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贵阳/做人流手术哪家比较好贵阳/打胎到哪里好Science and Technology,Solar power from space,Beam it down, Scotty.科技,从太空采集太阳能,传送电力到地球吧,斯科蒂。Harvesting solar power in space, for use on Earth, comes a step closer to reality将太空收获的太阳电能在地球上利用,这种理想又向现实迈出了一大步。THE idea of collecting solar energy in space and beaming it to Earth has been around for at least 70 years.从太空中收集太阳能并将其传送到地球的想法已经存在了至少70年。In ;Reason;, a short story by Isaac Asimov that was published in 1941, a space station transmits energy collected from the sun to various planets using microwave beams.艾萨克·阿西莫夫(Isaac Asimov )在1941年出版的短篇小说Reason中曾设想利用微波束将空间站收集到的太阳能传送到各类行星上。The advantage of intercepting sunlight in space, instead of letting it find its own way through the atmosphere, is that so much gets absorbed by the air.从太空直接截获太阳光而不任由它们穿过大气层的优点是大部分光能量不会被大气吸收。By converting it to the right frequency first (one of the so-called windows in the atmosphere, in which little energy is absorbed) a space-based collector could, enthusiasts claim, yield on average five times as much power as one located on the ground.通过将太阳光转换成正确的频率光波(即所谓的大气窗口之一,这种频率的光波在穿越大气层时能量损失最少),热衷该技术的人士称空间接收器产生的能量要比地面接收器平均高4倍。The disadvantage is cost. Launching and maintaining suitable satellites would be ludicrously expensive.但它的缺点是费用高。发射和维护合适的卫星将需要异常昂贵的费用。But perhaps not, if the satellites were small and the customers specialised.但如果它们是为客户专用的小型卫星,费用可能就不是问题。Military expeditions, rescuers in disaster zones, remote desalination plants and scientific-research bases might be willing to pay for such power from the sky.军事远征,灾区救援人员,远程海水淡化厂和各种科研基地都可能愿意为这种太空能源花付费用。And a research group based at the University of Surrey, in England, hopes that in a few years it will be possible to offer it to them.英国萨里郡(Surrey)大学研究小组希望在未来几年时间内可能将这种能源提供给客户使用。This summer, Stephen Sweeney and his colleagues will test a laser that would do the job which Asimov assigned to microwaves.今年夏天,斯蒂芬·斯威尼(Stephen Sweeney )及其同事将测试能够胜任这种工作的激光,用以取代阿西莫夫(Asimov)所指定的微波。Certainly, microwaves would work: a test carried out in 2008 transmitted useful amounts of microwave energy between two Hawaiian islands 148km (92 miles) apart, so penetrating the 100km of the atmosphere would be a doddle.当然,微波也能完成此项工作:2008年科研人员对微波做了实验,他们在两座相距148公里(92英里)的夏威夷岛屿之间成功地传送了大量微波能量,因此微波要穿透100公里的大气层也将是轻而易举的事。But microwaves sp out as they propagate.A collector on Earth that was picking up power from a geostationary satellite orbiting at an altitude of 35,800km would need to be sp over hundreds of square metres.但是微波在传播过程中会扩散,要想从轨道高度在35800公里的地球同步卫星上收集能量,地面能源接收器需涵盖几百平方米的范围。Using a laser means the collector need be only tens of square metres in area.而采用激光手段意味着能量接收器只需涵盖几十平方米的区域。Dr Sweeneys team, working in collaboration with Astrium, a satellite-and-space company that is part of EADS, a European aerospace group, will test the system in a large aircraft hangar in Germany.斯威尼(Sweeney)士领导的研究小组与欧洲航空航天集团EADS下属的卫星与空间公司astrium合作研发,他们将在德国一座大型飞机库内对该系统进行测试。The beam itself will be produced by a device called a fibre laser.激光波束本身将由光纤激光设备产生并在一个细长的光纤核心产生激光束的相干光。This generates the coherent light of a laser beam in the core of a long, thin optical fibre. That means the beam produced is of higher quality than other lasers, is extremely straight (even by the exacting standards of a normal laser beam)这意味着产生的激光波比其它激光有更好的品质,并且直线度极高。(甚至符合正常激光束的严格标准)and can thus be focused onto a small area.这样就能将能量集中传送到一个小的区域范围内。Another bonus is that such lasers are becoming more efficient and ever more powerful.这种激光波的另一个优点是具有更高的效率和更强的能量。