楼主:中关村开放 时间:2018年02月25日 21:13:42 点击:0 回复:0
One#39;s birthdate has aly been linked to such things as temperament. Now researchers in Taiwan report in the Journal of Pediatrics that we can add ADHD to the list.事实上,一个人的出生日期与其性格品性等方面都存在一定的联系。最近,台湾研究人员在《中华儿科杂志》发表的一篇研究报告指出,出生日期与患得多动症之间也具有一定联系。When looking at 378,881 children ages 4 to 17 at some point between 1997 to 2011, they found that preschool and elementary school-age children born in August were 1.65 times more likely to be diagnosed with ADHD and 1.73 times more likely to be put on medication than kids born in September—who, because of school cutoff dates similar to those in the US, tend to be nearly a year older than their August counterparts.研究人员观察了378881位出生年份在1997年至2011年间的孩子,他们的年龄分别在4至17岁之间不等。在观察后他们发现,那些出生在8月的学前班儿童和小学生患得ADHD(多动症)的概率比那些9月份出生的孩子要高1.65倍,今后接受药物治疗的可能性也要比那些9月份出生的孩子高出1.73倍。由于中国学校入学的截止日期与美国基本相同,因此学校内那些9月份出生的孩子普遍比那些在8月份出生的孩子年长一岁。The discrepancy did not exist in older kids, which researchers write may imply that ;increasing age and maturity lessens the impact of birth month on ADHD diagnoses.;这种差异并没有在年龄较大的孩子身上体现出来,研究人员表示:“随着年龄逐渐增长,心智也愈发成熟,这些因素都从一定程度上削弱了出生月份与患得多动症之间的关联。”The findings add to previous work on ADHD in the US and Canada finding that a child#39;s age within a grade plays a role in ADHD diagnosis, lead author Dr.Mu-Hong Chen tells Live Science. He calls it reduced neurocognitive maturity, something that is particularly pronounced when comparing the youngest and oldest kids within a grade.首席作者陈木宏告诉《生活科学》杂志:这些发现进一步为之前美国和加拿大在多动症方面的研究提供了据持,即孩子在同一年级的前提下,年龄大小是判断患有多动症风险大小的关键因素。他称其为“神经认知成熟度下降”的表现,该名词在将同年级年龄最大和年龄最小的孩子进行对比时经常被用到。Globally, the number of kids diagnosed with ADHD has risen dramatically, researchers note in a press release, saying, ;Our findings emphasize the importance of considering the age of a child within a grade when diagnosing ADHD and prescribing medication to treat ADHD.;研究人员在新闻稿中提到,目前全球患有多动症孩子的数量正在不断增长。他们表示,“我们的调查将着重研究同年级之间孩子的年龄大小问题,因为这个因素在诊断病症和为治疗多动症进行药物治疗的时候显得尤为重要。”More than one in 10 kids in the US have been diagnosed with ADHD.美国目前十个孩子中就有一个孩子被诊断患有多动症。 /201603/432308Bill: Where did you get that gold watch Jon?比尔:你从哪儿弄来的金表,乔?Jon: I won it in a race.乔:我赛跑赢的。Bill: How many people participated1 in it?比尔:有多少人参加?Jon: Three, a policeman, the owner of the watch, and me!乔:三个人,一个警察,手表的主人和我! /201511/410646Most men and women feel that a dinner bill should be split down the middle, but with women only making 79 cents for every dollar a man earns, how fair is this it really?对于晚餐之后的买单问题,绝大多数人都认为应该平摊。但如果考虑到收入问题,比如女性收入仅为男性的79%,你觉得这真的公平吗?A new app aims to answer this question, and for others who fall victim to income inequality, by dividing the check up according to each person#39;s race and gender.于是一款新应用诞生,旨在解决这一问题。它了解人们收入不公的遭遇,根据每个人不同的种族与性别来计算各自在共餐后理应分摊的钱数。Equipay uses Bureau of Labor Statistics and math to calculate how much is owed from each person and there is an option to #39;protest#39;, but it will only give you statistics about the wage gap.这款名为“Equipay”的应用通过使用美国劳动统计局统计数据和相应的数学公式来计算每个人的应付账款。同时,它还赋予使用者“提出异议”的权利,不过它只会对此提供关于收入差距的统计数据,并不会改变其计算结果。#39;Equipay helps you avoid the entrenched discrimination that exists in our society. It doesn#39;t split the bill equally—it splits it equitably,#39; the firm#39;s site says.Equipay开发公司方宣称:“Equipay可以帮助你回避生活中根深蒂固的歧视。它不会让人们平等地分摊费用,但它可以让买单这一行为变得人人平等。”#39;You pay what you should to balance out the wage gap.#39;“你可以通过付所能承受的部分来平衡和同伴之间的收入差距。”It is the brain child of Luna Malbroux, a diversity educator and comedian from California, who wanted to #39;make the touchy subject#39; of racial and gender inequalities more accessible and fun, reports Care2.据Care2网站报道,Equipay的创意来自于美国加利福尼亚州的露娜#8226;马布鲁克斯,她是一位多元文化教育家和喜剧演员。她希望能通过这个创意让种族和性别不平等这一“敏感问题”变得有趣,并为大众所接受。#39;I hope that this, more than anything, starts a discussion and helps people to start thinking a little bit differently about how we can use more technology and more innovation to address inequality and wage inequality,#39; Malbroux said.马布鲁克斯说:“我希望这款应用能吸引大家的关注,掀起热论,并且引导人们以全新的角度去思考我们该如何运用科技发明去解决分摊和收入的不平等。”To find out what everyone owes after the meal, just open up Equipay and select your friends from your friends list that are dining with you that evening.只要你打开Equipay,从你的朋友列表里选择今晚和你一同吃饭的朋友,就能知道每个人饭后应该分摊的费用。