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贵阳/女子医院贵阳/做处女膜要多少钱贵州省输卵管再通术多少钱 WASHINGTON — For years, ed States policy makers have been debating the idea of granting green cards to foreigners with science doctorates. The cell biologist Xiao-Wei Chen, at the University of Michigan, is no longer waiting for them to decide.华盛顿——多年来,美国的决策者一直在讨论是否给拥有理工科士学位的外国人直接发放绿卡的问题。密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的细胞生物学家陈晓伟(音译)已不再等待他们做出决定。Mr. Chen, whose work on cholesterol metabolism helped him win a job competition this year at the National Institutes of Health, is instead making plans to return home to China and his undergraduate institution, Peking University.今年,陈晓伟凭借在胆固醇代谢方面的研究在竞争中脱颖而出,获得了在美国国家卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health,简称NIH)工作的机会。但陈晓伟计划返回中国,回到他的本科学校——北京大学。“The opportunities there might be more nourishing for young people like me to develop scientifically,” he said.他说,“对于像我这样的年轻人来说,那里可能有更好的科研机会。”Mr. Chen remains in a minority. Most top-ranked Chinese students offered jobs at American institutions after finishing doctorates still choose to stay. “He’s more the exception than the rule,” said Denis F. Simon, a professor of politics and global studies at Arizona State University who specializes in China policy.陈晓伟依然只代表少数人。不少顶尖的中国学生在获得士学位后会进入美国机构工作,其中大多数人仍会选择留在美国。亚利桑那州立大学(Arizona State University)的政治学及全球研究教授丹尼斯·F·西蒙(Denis F. Simon)表示, “他更多的是个例外,不算是普遍情况。”西蒙专门研究中国政策。Yet Mr. Chen might also be a warning flag: As Congress debates whether to extend green-card privileges to foreign students earning doctorates in the sciences, the question may be growing moot. Top-ranking students are aly finding that they can stay if they want — and many do not. The nation’s continuing disinvestment in science is making overseas options appear increasingly attractive.然而,陈晓伟可能也是一记警钟:尽管国会正在就是否延长给获得理工科士学位的外国学生优先发放绿卡的特权展开讨论,但这个问题可能会变得实际意义不大。优秀的学生已经发现,如果他们想要留在美国,就能办到,但问题是很多人并不想。美国持续缩减对科学领域的投入,使得其他国家的吸引力越来越大。“Anybody in academe knows,” says Michael S. Teitelbaum, a Harvard University expert in the global competition for scientific talent, “the offers coming from Chinese institutions are getting more and more attractive.”“学术界的人都知道,”哈佛大学(Harvard University)的专家迈克尔·S·泰特尔鲍姆(Michael S. Teitelbaum)说。“中国机构提供的机会愈发具有吸引力。”泰特尔鲍姆主要研究争夺科学人才的全球竞争。As the world grows more interconnected, says Mr. Simon, distance from the ed States becomes less of an impediment to career success.西蒙表示,随着世界各国的联系变得日益紧密,与美国之间的地理距离逐渐不再是阻碍事业成功的因素。Mr. Chen’s case gained attention in April during a Senate Appropriations Committee hearing with the heads of the major federal science agencies.今年4月,主要联邦科学机构的负责人出席了参议院拨款委员会(Senate Appropriations Committee)的听会。会上,陈晓伟的例子引起了关注。The event was a call for helping the economy by investing more federal money in scientific research. Sen. Richard J. Durbin, Democrat of Illinois, took the opportunity to bemoan the loss of many accomplished Asian students. “What a waste, that we would bring this talent to America, train it, and then invite it to leave,” he commented.听会的主旨在于呼吁联邦政府在科研上投入更多资金,从而提振经济。