In the case of Dr Sweeneys fibre laser, the beam will have a wavelength of 1.5 microns, making it part of the infra-red spectrum.以斯威尼(Sweeney)士研发的光纤激光器为例,它产生的激光波束波长为1.5微米,这使其成为红外线光谱的一部分。This wavelength corresponds to one of the best windows in the atmosphere.此波长对应于大气中的最佳窗口之一。The beam will be aimed at a collector on the other side of the hangar, rather than several kilometres away.实验中激光束的目标能量接收器不是位于几千米以外,而是放置在了飞机库的另一端。The idea is to test the effects on the atmospheric window of various pollutants, and also of water vapour, by releasing them into the building.其想法是把激光束释放到建筑空间来测试不同污染物和水蒸气对大气窗口的影响。Assuming all goes well, the next step will be to test the system in space.假如一切进展顺利,下一步该系统将送到太空中系统测试。That could happen about five years from now, perhaps using a laser on the International Space Station to transmit solar power collected by its panels to Earth.从现在算起,实验可能会在未来的五年内进行,可能采用的方法是利用国际空间站的激光将太阳板收集到的太阳能传送到地球。Such an experimental system would deliver but a kilowatt of power, as a test.作为测试,该实验系统将只传送一千瓦的电力。In 10-15 years Astrium hopes it will be possible to deploy a complete, small-scale orbiting power station producing significantly more than that from its own solar cells.Astrium希望在未来10到15年内,将有可能部署一个完整的、小规模的地球轨道电站,使其产生的电能远远超过自身太阳能电池产生的电能。Other researchers, in America and Japan, are also looking at using lasers rather than microwaves to transmit power through the atmosphere.美国和日本的其它研究人员也在寻求利用微波以外的激光透过大气传输能量。NASA, Americas space agency, has started using them to beam energy to remotely controlled drones.美国航天局(NASA)已开始利用激光束将能量传送到远程无人驾驶飞机上。Each stage of converting and transmitting power results in a loss of efficiency, but with technological improvements these losses are being reduced.在电力转换和传送的各个阶段都会伴随效率的损失,但是随着科技的进步这些效率的损失正逐步减少。Some of the latest solar cells, for instance, can covert sunlight into electricity with an efficiency of more than 40%.例如最近开发的太阳能电池能以超过40%的效率将太阳光转换成电能。In the 1980s, 20% was thought good.但在20世纪80年代,20%的效率就被认为是不凡的表现了。Whether the Astrium system will remain a specialised novelty or will be the forerunner of something more like the cosmic power stations of Asimovs imagination is anybodys guess.是否Astrium的系统仍只是一种专业领域的新奇玩意或者会成为象阿西莫夫设想的宇宙发电站那样的科技先锋,一切都还是未知数。But if it comes to pass at all, it will be an intriguing example, like the geostationary communications satellites dreamed up by Asimovs contemporary, Arthur C. Clarke, of the musings of a science-fiction author becoming science fact.与阿西莫夫(Asimov)同时代的科幻小说作家阿瑟C.克拉克曾幻想过地球同步通信卫星的存在,这种幻想如今已变成了科学现实,与此相同,如果Astrium的系统实验能获成功,它也将成为将科学幻想变成现实的有趣范例。 /201212/212495贵 阳 治 疗 尖 锐 湿 疣 多 少 钱 Who were the first farmers on Earth? You might think it was the Babylonians or another group in the Middle East. But humans are newcomers when it comes to the fine art of raising food. Leafcutter ants of arid and tropical regions of South, Central and North America have been farming for fifty million years, long before modern humans existed.谁是地球上的第一代农民?你可能会想到古巴比伦人或是中东的另一族群。但是谈到种植作物的艺术,人类还只是菜鸟而已。切叶蚁在美洲南部,中部和北部干旱的热带地区发展农业已有五千万年的历史,比人类的进化的历史还长。Leafcutter ants have large jaws to cut through plant and tree leaves, but they do not eat leaves. Instead, they carry leaf pieces back to their five million or so nest mates. Here is where the farming begins. Foraging ants hand their leaves over to smaller ants who rush them off to one of many football sized chambers. The leaves are then chewed into smaller and smaller fragments until they can be added to a fungus culture garden.切叶蚁用大下巴切碎植物和树叶,但它们并不吃树叶。相反,它们把碎树叶拖回容纳着500万同胞的巢穴。这就是农业的起源。外出觅食的蚂蚁将树叶交接给更小的蚂蚁,它们则将树叶碾到足球般大小的隔间里。