明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月24日 12:01:51
Violent clashes in the Middle East and unrest in Africa made the world less peaceful within the past year, according to recent rankings from the Global Peace Index.根据最近全球和平指数排名,在过去的一年里,中东和非洲的动乱使世界变得不安宁。The Institute for Economics and Peace releases the annual index every June. It looks at more than 20 factors, including access to weapons, violent crime, political instability and military expenditure for 163 countries.每年六月,经济与和平研究所发布年度指数。它着眼于20多个因素,包括163个国家的武器获得、暴力犯罪、政治不稳定和军事开。While Yemens peacefulness score deteriorated the most over the past 12 months, Syria was ranked as the least peaceful country for the third year in a row. The country is consumed by violence from both ISIS and its ongoing civil war, in which estimates say nearly half a million people have been killed since it began in 2011.在过去12个月,也门的和平分数恶化的最厉害,叙利亚连续三年被评为最不和平的国家。该国遭到来自ISIS和正在进行内战的暴力,自2011年起预计近50万人遇难。Thanks to a small crime rate and limited engagement in foreign conflicts, Iceland was named the worlds most peaceful country — a rank its held since it was first included in the Global Peace Index in 2008.基于少的犯罪率及很少参与国外冲突,冰岛被评为世界上最和平的国家,2008年全球和平指数冰岛就位列第一。The U.S. failed to crack the top 100, coming in at 103. The index estimated violence cost the U.S. over trillion.美国未能挤入前100,位列103名。该指数估计暴力花费美国超过2万亿美元。Broadening the scope, Europe was named the most peaceful region in the world, despite terrorist attacks in France, Belgium and Turkey within the past year. 欧洲被评为全球最和平的地区,尽管在过去一年里,法国、比利时和土耳其发生恐怖袭击事件。The Middle East and North Africa ranked as the most dangerous region in the world with five of the 10 least peaceful nations. The studys authors note that if that region were omitted from the report, the score for the world as a whole wouldve improved.中东和北非被列为世界上最危险的地区,10个最不和平的国家中有5个。该研究的作者指出,如果报道中该地区被忽略,世界整体的分数将提高。译文属。201606/448486原味人文风情:What kind of movie does it look like?那看起来像哪种电影?It looks like...maybe a grown-up movie not meant for kids. My mom would not let me see this movie.它看起来像...可能是一部大人的电影,不是给小孩看的。我妈妈不会让我看这部电影。Hi, my name is Alexa, and Im five years old, and my favorite color is blue.嗨,我的名字是 Alexa,我五岁,我最喜欢的颜色是蓝色。Hello.哈啰。Hi, Alexa.嗨,Alexa。Tell us exactly what you can see.完整告诉我们妳可以看到什么。It looks like an old man and an old lady, and the lady looks mad at the man, and the man just looks like...这看起来像一个老先生和一个老太太,然后老太太看起来在生老先生的气,老先生看起来就像...Maybe shes angry that he didnt rake the farm?她搞不好在气他没有把农场耙平?And shes like, ;Hey! Rake the farm aly! You want to have more vegetables!;然后她就会说:「嘿!快去把农场耙一耙!你想种出多点蔬菜好吗!」Is it American Gothic by Grant Wood?是不是格兰特?伍德的〈美国哥德式〉?Yes!没错!What do you see this time?妳这次看见什么?There is a picture of a person out at night at the ocean, and it looks like nighttime.有幅一个人晚上外出到海边的画,那看起来像是天黑了。She has, like, a red bathrobe. Her eyebrows are, like, bented down, like...她有一件红色浴衣。她的眉毛往下弯,像是...Maybe she wanted to stay at the beach a little longer but she couldnt because it was aly turning to nighttime.有可能是她想在海滩待久一点不过却不行,因为已经要变晚上了。And shes all alone?她一个人而已?Yeah.对。What are you thinking, Max?Max,你在想什么?Im thinking its narrowed it down to many hundreds of portraits.我在想,这已经把范围缩小到几百幅肖像画了。Yeah.真的。On her bathrobe, it has, like, Chinese signs on it.她的浴衣上有像是中国符号在上面。Im wondering if maybe its a Japanese print, like a Hiroshige print, or a ukiyo-e print from the late 19th century.我在想这有没有可能是日本版画,像是歌川广重的版画,或十九世纪晚期的浮世绘。Take a guess. Press the button.猜一下啊。按按钮。Okay. Im gonna guess that its a Japanese ukiyo-e print.好。我猜那是幅日本浮世绘。No.不是。No! I didnt get it. Okay.不是!我没猜中。好吧。Can you do us a drawing?妳可以帮我们画看看吗?Sure.没问题。I think its Frida Kahlo, Self-Portrait. Ding, ding, ding.我想那是芙烈达?卡萝的〈自画像〉。叮叮叮答对了。Tell me exactly what you see.把妳看到的完完全全告诉我。I can see...pirates. Like, theyre at their home with all their stuff, and theyre looking for things, but theyre just laying there with their arm on the table, and theres one that has a really fluffy coat on.我可以看到...海盗。像是,他们和全部的东西在家,然后他们在找东西,不过他们就只是把手臂放在桌上靠在那,还有一个海盗穿着毛茸茸的外套。He looks like the captain.他看起来像是船长。How many pirates are there?有几个海盗?Theres only two.只有两个。Is there a white smear at the bottom?底下有滩白白的东西吗?Yes.有。I think its The Ambassadors by Holbein.我想那是霍尔班的〈使节〉。Ding, ding, ding.叮叮叮答对了。Nice one, Max.答得好,Max。You both did a great job, but theres only one winner. To Max!你们两个都做得很好,不过赢家只有一个。给 Max!Thank you so much.非常谢谢。Youre welcome.不客气。You see, thats a skull. Thats its jaw and thats the back of its head. See it now?妳看,那是颗骷髅头。那是它的下巴然后那是它的后脑勺。看到了吗?Yeah.有。201610/471273