来自伊利诺伊州的民主党参议员理查德·J·德宾(Richard J. Durbin)利用这次机会,哀叹美国失去了大量的优秀亚洲学生。他道,“太浪费了,我们将人才引入美国,进行培养,然后任由他们离开。”A bill Mr. Durbin has been promoting, backed by the Obama administration and leading lawmakers from both parties, would grant a green card, or permanent legal residency, to any foreigner who earned a doctorate in a science or engineering field at an American university and received a job offer based on it.德宾的提案获得了奥巴马政府及两党主要议员的持。根据该提案,在美国高等院校获得理工科士学位并借此赢得工作机会的外国人,均可直接获得绿卡,即永久居留权。The director of the National Institutes of Health, Francis S. Collins, responded to Mr. Durbin by telling him about Mr. Chen and the multimillion-dollar package he was offered by Peking University, and how China’s approach to pursuing research compared with the prolonged period of budgetary stress facing scientists in the ed States.NIH的院长弗朗西斯·S·柯林斯(Francis S. Collins)向德宾提到了陈晓伟的情况,称北京大学为他提供的待遇价值数百万美元。他还描述了中国在如何努力地搞研究,相比之下,待在美国的科学家则长期面临预算紧张的困境。“Certainly the visa situation is a big part of the issue, and it would be great to get that fixed,” Dr. Collins told the senator. “But even if that’s fixed, then people don’t see that there’s a future for them by staying in the American medical system — and it looks much brighter in Singapore or China or South Korea or Brazil — then they’re going to go where the opportunities are.”“当然,签是一大问题,如果能解决的话,是很棒的,”柯林斯对德宾说。“但即便这个问题解决了,要是他们觉得留在美国的医学研究系统看不到未来,而在新加坡、中国、韩国或巴西的前景会更好,他们就会到有机会的地方去。”Some in Congress are concerned about declining federal support for science — the National Institutes’s budget is about 25 percent smaller than it was 10 years ago, in inflation-adjusted dollars.联邦政府对科研的持力度不断减弱:经过通货膨胀调整,NIH的预算比10年前少了25%左右。一些国会成员对此忧心忡忡。“China is about to eat our lunch,” Rep. Jackie Speier, Democrat of California, told a staff briefing last month on Capitol Hill.来自加利福尼亚州的民主党众议员杰姬·施派尔(Jackie Speier)上个月在国会山参加工作人员通报会时表示,“中国即将吃掉我们的午餐。”Speaking from Ann Arbor, Mich., Mr. Chen reiterated Dr. Collins’s point about economics being more important than visa rules. Even without the green-card legislation, versions of which have been pursued unsuccessfully in Congress for years, Mr. Chen said he had seen that most top-ranked foreign science graduates who really wanted to stay in the ed States managed to find a way.身处密歇根州安娜堡的陈晓伟接受采访时重申了柯林斯的观点,即经济因素比签规定更重要。他表示,即便没有绿卡新规,大多数的确想要待在美国的优秀外国理工科毕业生仍能设法留下。国会多年来推出了不少版本的绿卡提案,但均未能成功通过。While a green-card bill may help foreign science graduates ranked at middle and lower performance levels, those recognized as star performers are eligible for visas, based on certain high-demand skills. “A visa is definitely not too much of a problem for many good people,” Mr. Chen said.绿卡提案可能会对中低水平的外国理工科毕业生有所帮助,但那些顶尖的学生本已具备某些高需求技能,因此目前就有资格获得签。陈晓伟说,“对于很多优秀的人来说,签绝对不是什么大问题。”Two of the most high-profile losses of foreign scientific talent in recent years — Shi Yigong, a Princeton University biology professor who left for Tsinghua University, and Rao Yi, a Northwestern University neurobiologist who decamped to Peking University — even had ed States citizenship and gave it up.在最近几年中最受人瞩目的外来科学人才流失案例中,有两人已经获得了美国公民身份,但最终选择放弃。