然后将树叶咀嚼成更细的碎片,直到可以将其添洒到真菌花园里。Fungi feed off the leaves and grow bodies called gongylidia which are then distributed around the colony, especially to growing larvae. Fungus may not sound too appetizing, but the white fluffy growths are much more nutritious than leaves. We use a similar process with cows. They are fed grasses which we cant digest to create milk and meat. The leafcutters not only grow crops, they also protect them. While we use man-made pesticides, leafcutters use antibiotics made by their skin bacteria to ward off invasive mold. They also physically remove foreign fungi growing in their gardens. Their system of agriculture is one to be admired. It certainly has passed the test of time.真菌以树叶为食,长出躯干来(叫做结节丝),随后四处蔓延,分散在茁壮成长的幼虫的“殖民地”里。也许菌类听起来并不让人垂涎三尺,但是那白绒绒的幼虫比树叶营养价值高得多。我们养牛的过程与此类似。我们喂牛吃草,草不能产奶但牛可以。切叶蚁不仅种植作物,还悉心料理它们。我们用人造杀虫剂来保护农作物,而切叶蚁则用自身皮肤上的细菌分泌的抗生素来阻止霉菌入侵。它们也会除掉长在花园里的异类真菌。它们的农业系统令人惊叹,当然也经得起时间的考验。原文译文属!201207/191673贵阳/市花溪区中医院彩超检查好吗

遵义/医学院附属医院治疗妇科怎么样It was a very lonely time in many ways. When I tried to get graduate students interested, many of them would say well look, you may be right and you may be wrong. But if I work in super gravity, Im not going to find a job.很多方面是一个很孤独的时间。当我试图让研究生感兴趣时,他们中的许多人说好看,也许你是对的,你也可能是错误的。但是如果我在超重力下工作,我就不打算找一份工作了。What made the experience of the super gravity guys so galling was that their theory wasnt so very different from String Theory to begin with. In fact, the main disagreement between them was a point of detail, which to outsiders, could seem like nit-picking. It was about the number of dimensions in the universe. We normally think of ourselves as living in a three dimensional world. We can move in three ways, left or right, up or down and forwards and backwards. But physics like to adding extra dimensions. Einstein suggested time should be a fourth dimension. Then someone suggested a fifth special dimension and then a sixth. The numbers just kept growing. The extra dimensions were spaces in the universe which we could never perceive. Most were microscopically small, but scientists believed they were really there. String Theory had been convinced there were in total exactly ten dimensions.什么经验使这个超重力的家伙叫苦不迭,他们的理论非常不同于弦理论。事实上,主要的分歧是一点细节,这对于局外者而言可能看起来吹毛求疵。那就是关于宇宙的维数。我们通常认为我们生活在一个三维世界。我们可以在三个方面延伸,向左或向右,上升或下降及向前或向后。不过,物理学喜欢加上额外的维度。爱因斯坦推测时间应该是第四维度。然后有人建议第五维度然后是第六维度。数字只增不减。额外的空间维度是宇宙中我们永远无法察觉的。大多数只是非常渺小,但科学家们相信他们是真实存在的。弦论确定总共有10个维度。And if you have a little oscillating string, it has to have enough room to oscillate properly, and when one works this out mathematically, you find it just got a very clear answer. It had to be in ten dimensional space.如果你有一个小振动弦,它必须有足够的空间供其正常振动,如果按照数学方法计算,你会发现只有一个很明确的。只能以10维空间方式进行。Ten dimensions. Nine special dimensions and one time.10个维度。9个特殊维度及一种时间。Super gravity those had been convinced there were exactly eleven dimensions.超重力已经完全相信有十一个维度。201201/168033修文县人民医院引产多少钱 Mammals developed from land-based reptiles two hundred million years ago, and most of the mammals we see today are still land based. A notable exception are the cetaceans, which we all know as dolphins and whales. How did they move from land to sea?两亿年前的哺乳动物由陆地爬行动物进化而来,如今我们所看到的大多数哺乳动物仍然是陆生生物。鲸类动物,正如我们知道的海豚和鲸鱼则是个显著的例外。它们是如何从陆地搬到海洋的呢?The ancestor of modern whales moved into the water about fifty-two million years ago. One whale fossil, about forty million years old, provides an interesting snapshot from this gradual change. This early whale fossil had rudimentary legs growing from its sides.现代鲸鱼的祖先大约在五千两百万年前就从陆地移民到海洋。一块四千万年前的鲸鱼化石为这个渐进的变化提供了有趣的线索。