So they told me that you know the Gettysburg Address. Yeah.他们说你知道葛底斯堡演说。是的。Could you do it for me? You could?你能说几句吗?可以吗?Lets come to the front.到前面来。Lets stay right here. Lets stand in the middle. And now I want you to do the Gettysburg Address.站在这里,站在中间。现在开始你的葛底斯堡演说。Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation八十七年前,我们的父辈在这块大陆上创建了一个新的国家,conceived in liberty and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.这个新的国家在自由中育,信奉人人生而平等的主张。Now we are engaged in a great civil war,现在我们正在从事伟大的国内战争,testing whether that nation or any nation so conceived, so dedicated can long endure.来考验这个国家,或任何在自由中育,信奉人人生而平等的主张的国家,能否长久存在下去。Come here. Show your love for Lucy!过来,为露西而鼓掌!I got a surprise for you.我为你准备了个惊喜。Who would you really like to take a selfie with other than me?除了我以外,你还希望和谁照自拍照?How about that over there?那个怎么样?Lets go. You gonna take a selfie.我们过去。来照个自拍。Turn around right here right quick. We gonna take a selfie with one hand with this camera that your grandmama had.快转过去。一只手拿着你祖母的相机。All right, you y? Taking a selfie.准备好了吗?照个自拍。Now, can you take a picture? Now this is what I want you to do.你能照个相吗?这是我想你干的事情。When I say go, hit that button right there by the green light. Okay. Okay.当我说“照”的时候,你按下绿灯旁边的按钮。好吗,好的。But look up here, though. You looking real close? Watch this.但你要看这里。你看清楚了吗?看这个。Come here, boy. Ooh. Come here.瞧这个,哦。过来。This is Abraham Lincoln.这是林肯。And guess what. He has a surprise for you.你知道吗,他还为你准备了个惊喜。These are Little Big Shot airline tickets. Were gonna send you and your family to see the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. Youre going.这是节目组为你准备的飞机票。你将和你的家人前往华盛顿林肯纪念堂。你可以去了。Show your love for Lucy!请大家为露西鼓掌!201706/512805

The voice is all the more credible because it belongs to someone who by rights,这种说法更为可信 因为按理说 写这句话的人should have found nothing to fault in the Norman Conquest the monk Orderic Vitalis,断不会刻意责难诺曼征 他就是修道士奥尔德里克·维塔利斯whose family came over with William and belonged, therefore, to the conquering class.他的家族跟着威廉来到这里 因此他应属征者一方In the early 12th century,he began to pen his account of the Conquest and its aftermath,十二世纪早期 他开始记录这场征及其影响and, in complete contrast to the others,Orderic never minces his words about what he thought of as a colonisation.但与他人截然不同的是 奥尔德里克从未矫揉做作地解释过 他认为什么是殖民化Foreigners grew wealthy with the spoils of England,while her own sons were either shamefully slain从英格兰掠夺的财富让外来入侵者变得富有 而她的子民却被受尽凌辱惨遭荼毒or driven as exiles to wander hopelessly through foreign kingdoms.或被驱逐 流亡国外 背井离乡His account conveys the traumatic magnitude of what happened in England in the years following 1066.他的记录向我们传达了1066年后 英格兰所经受的巨大创伤Pre-Conquest England was an old country,as Orderic describes it.照奥尔德里克所述 被征前的英格兰是个古老的国家Afterwards, it was a completely new one.被征后的英格兰 却犹如新生Of course, not everything changed,and to look at a list of governing institutions当然 也不是所有东西都变了 看一看治理国家的制度you might suppose that nothing had changed;你可能会发现 什么也没变that one class of governors had kicked out another class of governors.Big deal!只是新的统治者赶跑了原来的统治者而已 有什么了不起But I rather think it was a big deal.但我却认为 这很了不起Imagine the county gentry of England,Priests, Squires, judges想象一下 英格兰各地的贵族们 牧师 乡绅 法官all wiped out overnight, half of them dead,the rest humiliated, broken,replaced by an alien class.一夜之间被推翻 半数惨死 幸存者只得任人羞辱 变得一文不名 地位早被外族替代 /201608/460982


  Fifty Shades of Grey How many of you saw this movie this week?《五十度灰》 你们这个星期有多少人看了这个电影啊?Set a record at the box office - earned 94 million dollars创造了9400万美元的票房记录。which is the biggest opening ever for the month of February并且是在二月份里首映票房最多的电影。I wonder how many people went to see that movie alone. Because I... the thing about it...我想知道有多少人是打光棍去看的这个电影。因为我在想......I cannot imagine any sentence more depressing than 1 ticket for Fifty Shades please.我完全无法想象出比;请给我一张五十度灰门票;还要惨的话。But they expected they perjected it would make around 60 million dollars可是他们原本的预期是在6000万美元左右。It went way over that and Ill tell you something不过他们远远超过了预期 而且我告诉你If these people who lined up to see this movie ever find out about Internet porn如果曾在网上找过小的人 在线观看了这部电影的话Theyre gonna go nuts. You know weve been hearing a lot about this Fifty Shades of Grey.他们会美滋滋的 我们已经听说了很多关于五十度灰的事情The books, the movies lately. Its a phenomenon. Theres no two ways about it.书籍,电影.这是现象级的So I thought it might be a good subject for tonights pedestrian question所以我认为这是在今晚平淡问题当中的一道好菜。We went out onto Hollywood Boulevard and we asked people a simple question. We asked Are you kinky? Ok?