Huanxian in Gansu) and Qingzhou (now Qingyang in Gansu).宋仁宗景祐元年(1034),他开始不断向宋发动攻势,在府州(今山西府谷)、环州(今甘肃环县)、庆州(今甘肃庆阳)等地击败宋军。In the 1st year of Baoyuan (1038), Li Yuanhao formally assumed the imperial title, designating his reign Yanzuo, and his dynasty, the Great Xia, was also known as the Western Xia in history.宋仁宗宝元元年(1038 ),元昊正式称帝,改元天授礼法延祚元年,国号大夏,史称西夏。Largely influenced by the Song Dynasty, the Xi Xia basically adopted her civil service system.西夏的政治制度受宋朝影响很大,官制的设置基本上模仿北宋。Central Government consisted of a Secretariat, a Privy Council, a Military Council, a Treasury, a Prefecture of Kaifeng, and a Censor Department, a Taxation Department, an Agricultural Department, a Livestock Department, a Department of Tibetan Studies, a Department of Han Culture and several others.中央行政机 构有:中书省、枢密院、三司、御史台、开封府、翊卫司、官计司、受纳司、农田司、群牧司、飞龙院、磨勘司、文思院、蕃学、汉学等。Local governments were split into two levels, i. e. , prefectures and counties. Prefectures were also set up in strategic political centers and military places.地方行政编制分州、县两级,在特殊的政治中心和军事国防要地有时也设郡、府。The military service system was a mix of the tribal military service system of the Dangxiang and that of the Song.西夏的军事制度是在党项部落兵制的基础上吸取宋制而发展起来的。The Military Council was the highest military body, consisting of several departments.枢密院是西夏最高的军事统御机构,下设诸司。The military forces comprised the imperial army, the “capture” army and local troops.军队由中央侍卫军、擒生军和地方军三部分组成。The imperial army was divided into three groups that performed different duties.中央侍卫军包括“质子军”、皇帝卫队和京师卫戍部队。The Zhizi Army was an elite force of 5 000 men who were excellent horsemen and archers. Chosen from aristocrat families, they were actually the armed escorts of the emperor and were on duty on three shifts a day in the palace.“质子军”人数约5000人,是由豪族子弟中选拔善于骑射者组成的一卫戍部队,负责保卫皇帝安全,号称“御围内六班直”,分三番宿卫。Another group of the imperial army, amounting to 3 000 soldiers, was top cavalrymen chosen from local armies across the country and who would follow the emperor into battle.另有皇帝亲信卫队3000人,是从境内各军中精选出来的强勇之士组成,皆为重甲骑兵,分为十队,每队300人,随皇帝出人作战。But the main part of the imperial army was the garrison force stationed in the capital. This well-armed army had 25000 soldiers in total. The Mcapturearmy, amounting to 100 000 men, was the main fighting force of the Xi Xia. It was called “capture”in that the enemy troops were always caught alive and then forced to become slaves.京城地区还屯驻一训练有素的卫戍部队,共2.5万人,装备优良,是中央侍卫军的主力,擒生军人数约10万,是西夏的精锐部队,主要任务是承担攻坚和机动作战,因在战斗中生擒敌军为奴隶,故此得名。The local forces, under jurisdiction of several departments of the Military Council, consisted of roughly 500 000 cavalrymen and infantrymen.西夏的地方军由各监军司所辖, 共有50万人,军兵种主要是骑兵和步兵两种。The Xi Xia practiced a policy ofevery citizen a soldier” i. e. Soldiers engaged in agriculture during times of peace and fought in war time.西夏兵役制度是全民皆兵制,平时 不脱离生产,战时参加战斗。The Dangxiang had originally lived by livestock husbandry and hunting, but later learnt more advance agricultural techniques.党项族原来主要从事畜牧业和狩猎,通过学习汉族先进的农业生产技术,农业经济得到迅速的发展。By the time the Xi Xia was founded, farming had become the main sector in its economy.到西夏建国时,农业生产已成为西夏社会经济的主要部门。Emperor Jingzong (Li Yuanhao) placed even higher emphasis on agricultural development. He not only had large-scale irrigation works built, but also personally took charge of the building of a canal from the Qingtong Gorge to Pingluo, called MKing Hao Canar, or “King Li Canal”.西夏建国后,景宗李元昊更加重视农业生产的发展,大力兴修水利工程,并亲自主持修筑了从今青铜峡至平罗的灌渠,世称“昊王渠”或“李王渠”。Afterwards, the areas of Xingqing and Lingzhou became the main bases for grain production.以后,兴庆府、灵州一带,一直是西夏粮食生产的主要基地。Attention was also paid to animal husbandry.在发展农业的同时,西夏统治者也较重视畜牧业生产。In the central government, a special department was set up to be responsible for its development.国家专门设立群牧司负责畜牧业的管理。