普林斯顿大学(Princeton University)的生物学教授施一公选择了清华大学,而西北大学(Northwestern University)的神经生物学家饶毅则突然去了北京大学。Those cases, and that of Mr. Chen, suggest that foreign scientists consider factors more varied than may be assumed in many policy debates.上述所有案例都说明,外来科学家考虑的因素可能比许多政策辩论中假定的因素要多元。Mr. Chen earned an undergraduate degree from Peking University in 2002 and went to Michigan, where he earned a doctorate in physiology in 2008. This year he was among a handful of winners chosen from several hundred applicants for the Stadtman Tenure-Track Investigators program at the National Institutes of Health.陈晓伟于2002年在北京大学获得了学士学位,然后前往密歇根大学,并在2008年拿到了生理学士学位。今年,NIH的斯塔特曼终身研究员(Stadtman Tenure-Track Investigators)项目共收到了几百份申请,而陈晓伟是少数几个最终的成功者之一。But the actual appointment of a Stadtman winner to an N.I.H. division is dependent on annual budget allocations, and Mr. Chen was told that he would probably need to wait another year or more to get a posting. Instead he accepted the offer from Peking University, which included modern lab facilities, a supply of graduate students, and — most important, he says — confidence that his budget would remain robust for many years to come.但是,将成功的申请者实际安排到NIH的部门工作要取决于年度预算分配,而陈晓伟被告知,他很可能需要再等至少一年,才能获得职位。于是,他转而接受了北京大学提供的机会,其中包括现代化的实验室设施、一定量的研究生,以及北大给予他的信心——在未来很多年里,他的预算会持续充足。他表示,这一条最重要。Rather than hold out the prospect of a visa that becomes an increasingly less valuable enticement for top foreign scientists, ed States policy makers might instead consider reviving federal support for research and making conditions easier for American scientists to collaborate with global partners, said Mr. Simon, of Arizona State.亚利桑那州立大学的西蒙表示,美国的决策者或许应该考虑重新加强联邦政府对研究工作的持,以及提供便利条件来帮助美国科学家与全球伙伴展开合作,而不要拘泥于签问题,因为对于顶尖的外国科学家来说,签的诱惑力越来越小。Still, the relatively few top science graduates who return home to foreign countries should not be regarded by Americans as somehow “lost” or “wasted” investments, he added.他还表示,美国人不应该把选择回国的优秀理工科毕业生算作投资上的某种“损失”或“浪费”。此类学生的人数相对较少。“The interesting question is not whether one stays or goes,” he says, “but what one does wherever they are.”“问题的关键并不在于离开还是留下,”他说,“而是做什么,无论他们身在何方。” /201407/313174贵 阳 宫 颈 糜 烂 多 少 钱 手 术

贵 阳 做 人 工 流 产 去 哪 家 医 院 安 全贵阳/人流医院在哪里 How are we to understand last week’s events in Paris? Why are people prepared to kill and die for their beliefs? How should liberal democracies respond? Many people must be asking themselves these questions. A remarkable man, Eric Hoffer, addressed them in a book published in 1951: The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements . The ideas in his book, developed in response to Nazism and communism, echo powerfully today.我们该如何理解上周发生在巴黎的恐怖事件?人们为何会准备为了自己的信仰杀人或赴死?自由民主该如何回应?一定有很多人都在问自己。一位杰出的作家——埃里克#8226;霍弗(Eric Hoffer)曾在其1951年出版的《狂热分子:群众运动圣经》(The True Believer: Thoughts on the Nature of Mass Movements)一书中阐述了这些问题。书中的观点针对的是纳粹主义和共产主义,但对如今的问题也可作有力的回应。Hoffer was born at the turn of the 20th century and died in 1983. He worked in restaurants, as a migrant farmhand, as a gold-prospector and, for 25 years, as a longshoreman in San Francisco. Self-taught, he could penetrate to the core of a topic in brilliant and limpid sentences. The True Believer is among my favourite books. It is once again an invaluable guide.