我们去到了好莱坞大道进行采访 并且问了他们一些简单的问题 ;你有性怪癖吗?;So heres how this works. Were gonna see somebody introduce himself of herself所以拭目以待吧。我们来看看他们回答的And then together as a group. We will try to guess if that person is kinky or says they are, alright?我们一起组个小组 我们试着来猜猜这些人的,好伐?Ok? Lets begin. James from Riverside. Katelin from Riverside. Are you guys kinky?走你!来自河滨市的詹姆斯.来自河滨市的卡特琳 你们俩有性怪癖吗?Ok that was James and Katelin from Riverside Ok almost everyone says yes they are No.好吧,这是来自河滨市的詹姆斯和卡特琳 好吧,几乎所有人都说是的!不是No. Not really. Why not? Just not into that kind of stuff Not really不,俺可不是。为什么?我只是不喜欢这种调调。我也不喜欢Wait. Define kinky. Just into weird fvcking. No. No等等,解释下kinky就是那种很奇怪的啪啪啪 不不不不 并没有The weirdest thing he does is this Ok so you have it. Alright. Whos next?最奇怪的东西就是 好啦,看了一个,谁是下一个呢?Julius from Arkansas. Hot Springs, Arkansas. Are you kinky? Is Julius...来自阿肯色州的朱利叶斯.“泉国家公园” 阿肯色州的著名景点。你有性怪癖吗?朱利叶斯.....Everyone says Julius is kinky. Lets see. What? Are you kinky? Yeah I like doing some freaky stuff.每个人都说他有性怪癖,拭目以待。啥?你有性怪癖吗?有啊,我喜欢做些怪怪的事。Next up is Miranda Rawson. And Im from Montana. Are you kinky?下一个是....我是来自蒙大拿的米兰达罗森 你有性怪癖吗?Alright how do we feel about Miranda from Montana? Well everyone says no好吧,我们感觉米兰达罗森有性怪癖吗?好吧,每个人都觉得没有Except for one woman whos nodding very... Well, lets see Yeah除了一位点头的女士。好吧,我们来看看。有!Whats the kinkiest thing youve ever done? Uh I had...你做过最怪的啪啪啪是什么?额,我曾经Those are my parents I had sex on uh.. Its a Small World After All我父母在这....我曾经在,额....就是一个迪士尼小世界啪啪啪。Ah.. thier baby girl really grew up I would have liked to have seen the parents reaction to that one. Next.啊....他们的宝贝女儿真的长大了。我是真的想看看他父母的反应,下一位!My name is Uzzi from L.A. Are you kinky? Is Uzzi kinky? Yes? Ok.我叫祖滋,来自洛杉矶。你有性怪癖吗?他有吗?是的?好吧。Am I what? Kinky Not really Why not? I dont know Why are you holding cereal? Im hungry我啥?性怪癖 不会的 为啥 我也不知道 你为什么拿着燕麦?我饿了.Im eating it Hes not kinky. Hes munchies thats what he is.我正在吃 他没有性怪癖,他就是一饿货,仅此而已。I believe we have another Lorren, Brentwood Are you kinky? Is Lorren from Brentwood...我相信还有 罗恩,来自布伦特伍德。你有性怪癖吗?这是来自布伦特伍德的罗恩Interesting. Everyone says yes. Okay. Sometimes Whats the kinkiest thing youve ever done?有趣,每个人都说她有,好吧。有时候吧 你做过最怪的啪啪啪是什么?Uh... I dressed up like a kangaroo once Cause hes an Australian guy Australian guy额....我曾经穿的像个袋鼠。就因为那货是个澳大利亚人 澳大利亚人..Well that is the custom. The local cust. Its not kinky. Its just polite (that) is what it is.好吧,只能算当地特色,不算怪癖。这仅仅是出于礼貌,就是这样。I think we have one more Um Marcus Gliney. Im from Kansas City, Missouri.我认为还有...我来自密苏里,我叫马库斯.盖里恩Are you kinky? Alright. Lets find out. I am kinky How so?你有性怪癖吗?好吧,我们来一探究竟。我有性怪癖 从何谈起?Uh... I could show you better than I could tell you Ok lets go Ok额,说不如做,我可以给你演示的。好啊,走就走。好吧。She called him on his kinkiness and then... Were expecting a baby她看中了他的性怪癖,然后....然后我们期待着生一个小宝贝!Its one way we bring people together Thank you for playing鸡毛秀是我们让大家欢聚一堂的方法。谢谢观看And thanks to all the kinky people for sharing that with us同时欢迎那些个有性怪癖的人跟我们一起分享你们的事迹。Im Jimmy Kimmel Thanks for watching. It means a lot to me.我是鸡毛。谢谢你们的观看,这对我来说意味着很多。And if youd like to take our relationship to the next level如果你还想观看我们的下一期节目Click the subscribe button below Ill wait for you点击旁边的订阅按钮 我等你哟!201706/514218。

  TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201611/474909

  We all grew up, even a nice Jewish boy like me,但凡国人--包括像我一样的犹太人with the idea that the English reformation was a historic inevitability,都自幼被灌输着一个观念 即英国宗教改革 是历史之大势所趋the culling of an obsolete, unpopular,fundamentally un-English faith.它淘汰了原有的陈腐 过气 从根本上有悖英格兰精神的信仰But on the very eve of the Reformation,然而宗教改革前到来的前夕Catholicism in England was vibrant, popular and very much alive.天主教在英格兰却如日中天 生机盎然This is Walsingham in Norfolk,once the home of the miracle working shrine of our Lady of Walsingham.此地是诺福克郡的沃尔辛厄姆 曾是沃尔辛厄姆圣母行神迹的圣祠所在Along with the Becket shrine at Canterbury,同坎特伯雷的贝克特圣祠一样Walsingham was the must-see place for all serious 16th-century pilgrims,对十六世纪虔诚的朝圣者而言 沃尔辛厄姆是必见的圣地a tradition revived this century by High Church Anglicans.这是本世纪才被高教会派重拾的传统Today, you get only the faintest echoes of what Walsingham once was,时至今日 沃尔辛厄姆曾经的繁华已消失殆尽a gaudy, rowdy mix of hucksterism and holiness,piety and plaster saints;这里曾喧闹而俗丽 既有圣洁与虔诚 亦有强卖的石膏圣像the kind of place youd expect to find, say, in Naples or Seville,not in the depths of sober East Anglia.这样的地方 你大概觉得会在那不勒斯或是塞维利亚见到 而绝非冷僻的东英格兰深处But even then, as today,not everybody approved.但往昔亦如当代 并非未得到所以人认可Erasmus, the Catholic scholar superstar of the age,came here on a monk pilgrimage当年的天主教学术巨星伊拉斯谟 作为一个修士来此朝圣and poured scorn on tales of sacred milk and chapels airmailed in from the Holy Land.