Livestock husbandry areas were mainly scattered north of the Heng Mountain and along the corridor on the western bank of the Yellow River. Sheep, goats, horses, camels, cattle, asses, mules and pigs were the main animals domesticated.西夏的畜牧地区主要分布在横山以北和河西走廊地带,牧养的牲畜以羊、马、蛇、牛为主,还有驴、骤、猪等。Handicrafts and commerce also flourished then. The Xi Xia had a high output in the industries of metallurgy, salt collecting and refining, brick and tile making, pottery and china making, textiles, paper making, printing, wine making, and the making of gold, silver, and wooden utensils.由于农、牧业的发展,社会生产力的迅速提高,西夏的手工业生产和商业贸易也随之迅速发展起来。西夏的冶炼、采盐制盐、砖瓦、陶瓷、纺织、造纸、印刷、酿造、金银木器制作等手工业生产也都具有一定的规模和水平。With the promotion of its rulers, the Dangxiang received more of the Han culture than any other nationality at the time.在西夏统治者的倡导下,党项族是同时期接受汉文化较多的一个民族。One can say that the core culture of the Western Xia was Confucianist.可以说,西夏文化的核心是儒家文化。Towards the end of the Xi Xia, its government was in chaos and the political opponents and different interests groups were rival for controlling of the government.西夏末期,朝政长期处于内乱之中,政敌和宗党间的斗争激烈。After the founding of the Kingdom of Mongolia, there were wars between them. With many years of fighting finally in the 2nd year of Baoyi (1227) of the last emperor,s reign,the Western Xia ended in the hands of the Mongolia.蒙古汗国建立后,几次征讨西夏,经过长期的抗争,西夏于末帝宝义二年 (1227)被蒙古所灭。 /201602/426198

Bing Xin (1900~1999), originally named Xie Wanying, was a native of Changle of Fujian Province.冰心(19oo~1999),原名谢婉莹,福建长乐人。Her father was a naval officer and she spent her childhood in Yantai of Shandong Province. 父亲是海军军官。她的童年是在山东烟台度过的。The ocean left a deep impression on Bing Xin.大海给冰心留下了深刻的印象。She was one of the most celebrated female writers among the first batch of modern writers emerging in large numbers during the new-vernacular literature (promoted by the May Fourth Movement in 1919).冰心属于五四新文学运动中涌现出来的第一批现代作家,是其中最著名的女作家之一。Most of her early works were ;problem fiction;, which lay bare the oppressive, feudal patriarchal system and exposed the problems of society, family and women. Two Families, The Man Alone Is off Color, Leaving the Courtry and The Sister of Zhuang Hong, showed clearly that the patriotic May Fourth Movement and the tide of new thinking had strongly affected Bing Xin. 在新思潮的影响下,冰心创作了《两个家庭》、《斯人独憔悴》、《去国》、《庄鸿的姊》等揭示社会、家庭、妇女等人生问题的“问题小说”。Passionately concerned about the realities of her day, she was utterly dissatisfied with the feudal authorities. After the high tide of the May Fourth Movement, under the influence of the philosophy of Tagore, she ;retreated into the small world of the family, describing and lauding the kind of #39;human love#39;, which cannot exist in a society that is bedeviled by class distinctions;.这些小说,表现了她对封建势力和社会现状的不满,五四之后,受泰戈尔《飞鸟集》的影响,冰心退缩到家庭的圈子里,去描写、歌颂在阶级社会里不可能实行的‘’人类之爱”。Her stories ;Superman; and “Awakening; as well as the volumes of poetry ;The Stars; and ;Spring Waters; belonged to this period.在这个时期,冰心创作了《超人》、《悟》以及诗集《繁星》和《春水》。In these works, she dwelt on maternal love, childlike innocence and purity, sping the empty belief that ;the world is love;. Compared with her early stories and poetry, Bing Xin#39;s essays brought her greater recognition for their achievement.这些无标题的格言式自由体小诗,以自然和谐的音调,抒发了作者对自然景物的感受和人生哲理的思索,歌颂了母爱、人类之爱和大自然。Bing Xin was a talented writer with a very personal style. The style of her prose, known as “Bing Xin style;, was light; the feelings expressed were transparent and delicate. As a writer, she was good at using her literary style to create a rich lyrical atmosphere in her works, which also accounted for their influence at the time. She wrote with natural grace so that her writing style was just like floating clouds and running streams.冰心的散文被称为“冰心体”散文,即以行云流水似的文字,歌颂自然、母爱和童年,抒发对祖国、故乡、家人、大海的眷念,满蕴着温柔,微带着忧愁,显示出清丽的风致。