霍弗出生在20世纪之初,逝于1983年。他曾在餐厅工作,当过农场工人、金矿勘探工,并在旧金山当了25年的码头工人。他自学成才,能用才华横溢而又简单明了的句子,深入浅出地参透问题的核心。《狂热分子》是我最喜欢的书籍之一。如今它再次成为宝贵的指导。Who, then, is a true believer? Said and Cherif Kouachi and Amedy Coulibaly, the men responsible for last week’s terrorist attacks in Paris, were true believers. So are those active in al-Qaeda, the Taliban, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Isis) or Boko Haram. So, once, were Nazis and committed communists. True believers, argues Hoffer, are not characterised by the content of their faith, but by the nature of its claims. Their beliefs claim absolute certainty and demand absolute loyalty. True believers are those who accept those claims and welcome those demands. They are prepared to kill and to die for their cause, because its success in the world is more important to them than their lives or indeed anybody’s life. The true believer is therefore a fanatic.那么,谁才是狂热分子?上周在巴黎进行恐怖袭击的萨伊德#8226;库阿奇(Said Kouachi)、切里夫#8226;库阿奇(Cherif Kouachi)和阿米迪#8226;库利巴利(Amedy Coulibaly)是狂热分子。基地组织、塔利班、“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(Isis)或科圣地(Boko Haram)的激进分子也是。过去的纳粹分子和狂热的共产主义者也是。霍弗认为,狂热分子并非以他们的信仰内容定性,而是以其信仰所宣称内容的本质来判断。他们的信仰宣称绝对的确定,要求绝对的忠诚。狂热分子是那些欣然接受这些宣称和要求的人。他们随时准备为了事业杀人或赴死,因为对他们来说,事业在全世界取得成功比他们甚至任何人的生命更重要。因此他们是狂热的。The fanatic is a familiar character in history. Fanaticism is born of temperament, not ideas. The fanatical temperament can express itself in many different ways. Hoffer’s was an age of secular religions. Reality killed the religions that promised salvation on earth. But it cannot kill religions that promise eternity. The latter are now, once again, the most powerful forms of belief, though nationalism may yet run them close.狂热分子在历史上屡见不鲜。狂热主义是情绪而非思想的产物。狂热情绪的表现方式有很多种。霍弗所处的是一个世俗宗教的时代。现实杀死了那些许诺拯救世人的宗教。但它杀不死那些承诺永生的宗教。如今,后者再一次成为最强势的信仰形式,尽管民族主义可能终将赶上来。Indeed, religion and nationalism have frequently reinforced one another: God, after all, is so often held to be on “our side”. Thus, Hoffer states that “in modern times nationalism is the most copious and durable source of mass enthusiasm and that nationalist fervour must be tapped if the drastic changes projected and initiated by revolutionary enthusiasm are to be consummated”.实际上,宗教和民族主义经常彼此强化:毕竟,上帝经常被认为在“我们这边”。因此,霍弗指出,“在现代,民族主义是群众热情最丰富、最持久的源泉,而且由革命热情谋划和发起的社会剧变要想取得成功,必须利用民族主义狂热”。One of Hoffer’s important insights is that it is not poverty that turns someone into a true believer; it is frustration. It is a sense that one deserves far better. It is not surprising that some of those engaged in terrorism are petty criminals. Hoffer argues “that the frustrated predominate among the early adherents of all mass movements and that they usually join of their own accord”.霍弗的一个重要深刻见解是,使一个人成为狂热分子的不是贫穷,而是挫败感,是一种认为自己值得更好生活的感觉。一些加入恐怖主义的人是轻罪犯,这不足为奇。霍弗认为,“所有群众运动的早期追随者中,挫败者都占主导地位,而且他们通常是自愿加入的。”