对神圣的牛奶的故事 或是从圣地降临的教堂 都不屑一顾But his was the minority intellectual view,safely expressed in Latin and tolerated, though not necessarily endorsed,by members of the ruling Tudor dynasty.但他所持不过是少数知识分子的观点 安全地用拉丁文表达 都铎王朝的掌权者们对其态度是容忍但不持 /201612/484178Surely even Charles could see that?难道查理没能看透这一切吗Surely that would be an end to the bloodshed and the country could return to reasonableness?难道这还不能结束那段杀戮 让国家重新步入有序吗And there were many in parliament aching for just this 而议会中的许多人仍有一个眼中钉a settlement that would allow Charles to keep his throne,停战协议保留了查尔斯的王位some kind of return to what had been on the table back in 1642.这似乎又回到了1642年谈判前的局面Surely, after all the blunders and bloodshed,难道经历了这些错误与伤亡the botched coups and the futile slaughters,he would do the right thing, he would share power?拙劣的政变和无谓的厮杀之后 他还不愿意认清形势 交出部分权力吗But Charles was constitutionally incapable of being a constitutional king.但查理本身决定了 他做不成立宪君主He gagged at the idea of being reduced to a subaltern monarch,taking, not giving, orders.他不愿做听命于上尉的君主 从而不是发布命令The war might be over, for now,but for Charles the plotting was not.也许战争已经告一段落 但对查尔斯来说 密谋仍在进行For the next two years, in a bid to reverse his defeat,接下来的两年里 查尔斯企图扭转乾坤Charles tried to play off parliament against the army,他试图让议会与军队为敌the army against parliament,and the Scots against both.让军队与议会为敌 让苏格兰成为双方共同的敌人Oliver Cromwell finally realised that as long as Charles was around,奥利弗·克伦威尔终于意识到 只要查理还在he was always going to be a rallying point for the discontented,and there were bound to be a lot of them.他就必将集结那些不安现状的人 而这类人不在少数But Cromwell was also enraged by Charless presumption at defying the verdict of God,同时查理肆意违抗上帝的裁决 激怒了克伦威尔so clearly revealed at the battles of Marston Moor and Naseby.马斯顿荒原和纳斯比战役就是最好的明It was evident then that King Charles had to go.很显然 查理必须离开Whether or not he had to die, that was another matter.无论如何他都要死 这又是一桩大事 /201703/500060

  Only seven countries have ever developed homegrown airliners. China wants to make it eight.全球只有七个国家开发了国产飞机。中国想成为第八个。The countrys first-ever commercial jet is scheduled to make its maiden flight Friday.中国第一架商用喷气式飞机定于星期五首航This doesnt mean the state-owned C919 will be taking passengers right away. First, it must pass a battery of safety tests.这并不意味着国有C919将马上搭载乘客。首先,它必须通过一连串的安全测试。But a successful flight on Friday would be an important step in selling the planes to airlines.但是周五的成功飞行是将其卖给航空公司的重要一步。Thanks in part to its growing middle class, China boasts the fastest-growing aviation market. 这部分得益于其不断增长的中产阶级,中国是增长最快的航空市场。Its expected to overtake the U.S. as the largest commercial market in less than a decade.预计在不到十年的时间内,它将取代美国成为最大的商业市场。Analysts dont believe the C919 will threaten Airbus or Boeings dominance. But because the Chinese market is so huge, the makers of the C919 expect to sell thousands of planes by 2037.分析家不相信C919将威胁空客或波音的统治地位。但由于中国市场是如此的巨大,C919的制造商希望到2037年卖出数千架飞机。And that could still be worth hundreds of billions of dollars.这可能值数千亿美元。译文属。201705/508077

  The top of the walls allow me to make a rapid initial assessment.从墙顶俯瞰能让我先快速判断这里的情况There havent been people here for a long time.这里已经很久时间 没有人居住了But, its the new inhabitants Im after.但我要寻找的是新的;居民;Any of the scorpions, snakes,creepy crawlies that might be living amongest all of the rubble.那就是有可能藏身于碎石中的 蝎子 蛇 和其它可怕的爬行生物And for the desert survivor,youve got to have energy.对沙漠求生者来说 一定要补足能量And that means, youve got to find food.换句话说 你要找到食物You often get condensation, a bit of damp under metal like this. Thats basically dried out.这样的金属下面 一般都很潮湿 这个已经干透了Lets check this.Theres a scorpion.See this guy?来看看这个 这有一只蝎子 看见了吗Look at his tail right up.Thats a death stalker.它的尾部翘起来了 这是以色列杀人蝎Hes got one of the most deadly toxins of any scorpion, this guy.它是众多种蝎子中 最致命的毒蝎Get hit by that,you could be dead in 24 hours.若被刺到 你可能会在24小时内就送命The lethal sting is in the tail,so it needs to be disarmed before hes safe to eat.有毒物质在尾部 所以在吃它之前 要把尾部拔掉Its also good food.Not very tasty food.这也是很有营养的食物 不过味道不怎么样That sounds like a vehicle.Truck!Truck!Get them all, get them all.好像是汽车的声音 是卡车 是卡车 拦住它 拦住它The sahara has claimed many lives and going head to head with it is a formidable challenge,撒哈拉沙漠已经吞噬掉许多生命 和它正面交锋 绝对是艰难的挑战but with the right skills and attitude,it really is possible to endure.但若有正确的技巧和良好的心态 你也能够逃出生天201612/481443

  TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201609/466626。