这个早期的鲸鱼化石两侧长有退化的腿。These were puny compared to the bulk of the whale, so they were probably vestigial, in the slow process of disappearing. Moving from land to salt water requires more changes than simply trading in legs for fins, however. For example, the kidney of a modern whale allows it to drink salt water, but early whales must have been restricted to fresh water like other mammals.与鲸鱼庞大的躯体相比这些腿显得微不足道,因此它们可能是漫长退化过程中正在消失的腿部。然而,鲸类想要从陆地迁往咸水区域需改变更多,而不仅仅只是把双腿换成鳍。例如,现代鲸鱼的肾脏可以承受咸水,但是早期鲸鱼则像其他哺乳动物一样只能依靠淡水生存。Scientists have recently discovered that this important kidney change happened about forty eight million years ago to a whale called Indocetus. Kidneys dont leave behind fossils like bones do, so how can these scientists be sure?科学家们最近发现有一类叫做 Indocetus 的鲸鱼,它们的肾脏于四千八百万年前发生重大改变。肾脏不能像骨头那样形成化石,因此科学家们是如何确定的呢?The answer comes from the ancient whales tooth enamel. Oxygen in an animals tooth records information about the type of water they drank. The very earliest proto-whales had tooth enamel that indicated a fresh water diet. They probably lived in rivers, or at least returned to rivers to drink. Indocetus, however, had teeth that indicated a salt water diet. This means it had specialized kidneys, and was probably the first mammal to swim the open ocean. Thats a lot of information from some old teeth!从古鲸鱼的牙釉质里可以找到。动物牙齿内的氧记录了它们的饮水信息。最早的原始鲸鱼牙齿上有牙釉质,明它具有淡水饮食习惯。它们可能生活在河里,或者至少从河里取水。然而,Indocetus 的牙齿表明它饮用咸水。这就意味着它的肾脏专门用来喝咸水,它可能就是第一个游向海洋的哺乳动物。古老的牙齿确实藏有大量的信息!原文译文属!201209/199346贵 阳 哪 个 医 院 人 流 做 的 好

贵 阳 看 妇 科 疾 病 哪 家 好Business Bribery abroad A tale of two laws商业 海外贿赂 两部法律的故事Americas anti-corruption law deters foreign investment. Britains is smarter美国的反贪法吓阻了对外投资,英国的就精明了一些BRIBING foreign officials is wrong, but not everything governments do to prevent it is wise or proportional. Firms are increasingly fed up with the way Americas Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) is written (confusingly) and applied (vigorously). The law was passed in 1977, but recent years have seen a spike in enforcement, from five actions in 2004 to 74 in 2010. Five of the ten biggest settlements ever were last year, including a 0m fine against BAE Systems, a British defence contractor, and a 5m fine against ENI, an Italian oil firm.贿赂外国官员是不对的,但不是所有为了防止此类事件的政府行为都是明智和恰当的。许多企业都越来越不能忍受美国《反海外腐败法》(FCPA)其令人困惑的表述和不知疲倦的运用了。该法案于1977年通过,可是近几年实施的频率创下了新高,从2004年的5起到2010年的74起。最大的10起已解决案例中5起都发生在去年,包括对英国BAE系统公司(一个英国国防承包商)的4亿美元罚款和对埃尼石油公司(ENI,一家意大利石油企业)的3.65亿美元罚款。On August 31st the Wall Street Journal reported that the Department of Justice has been investigating Oracle, a database-software company, for a year. Unusually, Oracle has said nothing about the investigation. Ethisphere, a promoter of corporate responsibility, rated Oracle one of the worlds most ethical companies in . Mike Koehler, a law professor at Butler University in Indiana, writes that General Electric, HP, AstraZeneca and others have all been among Ethispheres ;Worlds Most Ethical; while settling FCPA prosecutions or under investigation.据《华尔街日报》8月31日报道,美国司法部已经调查甲骨文--一家数据库软件公司--一年了。不寻常的是,甲骨文公司对此只字未提。而此前Ethisphere--一家推动商业道德的智库企业--把甲骨文评定为年全球最具有商业道德的企业之一。巴特勒大学的法学教授Mike Koehler写道,通用电气、惠普、英国阿斯利康和其他一些公司都在被Ethisphere评为全球最具商业道德企业的同时面临《反海外腐败法》的起诉或者调查。