Among their characteristics is that they may feel they do not fit into their societies. This is not unlikely to be the case for some children of immigrant minorities. Their attachment to the culture of their family’s origin and identification with the culture of their family’s destination are both quite likely to be fragile.他们的特征之一是,可能感觉无法融入自己的社会。这种想法可能出现在一些少数族裔移民的孩子身上。他们对家庭原籍地文化的归属感,以及对所在国文化的认同感,可能都相当脆弱。What then does the belief offer? In essence, it offers an answer: it tells the adherents what to think, how to feel and what to do. It provides an all-embracing community in which to live. It offers a reason for living, killing and dying. It replaces emptiness with fullness, and aimlessness with purpose. It offers a cause. This is sometimes noble and sometimes base, but it is a cause, and that is what matters.那信仰又能提供些什么?从本质上说,它给人们提供了一个:它告诉信徒去思考什么、怎样感受以及该做什么。它提供了一个包容所有的集体,供信徒生活。它提供了一个活着、杀戮和死亡的理由。它用充实代替空虚,用目的代替盲目。它提供了一项事业,有时高尚、有时卑劣,但终归是事业,这才是最重要的。“All mass movements generate in their adherents a#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;proclivity for united action,” notes Hoffer. “All of them, irrespective of the doctrine they preach#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;, breed fanaticism, enthusiasm, fervent hope, hatred and intolerance.” All demand “blind faith and single-hearted allegiance”.“所有的群众运动都会在其追随者中产生一种对集体行动的嗜好,”霍弗指出,“无论它们宣扬的教义是什么,所有群众运动都会催生疯狂、热情、强烈的希望、憎恨和偏执。”所有的群众运动都要求“盲目的信仰和一心一意的忠诚。”Communism has waned. So, in many places, has secularism. Religion has taken its place. The moral and intellectual bankruptcy of secular rulers — particularly corrupt secular despots — has encouraged this revival. But western secular democracies are also vulnerable to assaults from true believers in militant Islamism. Wars may control them. But violence will not eliminate them, as the west has learnt in both Iraq and Afghanistan. The enemy is not “terrorism”, it is the idea of which terrorism is the fruit. Deterring people willing to die is hard. Killing ideas is hard. Killing religious ideas is nigh on impossible. If such ideas are to wane, they will do so only at the hands of more attractive ideas. Possibly, the more extreme might perish of exhaustion. But this could take a long time. Remember that Luther’s ideas triggered 130 years of religious wars in Europe. It is a disturbing precedent.共产主义已式微。在很多地方,世俗主义也一样。宗教取代了世俗主义的位置。世俗统治者——特别是腐朽的世俗暴君——在道义和智慧上的垮台,刺激了宗教的复活。但是,西方世俗民主国家也容易受到激进伊斯兰主义狂热分子的攻击。战争或许可以控制他们。但是,正如西方国家从伊拉克和阿富汗战争中吸取的教训,暴力不会彻底消灭他们。“恐怖主义”不是敌人,育恐怖主义的思想才是。打消人们赴死的意愿是困难的。消灭观念是困难的。消灭宗教观念则几乎是不可能的。想让这些观念逐渐消失,只能借助于更具吸引力的观念。更极端的观念可能只能等待其势竭而亡。但这可能需要很长时间。别忘了马丁#8226;路德(Martin Luther)的思想曾引发了欧洲长达130年的宗教战争。这是个令人不安的先例。What is to be done? I claim no expertise in this area. But I claim at least an interest: that of a citizen of a liberal democracy, which I very much wish to remain so. My answers are as follows.我们应该做些什么?我不认为自己在这个领域具备专业知识。但是至少我认为这与我息息相关:我是一个自由民主国家的公民,而且我非常希望一直这样。我的如下所述:First, accept that we are playing the long game of containment.第一,我们玩的是一个长期的围堵游戏,接受这个现实。Second, recognise that the heart of the struggle is elsewhere. The west can help. But it cannot win those wars.第二,斗争的核心在别处,认清这一点。西方国家可以提供帮助。但是它们赢不了这些战争。