  Man, I hate cardio.伙计,我讨厌做有氧运动。Activity Playlist... Running... Hashtag GYMFLOW?活动列表...跑步..标签GYMFLOW?Drake and Future. All right.Drake和Future。好了。If Young Metro dont trust you, Im gonna shoot you. Yo. Ah! Yo. Halloween.如果Young Metro不信任你,那么我要杀了你。呦!啊!呦!万圣节。Im gonna shoot you. Yo!我要杀了你。呦!Jumpman, Jumpman, Jumpman, them boys up to something.飞人,飞人,飞人,这些小子在算计着什么?They just spent like two or three weeks out the country.他们在国外呆了两到三个星期Them boys up to something. They just not just bluffing.他们在谋划着什么,他们不是在虚张声势You dont have to call. I hit my dance like Usher. Woo!你不必打电话 我的舞技堪比Usher。喔!I just found my tempo like Im DJ Mustard. Woo!我找到属于我的节奏,就像DJ Mustard一样。喔!I hit that Ginobili with my left hand up like woo!就像NBA球星吉诺比利一样用左手投射Lobster and Celine for all my babies that I miss.请我喜欢的女人吃龙虾,买名牌包Chicken fingers, french fries for them -- that wanna diss.不识趣的女人我只能用快餐炸鸡和薯条招待她们Jumpman, Jumpman, Jumpman, them boys up to something.飞人,飞人,飞人,这些小子在算计着什么?Uh, uh, uh, I think I need some...我想来点...201705/507511

  The message is then sent through a series of computers信息接下来发送给一系列计算机which have volunteered to act as relay points.这些志愿机充当中继点的角色As the message passes from computer to computer,随着信息在计算机之间传递a layer of encryption is removed.一层加密被剥开Each time it is removed,每次去除加密时all the relay computer can see所有中继点计算机能看到的is an order which tells it to pass the message on.只是传递信息的指令The final computer relay decrypts the innermost layer of encryption,最后一个计算机中继点解密最内层的加密revealing the content of the communication.这样就能显示通讯内容了However - importantly - the identity of the user is hidden.然而最重要的是 用户的身份是被隐藏的Somebody who wants to look at things around the Web想上网浏览的人and not necessarily have people know what hes interested in.未必有人知道他真正喜欢什么It might just be the local internet services provider,也许只是个本地互联网务供应商he doesnt want them to know which things hes looking at,他不想让别人知道他在网上看什么内容but it might be also the destination.但他也可能成为通讯终点Syversons system worked.赛福森的系统起作用了It was now possible to surf the net without being watched.不被人监视着上网变成了可能重点解释:1.a series of 一连串例句:The student always asks his teacher a series of questions.这个学生总是问他老师一连串的问题。2.look at (仔细地)看例句:Please raise your head and look at the blackboard.请抬起头来,看黑板。3.be interested in 对 ... 感兴趣例句:I think you may be interested in our new product.我想贵公司可能会对敝公司的新产品感兴趣。201701/490032

  For the next 16 minutes, Im going to take you on a journey that is probably the biggest dream of humanity: to understand the code of life.在接下来的16分钟里 我要带大家踏上一段旅程这大概是全人类的终极梦想——解读生命的基因编码So for me, everything started many, many years ago when I met the first 3D printer.对我来说 早在多年前 当我遇到了第一台3D打印机的时候 这个梦想就开始了The concept was fascinating.这个概念真是太精了A 3D printer needs three elements: a bit of information, some raw material, some energy, and it can produce any object that was not there before.一台3D打印机需要三个要素:一些信息一些原材料和一些能量 它就能打印出原先没有的东西I was doing physics, I was coming back home and I realized that I actually always knew a 3D printer.我那时正在研究物理现象 在回家的路上我突然意识到实际上我早就知道3D打印机了And everyone does. It was my mom.每个人都知道 那就是我妈妈My mom takes three elements:a bit of information, which is between my father and my mom in this case,我妈妈获取了这三个要素:一点信息 这里指的是我爸和我妈的基因raw elements and energy in the same media, that is food, and after several months, produces me.同一种介质提供原材料和能量——那就是食物 历时几个月 产下我And I was not existent before.而我以前从来没有存在过So apart from the shock of my mom discovering that she was a 3D printer, I immediately got mesmerized by that piece, the first one, the information.除了震惊的发现我妈其实是台3D打印机以外 我还立即被另一个部分吸引了那就是第一个要素信息What amount of information does it take to build and assemble a human?到底需要获取多少信息才能育出一个人呢?Is it much? Is it little? How many thumb drives can you fill?很多还是就一点 要存满多少个U盘?Well, I was studying physics at the beginning and I took this approximation of a human as a gigantic Lego piece.我一开始是学物理的我想如果把人近似于看成是一个巨型的乐高玩具okay So, imagine that the building blocks are little atoms and there is a hydrogen here, a carbon here, a nitrogen here.小的乐高模块就像是原子 有氢原子 碳原子 和 氮原子So in the first approximation, if I can list the number of atoms that compose a human being, I can build it.按照最初的这个设定 如果能够列出组成人类的所有原子我就能组装出一个人Now, you can run some numbers and that happens to be quite an astonishing number.现在你可以大致计算一下得到的结果非常惊人So the number of atoms, the file that I will save in my thumb drive to assemble a little baby,所需要的原子的总数全部存到U盘里面 即便是组装一个小婴儿will actually fill an entire Titanic of thumb drives multiplied 2,000 times.用掉的U盘就能装满整个泰坦尼克号 再乘以2000倍This is the miracle of life.这就是生命的奇迹Every time you see from now on a pregnant lady,从现在开始你每看到一个妇shes assembling the biggest amount of information that you will ever encounter.