An FCPA action is an ordeal. Few firms dare risk going to court—only two cases against corporations have ever resulted in completed trials. The vast majority of cases are settled, which can take years. Listed companies must satisfy not only the Department of Justice, but also the Securities and Exchange Commission, which enforces the FCPA provisions requiring accurate records of all business dealings (to deter or detect illicit payments). Before the department and the commission will sign off on a settlement, the company must satisfy them that the rest of its operations are squeaky clean. Narrow investigations can mutate into broad ones that cost tens of millions of dollars.涉及《反海外腐败法》的诉讼是极其折磨人的。几乎没有一家公司敢于上法庭—历史上公司被起诉的案例中只有两例是完全结案的。绝大多数案子的结果都是长达数年的调解。上市公司不仅要使司法部满意,还要履行由美国券交易委员会执行的《反海外腐败法》部分条款--对所有交易的如实记录(为了防止和发现非法付)。在司法部和委员会同意一项和解之前,公司必须保其其他业务都绝对的干净。一个小范围的调查都会变成耗费数千万美元的广泛调查。And bosses can be sent to prison for up to 20 years if their companies fall foul of the FCPA. In theory, they could be jailed because a staff member at a foreign subsidiary bribed an official without their knowledge. In some cases, the law insists that directors ought to know about dodgy goings-on, even if they do not.而且,企业如果触犯了《反海外腐败法》,它的老板最长将会被监禁20年之久。理论上,一个在海外分公司的员工贿赂当地的官员都有可能导致其不知情的老板坐牢。在一些情况下,法律坚持认为主管们对这些不诚实的小动作是知情的,即使他们确实不知道。This is a hefty deterrent to doing business in poor countries, some studies have found. Andy Spalding, a law professor at the Chicago-Kent College of Law, likens the way the FCPA is enforced to ;de facto sanctions; on countries where corruption is rife. A study by KPMG, a consultancy, found that a third of British and a quarter of American companies would simply steer clear of corruption-prone countries to avoid the risk of being prosecuted. Firms from less fussy places, such as China, will happily fill the gap.一些研究发现,这极大的遏制了去贫穷国家的商业活动。Chicago-Kent法学院的法学教授Andy Spalding把《反海外腐败法》的实施看成是对腐败猖獗的国家;实际上的制裁;。咨询机构毕马威的一项研究显示,三分之一的英国和三分之二的美国公司干脆直接放弃腐败猖獗的国家来避免被起诉的风险。The US Chamber of Commerce, a business lobby, says the FCPA also deters foreign mergers and acquisitions. A firm inherits the sins of a company it buys, even if it has done reasonable due diligence, the chamber says. To avoid this risk, it must conduct the equivalent of a ;vast internal investigation;, says the chamber. Many firms find it simpler to stay at home.美国商会--一个商业游说团体--说,《反海外腐败法》还阻止了境外合并和收购。它说,一家公司哪怕进行了合理尽职的调查,也会背负上它收购的公司的罪行。商会还说,为了避免这样的风险,一家公司必须相当于开展一次大规模的内部调查。许多公司觉得还不如呆在国内好了。A new British anti-bribery law, passed in 2010, appears to have been better crafted. The Bribery Act is broad and tough. It covers bribery within Britain as well as abroad. In contrast to the FCPA, it makes no exception for small ;facilitation payments; to speed up routine business such as customs checks or visas.英国2010年通过的新反贿赂法看起来在这上面费了一番功夫。这个贿赂法案广泛而严厉。它覆盖了英国本土和海外贿赂的情况。与美国的《反海外腐败法》不同,它没有对加快常规事务的小额;便捷性付;(比如海关查验和签)网开一面。But it is fair, too. Unlike the FCPA, it has a ;compliance defence; that allows a company to avoid the harshest penalties if the wrongdoer is a junior employee and the firm otherwise has a strict anti-bribery policy which is clear to all employees and effectively administered. One rogue employee cant easily cause a crippling probe into an otherwise blameless company.它也很公平。不像美国的《反海外腐败法》,英国的反贿赂法有一个;合规性抗辩;--如果犯错的是一个初级雇员而且公司有一个在全公司明确表达且有效执行的反贿赂政策,就可使公司免于最严厉的惩罚。这样一个无赖雇员就不能轻易地给清白的公司招致极其麻烦的调查。Americas Department of Justice sees no need for such safeguards. And since few cases go to trial, judges have given little guidance as to what the FCPAs bewildering text actually means. So, for now, it means whatever an aggressive prosecutor says it does.美国司法部不觉得需要这样的保护措施。而且由于极少的情况闹上法庭,法官们也没解释清楚关于《反海外腐败法》那些令人困惑的表述的确切含义。所以现在情况就是这样,检察官说那是什么意思就是什么意思,哪怕这位检察官的观点很激进。 /201301/221769 贵 阳 市 哪 家 医 院 做 人 流花溪区剖腹产哪家医院最好的

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