The app has a built in #39;diversity tracker#39; that lets you know how diverse your friends really are, the list also displays the level of diversity for each person.这款应用还设置了“多样化追踪”,帮助你了解朋友们之间的收入差距。同时,你的朋友列表也会显示其中每一个人所处的收入层次。Type in the amount of the entire bill at the top, tip included, and the software will begin calculating the split based on who your company is.你只要根据提示,在应用上输入整顿饭的花费,它便能够根据你和朋友的所在公司来计算分摊的费用。Finally it will show you the list again, but now with how much each person owes.结果出来之后它会再一次向你确认账单,此刻的账单上会显示出每个人需分摊多少。There is the option to protest, in which the app will ask #39;what#39;s your excuse#39; and lists reasons for you to choose from.你可以对它的计算结果提出异议,这时应用会询问“你的理由是什么”,并列出一些选项供你选择。You can say #39;I was a middle child#39; or #39;I spent 0 on improve classes#39; or #39;I#39;m unaware of my privilege#39;.你可以借口称“我在家是老二(通常排行中间的孩子容易被忽略)”,或者“我还在上提高班,需要花费400美元”,要不就是“我不觉得我这么有钱”。Equipay will find the best rebuttal possible, whether it is facts regarding income inequalities or something funny that makes you think twice about disagreeing with what you owe.Equipay将会对此找出最合理的例反驳,不论这些例是有关收入不公的事实还是其他有趣的据,都会让你在提出异议前三思。 /201603/429113

Sima Qian (145 or 135 B. C~90 B. C.), whose courtesy name was Zichang, was a native of Xiayang (now Hancheng, Shaanxi Province).司马迁(公元前145或135年~约公元前90年),字子长,夏阳(今陕西韩城)人。His father Sima Tan served as Taishiling, an official managing the imperial library and calendar. Sima Qian later succeeded his father#39;s work and started compiling Shiji(Or Records of the Historian).父亲司马谈曾任太史令,司马迁继任太史令后,开始了《史记》的写作。Unfortunately, Sima Qian was involved in the Li Ling Affair which offended the emperor, who sentenced him to castration.后因李陵事件蒙冤,被处以宫刑。Released from the prison, he was appointed Zhongshuling, the imperial secretary-general and was determined to complete his great work.出狱后被任命为中书令,发愤著书。Shiji is an overview of Chinese history covering events from Huang Di to Emperor Wudi in the Han Dynasty, consisting of 130 chapters with more than 520,000 Chinese characters. These 130 chapters are further divided into five parts: eight Basic Annals, ten Chronological Tables, 12 Treatises, 30 Hereditary Houses, and 70 Biographies.《史记》上起黄帝,下迄太初,全书共52万多字,分为八书、十表、十二本纪、三十世家、七十列传5部分,共130篇。For Sima Qian, to compile such a book was to “investigate the interrelationship between the human and the universe, to generalize the rules of historical evolution and to formulate a unique historical view;.司马迁写《史记》,目的是为了“究天人之际,通古今之变,成一家之言”,即通过对古今历史全面系统的整理,总结探讨天道和人事之间的关系、历史演变的规律,表达自己的世界观、历史观、社会观和人生观。He believed the mandate of Heaven and admitted that it is God#39;s will that contributes to major historical changes.他接受天命论,承认天有意志,并用来解释一些重大的历史变局。He held a progressive, evolutionary historical view and was against separation of a country. He upheld the principle of running a country with moral standards and objected to tyranny. He also argued that the monarch should govern through non-action and follow the practice of the common people.他持发展、进化的历史观,反对分裂,颂扬大一统; 崇尚德治,反对暴政;主张顺民之俗,颂扬无为政治。In Shiji, Sima Qian attempted to develop a candid style to record historical events without flamboyant ornaments. In recounting historical events, he often added his own comments by using a unique style introduced by “The Taishigong says that. . .”本着文直事核、不虚美、不隐恶的实录精神写作《史记》,创造了书、表、本纪、世家和列传五体,创造了“太史公曰”的史论形式,在叙事方法上创造了互见法。Historical figures and events were systematically depicted in different places so that they could be evaluated from different angles. For the first time in Chinese historical writings, Sima Qian focused on the portrayal of historical characters.在史传作品中第一次确定了以人物为本位的写法,以实录为基础对人物进行形象化的塑造,写出了人物的个性和灵魂。His skillful writing techniques made these characters more vibrant and realistic. In presenting historical facts, the author infused emotional descriptions, expressing his intense love and hate.客观史事的叙述中倾注了浓厚的抒情因素,在人物身上熔铸了鲜明的爱憎感情。艺术风格雄浑悲壮,语言纯熟老练。Shiji is not only a masterpiece about history; it is also a great literary work. Lu Xun, regarded this book as “the first and last great work ever written by a historian; it is Qu Yuan#39;s Li Sao without rhyme.” Sima Qian was a cultural giant in the Chinese history of historical studies, literature and philosophy.《史记》是一部伟大的历史著作,又是一部伟大的文学著作,被鲁迅称赞为“史家之绝唱,无韵之离骚”。司马迁是集史学家、文学家、思想家于一身的文化巨人。 /201511/410622

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