她正在组装你从未见过的最大量的信息Forget big data, forget anything you heard of.不要谈大数据 不要谈以前听说过的任何事情This is the biggest amount of information that exists.这是现今存在的最大信息量But nature, fortunately, is much smarter than a young physicist, and in four billion years, managed to pack this information in a small crystal we call DNA.幸运的是大自然比一个年轻的物理学家要聪明多了在40亿年里把这些信息打包放进一个小晶体里 我们称之为DNAWe met it for the first time in 1950 when Rosalind Franklin, an amazing scientist, a woman, took a picture of it.1950年当时一位伟大的科学家罗莎琳富兰克林女士给DNA拍了张照 我们第一次认识了它But it took us more than 40 years to finally poke inside a human cell, take out this crystal, unroll it, and it for the first time.但是我们耗时四十年多年 才最终拨开人的细胞从里面拿出了这个晶体展开并解读它The code comes out to be a fairly simple alphabet, four letters: A, T, C and G.这个遗传编码由简单的字母表组成 只有四个字母:A T C和GAnd to build a human, you need three billion of them.要组装一个人 你需要30亿个这样的字母Three billion. How many are three billion?三十亿 三十亿有多大It doesnt really make any sense as a number, right?我们对这个数字没有任何概念 对吧So I was thinking how I could explain myself better about how big and enormous this code is.所以我在想我如何将这个编码数量的庞大性很好地传达给大家呢But there is -- I mean, Im going to have some help, and the best person to help me introduce the code is actually the first man to sequence it, Dr. Craig Venter.所以我需要点帮助 最合适来帮我介绍遗传密码的人 是第一个将基因排序的人 克雷格文特尔士So welcome onstage, Dr. Craig Venter.让我们欢迎克雷格文特尔士Not the man in the flesh, but for the first time in history, this is the genome of a specific human, printed page-by-page, letter-by-letter:不是他本人 这也是历史上的第一次是一个人类的基因组一页一页一个字母一个字母的被打印出来262,000 pages of information, 450 kilograms, shipped from the ed States to Canada总共262000页的信息量 四百五十千克 被美国船运到加拿大only thanks to Bruno Bowden, Lulu.com, a start-up, did everything.感谢布鲁诺?鲍登 Lulu.com网站 一个新兴公司做了所有这些事情It was an amazing feat.这真是令人赞叹的壮举But this is the visual perception of what is the code of life.但是这是生命编码比较直观的表达And now, for the first time, I can do something fun.现在 我是第一次做一些有趣的事情I can actually poke inside it and .我能戳进去从这里面挑一段来读一读So let me take an interesting book ... like this one.我来找一本有意思的……比如这一本I have an annotation; its a fairly big book.我放了书签在里面 这书太厚了So just to let you see what is the code of life.给你们看一下 什么是生命编码Thousands and thousands and thousands and millions of letters.成千上万的字母And they apparently make sense.它们当然都有意义Lets get to a specific part. Let me it to you: ;A, AAT, ATA.;让我们聚焦到具体的一部分 读给你们听:;A AAT ATA;To you it sounds like mute letters, but this sequence gives the color of the eyes to Craig.你们可能觉得像是听天书 但是这个序列决定了格雷尔眼睛的颜色Ill show you another part of the book.在看看书的另外一部分This is actually a little more complicated.这一段稍微复杂一些Chromosome 14, book 132: As you might expect. ;ATT, CTT, GATT.;第14号染色体 书本编号132 可能和你们想的一样 ;ATT CTT GATT;This human is lucky, because if you miss just two letters in this position two letters of our three billion这个人很幸运 因为如果他在这个地方少了2个字母 30亿中的2个字母he will be condemned to a terrible disease: cystic fibrosis.他就会患上一种非常可怕的疾病:囊肿性纤维症We have no cure for it, we dont know how to solve it, and its just two letters of difference from what we are.目前没有治疗的方法 我们还没有解决方法 它仅仅和我们是2个字母的区别A wonderful book, a mighty book, a mighty book that helped me understand and show you something quite remarkable.这是一部鸿篇巨着 这本有力的书帮助我理解一切 向你们展示一些非凡的东西Every one of you what makes me, me and you, you-is just about five million of these, half a book.我们每个人 你我他 只需要这些中的500万个半本书For the rest, we are all absolutely identical.剩下的基因我们都是完全相同的Five hundred pages is the miracle of life that you are. The rest, we all share it.500页 涵盖了你的生命奇迹 余下的 我们全都一样So think about that again when we think that we are different.讨论人与人差异的时候反思一下This is the amount that we share.这是我们共有的东西So now that I have your attention, the next question is: How do I it? How do I make sense out of it?所以现在请注意 下一个问题就是:怎么去读取这些信息?怎么理解和运用它们?Well, for however good you can be at assembling Swedish furniture, this instruction manual is nothing you can crack in your life.不管你在组装瑞典家具上有多在行 这么长的指令手册在你有生之年是不可能被破解的And so, in 2014, two famous TEDsters, Peter Diamandis and Craig Venter himself, decided to assemble a new company.因此在2014年两位着名的TED演讲者 彼得迪亚芒蒂思和克雷格文特尔本人 决定成立一个新公司Human Longevity was born, with one mission: trying everything we can try人类长寿公司就此诞生了 唯一的任务尽我们所能and learning everything we can learn from these books, with one target making real the dream of personalized medicine,解读出所有我们能在这些书本里读到的东西 只为达到一个目的:让个人化医疗成为现实understanding what things should be done to have better health and what are the secrets in these books.