Essays such as The Post, Thoughts in the Mountains, Letters to My Young Readers, Returning to the South and Little Orange Lamp also gave the er a sense of beauty close to that conveyed by lyrical poetry or landscape paintings.代表作有《往事》、《山中杂记》、《寄小读者》、《南归》、《小桔灯》等。Letters to My Young Readers was the earliest work of children#39;s literature in modern China.其中散文集《寄小读者》是中国现代最早的儿童文学作品。Most of these essays were written abroad, as she thought of her family, her hometown and her country. Maternal love and childlike innocence still featured prominently in these works, but the tone was somewhat changed. There was also disappointment upon the shattering of empty dreams, frustration upon the failure to find answers in her search for the meaning of life, and melancholy upon recollection of childhood. She took full advantage of the easy flow of the vernacular as well as the disciplined simplicity of the classical language. She advocated endowing Chinese with a tint of the Western language. The sentences under her pen were elastic and gentle with dancing rhythm.冰心主张“白话文言化”、“中文西文化”,她的散文既保留了某些文言文的典雅凝练,又适当地“欧化”,使句子灵活婉转,有自然跳动的韵律感。 /201603/428934Why Can#39;t I Sleep In on Weekends Anymore?为何我再也无法在周末睡觉?Sleeping in is one of the best parts of the weekend. After a long, exhausting work week, sometimes all you want to do is sleep. On Friday night, you slide under the covers, smiling in anticipation. Now you can finally catch up on your sleep.睡觉是周末最棒的地方之一。在漫长而疲惫的工作日后,有时你唯一想做的就是睡觉。在周五晚上,你钻进被窝,带着美好的期盼微笑着。现在你终于可以弥补你的睡眠了。Except you can’t. When you open your eyes Saturday morning, it’s still early. If this were a weekday, you’d be up before your alarm. So what’s the deal? 然而你不行。当你周六早上睁开眼时,时间还早。如果这还是个工作日,你在闹钟响之前就醒了。那么这是为什么呢?We hate to break it to you, but you’ve pretty much done this to yourself. Your body is very good at recognizing patterns and adjusting accordingly. If you’ve got a 9-to-5 job, you’re getting up early five days a week. This effectively sets your body clock to wake you at a certain time each day.我们不想向你拆穿,但这大多是你自己的原因。你的身体非常擅长识别模式然后以此做调整。如果你有一份朝九晚五的工作,你一周5天都早起。这有效地设定了你的生物钟,每天都在特定的时间把你叫醒。Waking up may feel instantaneous, but it’s actually a pretty gradual process. About an hour before you wake, your blood pressure and body temperature rise, as do levels of stress hormones like cortisol. Minute by minute, you become more alert until you’re completely awake. You can shut off your alarm clock, but your body clock will just keep ticking.醒来或许感觉是瞬间发生的,但事实上这是个循序渐进的过程。在你醒来的一个小时前,你的血压和体温上升,同时还有压力荷尔蒙的水平,比如皮质醇。时间一点点过去,你越来越清醒直到彻底醒来。你可以关掉你的闹钟,但你的生物钟还会继续走着。There’s another reason that you probably don’t want to think about: You’re just not as young as you used to be. We need less sleep as we get older. Babies need between 16 and 20 hours. Teenagers should (but often don’t) get nine hours a night. Younger and middle-aged adults need about eight hours of sleep a night. In general, the older you get, the harder it is to snooze the day away. 还有另一个你或许不愿意想的原因:你再也不像曾经那样年轻了。我们长大后所需的睡眠时间变少了。婴儿需要16到20个小时的睡眠。青少年应该每晚睡9个小时(但经常不能)。年轻和中年人需要大概8个小时的睡眠。总体来说,你年纪越大,睡得越少。Even if you do manage to sleep in, you may never fully catch up on your sleep. If your body needs eight hours every night and you only get six or seven from Monday to Friday, you’d have to sleep an extra five to ten hours on Saturday to make it up. And experts say even that may not be enough. 即使你真的设法睡着了,你或许永远也不能完全补上你的睡眠。如果你的身体每晚需要8个小时的睡眠,而你只从周一到周五睡了6或7个小时,那么你需要在周六补上5到10个小时。并且专家说或许这都不够。The bottom line: Sleep when you can, and enjoy those extra weekend morning hours. Who doesn’t want a longer weekend?最后一句:能睡多少睡多少,享受那些周末额外的早晨。谁不想要一个长点儿的周末呢?译文属原创,,不得转载。 /201602/425181

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