明白怎么做才能提高人类健康水平 了解这些书目背后的秘密An amazing team, 40 data scientists and many, many more people, a pleasure to work with.一个惊人的团队拥有四十名数据科学家和越来越多的人 和他们一起工作十分愉快The concept is actually very simple.实际上工作流程很简单Were going to use a technology called machine learning.我们用一种叫做机器学习的方法On one side, we have genomes -- thousands of them.一方面 我们有几千个基因组On the other side, we collected the biggest database of human beings: phenotypes, 3D scan, NMR -- everything you can think of.另一边我们建立一个超大的人类信息数据库:性状 3D扫描 核磁共振——所有你能想到的Inside there, on these two opposite sides, there is the secret of translation.在内部 在这两个端点之间 有神秘的翻译在进行And in the middle, we build a machine.我们在中间建了一个机器We build a machine and we train a machine --well, not exactly one machine, many, many machines --to try to understand and translate the genome in a phenotype.建好之后我们训练这台机器 实际上不只一台机器而是很多台试图去理解基因组并把它翻译成性状What are those letters, and what do they do?有哪些字母 它们控制什么性状Its an approach that can be used for everything, but using it in genomics is particularly complicated.这是普适的方法 可以用在所有问题上但用在基因组学上异常的复杂Little by little we grew and we wanted to build different challenges.一点一点有了进展后我们想要尝试更有挑战性的东西We started from the beginning, from common traits.最开始我们从常见的特征下手Common traits are comfortable because they are common, everyone has them.常见特征最容易因为它们太常见了每个人都有So we started to ask our questions: Can we predict height?我们开始提出如下问题 能预测身高吗?Can we the books and predict your height?能不能解读这些书本信息来预测身高?Well, we actually can, with five centimeters of precision.是的我们可以 存在五厘米的误差BMI is fairly connected to your lifestyle, but we still can, we get in the ballpark, eight kilograms of precision.身体质量指数主要跟生活习惯密切有关 但我们仍然能预测得差不多存在8千克上下的误差Can we predict eye color? Yeah, we can.眼睛的颜色能不能预测?是的我们可以Eighty percent accuracy. Can we predict skin color?80%的正确率 皮肤颜色?Yeah we can, 80 percent accuracy. Can we predict age?可以 80%的正确率 我们可以预测年龄吗?We can, because apparently, the code changes during your life.可以 因为很明显基因随着年龄产生变化It gets shorter, you lose pieces, it gets insertions.DNA 会变短 缺失一些片段或者插入另外一些片段We the signals, and we make a model.我们读取这些信号然后建立模型Now, an interesting challenge:Can we predict a human face?现在来个有意思的挑战:我们能不能预测人的面孔?Its a little complicated, because a human face is scattered among millions of these letters.这个略有点复杂 因为有几百万个碱基都对人脸产生影响And a human face is not a very well-defined object.而且人脸并不是一个构造十分精准的物体So, we had to build an entire tier of it to learn and teach a machine what a face is, and embed and compress it.所以必须要建立一整个单独的模块给机器去训练和学习人脸是什么再把这个模块压缩整合进去And if youre comfortable with machine learning, you understand what the challenge is here.如果你对机器学习有点概念的话就能够想象这个挑战是有多大Now, after 15 years -- 15 years after we the first sequence --this October, we started to see some signals.现在15年过去了 15年前我们读取第一条序列 今年10月 我们总算有了些进展And it was a very emotional moment.当时还是很激动人心的What you see here is a subject coming in our lab.你现在看到的东西来自于我们的实验室This is a face for us.这是我们的一张脸So we take the real face of a subject, we reduce the complexity,我们要对测试对象的面孔进行简化because not everything is in your face -- lots of features and defects and asymmetries come from your life.因为并不是所有的特征都是面孔的一部分—很多特点 缺陷和不对称是生活的痕迹We symmetrize the face, and we run our algorithm.okay把面孔调整对称之后 跟我们运算的结果比较The results that I show you right now, this is the prediction we have from the blood.我刚才给你看的结果 是我们根据血液预测的Now wait a second. In these seconds, your eyes are watching, left and right, left and right, and your brain wants those pictures to be identical.等一下 你们的眼睛正在左右两边交替看,大脑希望两幅图是一模一样的So I ask you to do another exercise, to be honest.坦诚来说 我其实想请大家做另一件事情Please search for the differences, which are many.找找两幅图的不同点 其实非常多The biggest amount of signal comes from gender, then there is age, BMI, the ethnicity component of a human.性别提供最多的信息接下来是年龄 BMI(体质指数)和种族And scaling up over that signal is much more complicated.再考虑更多因素会变得更加复杂But what you see here, even in the differences, lets you understand that we are in the right ballpark, that we are getting closer.但是这样的结果即便有很多不同 表示我们在正确的范围内正在逐步接近And its aly giving you some emotions.它已经给了你一些情绪反应This is another subject that comes in place, and this is a prediction.这是另外一个测试对象这边是预测结果A little smaller face, we didnt get the complete cranial structure, but still, its in the ballpark.脸小了一点 完整的颅骨结构没预测到 但至少像那么回事This is a subject that comes in our lab, and this is the prediction.这是又一个测试对象 这是预测结果So these people have never been seen in the training of the machine.机器接受训练时 它们从未看见过这些面孔These are the so-called ;held-out; set. okay这就是所谓的随机测试组But these are people that you will probably never believe.并且你们不认识这些人 可能说力不太够Were publishing everything in a scientific publication, you can it.我们在学术期刊上发表了这些结果 你们可以去读一下But since we are onstage, Chris challenged me.但既然我们在台上 克里斯向我提出挑战I probably exposed myself and tried to predict someone that you might recognize.我尽我所能暴露自己 尝试着预测 某个你可能认识的人So, in this vial of blood and believe me, you have no idea what we had to do to have this blood now, here这里有一小管血液——你们很难想象我们为了一管血液我们花了多少工夫in this vial of blood is the amount of biological information that we need to do a full genome sequence.这一小管血液中蕴含了大量的生物信息我们需要做一个完整的基因组排序We just need this amount. We ran this sequence, and Im going to do it with you.只需要这么多 我们已经完成了测序 下面我和你们一起做And we start to layer up all the understanding we have.我们综合了所有已知的信息In the vial of blood, we predicted hes a male. And the subject is a male.从这一管血液里 我们预测这是一名男性 被试者正是一名男性We predict that hes a meter and 76 cm. The subject is a meter and 77 cm.我们预测他身高1米76 被试身高1米77So, we predicted that hes 76; the subject is 82.预测他体重76kg 被试者是82kgWe predict his age, 38. The subject is 35.我们还预测了他的年龄 38岁 被试者实际上是35岁We predict his eye color. Too dark.我们预测了他眼睛的颜色 非常深的黑色We predict his skin color. We are almost there. Thats his face.我们预测他的皮肤颜色我们基本上是准确的 这是他的面孔Now, the reveal moment: the subject is this person. And I did it intentionally.现在到了揭晓的时刻:被试对象是这个人 我是有意拿自己做测试的I am a very particular and peculiar ethnicity.我属于一个特别又特殊的种族Southern European, Italians they never fit in models.南欧人 意大利人——从来都不符合模型预测And its particular -- that ethnicity is a complex corner case for our model.而且这一种族在模型里是一个复杂的边界情况But there is another point.但还有另一个重点So, one of the things that we use a lot to recognize people will never be written in the genome.最常用的来辨识人的方法不是由基因组编译的Its our free will, its how I look.是人们的自由意志 即我想让自己看起来怎么样Not my haircut in this case, but my beard cut.虽然我的发型不是我自己决定的 但胡子是的So Im going to show you, Im going to, in this case, transfer it -- and this is nothing more than Photoshop, no modeling --the beard on the subject.下面我们来看一下 我要进行下改变——单纯的用photoshop 不用建模——把胡子加上去And immediately, we get much, much better in the feeling. So, why do we do this?是不是立即觉得变得很相像了 因此 为什么我们要这样做?We certainly dont do it for predicting height or taking a beautiful picture out of your blood.当然不是为了预测身高或者描绘出你没有胡子时的完美照片We do it because the same technology and the same approach, the machine learning of this code,我们研究是因为同样的技术和手段 基因组的学习机器is helping us to understand how we work, how your body works, how your body ages,能帮助我们了解人类自身是如何工作的你的身体是如何协调工作的 你的身体是如何变老的how disease generates in your body, how your cancer grows and develops, how drugs work and if they work on your body.疾病在你的身体里是如何产生的 癌症是怎么出现和恶化的 药物是如何起作用的药物是不是能够对你的身体起作用This is a huge challenge.这是一个巨大的挑战This is a challenge that we share with thousands of other researchers around the world.这是一个我们和世界各地其他成千上万的研究者们一起面临的挑战Its called personalized medicine.它被称为 个性化医疗Its the ability to move from a statistical approach where youre a dot in the ocean, to a personalized approach, where we all these books从只能借助统计学方法每个人都只是沧海一粟 到能够实现有针对性的治疗通过解码这些基因信息and we get an understanding of exactly how you are.我们能够彻底了解每一个人But it is a particularly complicated challenge, because of all these books, as of today,但这是一项异常复杂的挑战因为到目前为止在这么庞大的基因组信息中we just know probably two percent: four books of more than 175.我们大概只了解2%:175本书里的4本And this is not the topic of my talk, because we will learn more.当然这不是我今天演讲的主题因为我们会了解更多There are the best minds in the world on this topic.有很多顶尖的人才在从事这项工作The prediction will get better, the model will get more precise.预测会越来越准确模型会越来越精准And the more we learn, the every time we will be confronted with decisions that we never had to face before about life, about death, about parenting.随着了解的逐渐深入我们需要做的决定会越来越多而且是一些从前没有想象过的决定 关于生命 关于死亡 关于养育So, this conversation and we are touching the very inner detail on how life works.因此 我们正在不断接近基因内部的细节以解开生命机体如何工作之谜And its a revolution that cannot be confined in the domain of science or technology.这是一项重要的革命 它不能被限制于科学技术领域This must be a global conversation.这是一个全球性的会话We must start to think of the future were building as a humanity.我们必须思考我们的未来 要结合起全人类的力量We need to interact with creatives, with artists, with philosophers, with politicians.我们需要和创意人员 艺术家 哲学家 和政治家 一起相互讨论和影响Everyone is involved, because its the future of our species.每一个人都被包含在内因为这是我们人类物种的未来Without fear, but with the understanding that the decisions that we make in the next year will change the course of history forever. Thank you.不要害怕 但是我们要明白我们接下来一年中所做的决定 都会彻底改变历史的进程 谢谢201706/512825

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