Third, offer the lived idea of equality as citizens as an alternative to violent jihad.第三,宣传公民平等这一有生命力的理念,来取代暴力圣战的想法。Fourth, appreciate and respond to the frustrations many now feel.第四,理解很多人现在体会到的挫败感,并作出回应。Fifth, accept the need for measures to provide security. But remember that absolute safety is never achievable.第五,承认必须采取措施提供安全。但是要记住,绝对安全是永远不可能实现的。Finally, remain true to our beliefs, since without them we have nothing to offer in this struggle. We must not abandon either the rule of law or the ban on torture. Once we do, we have aly lost this war of ideals and ideas.最后一点,忠于我们的信仰,因为除了这些信仰,我们在这场斗争中没有别的武器。我们绝对不能废除法治或者对酷刑的禁令。如果我们这样做,我们便已经输掉了这场关于理想与思想的战争。True believers do, once again, want to do us harm. But the threat they pose is not comparable to the ones that liberal democracy survived in the 20th century. We should recognise the dangers, but not overreact. In the end, this too will pass.狂热分子会想要再一次伤害我们。但是他们所构成的威胁,与自由民主在20世纪战胜的那些威胁相比不可同日而语。我们应该认识到危险,但不应该过于恐惧。最终,这些也将成为过去。 /201501/355068乌当区产科生孩子多少钱

贵 阳 做 人 流 需 要 多 少 费 用The experts keep getting it wrong. And the oddballs keep getting it right.专家总是弄错,怪人却总能碰对。Over the past five years of business history, two events have shocked and transformed the nation. In 2007 and 2008, the housing market crumbled and the financial system collapsed, causing trillions of dollars of losses. Around the same time, a few little-known wildcatters began pumping meaningful amounts of oil and gas from U.S. shale formations. A country that once was running out of energy now is on track to become the world#39;s leading producer.在过去五年的商业史上,有两大事件震撼和改变了美国。在2007年和2008年,住房市场崩溃,金融体系瓦解,酿成数万亿美元损失。而差不多在同一时间,一些不知名的投机勘探者却开始从美国页岩层中开采出数量可观的石油和天然气。美国这个能源曾几近告竭的国家如今正向全球主要能源生产国迈进。What#39;s most surprising about both events is how few experts saw them coming -- and that a group of unlikely outsiders somehow did. Federal Reserve chairmen Alan Greenspan and Ben Bernanke failed to foresee the financial meltdown. Top banking executives were stunned, and leading investors such as Bill Gross, Jim Chanos and George Soros didn#39;t fully anticipate the downturn.这两大事件最让人惊讶的地方是,准确预见事态发展的专家寥寥无几――而一群不大可能的圈外人却做出了正确的预期。美国联邦储备委员会(Federal Reserve, 简称Fed)主席阿兰?格林斯潘和本?贝南克没能预见金融危机。业顶级高管惊得目瞪口呆,比尔?格罗斯(Bill Gross)、吉姆?查诺斯(Jim Chanos) 和乔治?索罗斯等顶尖投资者也没能完全预料到经济的衰退。The big winners were people like John Paulson, an expert in mergers who only began researching housing in 2006 and scored a record billion for his hedge fund. Jeffrey Greene, a Los Angeles playboy who partied with Paris Hilton, made 0 million predicting housing troubles.是像约翰?鲍尔森(John Paulson)这样的人,他是一位并购专家,2006年才开始研究住房市场,但他为自己麾下的对冲基金赚得创纪录的200亿美元。与帕丽斯?希尔顿(Paris Hilton)往来甚密的洛杉矶杰弗里?格林(Jeffrey Greene)因预见住房市场危机而赚得5亿美元。In 2006, Andrew Lahde was an out-of-work 35-year-old stuck in a cramped one-bedroom apartment; then he made tens of millions of dollars betting against subprime mortgages. So did Michael Burry, a doctor-turned-stock investor in northern California with Asperger#39;s syndrome.2006年,35岁的安德鲁?拉赫德(Andrew Lahde)住在一套只有一个卧室的狭小公寓里,没有工作;后来他通过做空次级抵押贷款赚得数千万美元。同样大赚特赚的还有北加州的迈克尔?伯里(Michael Burry),他以前是医生,后来改行做了股票投资人,患有亚斯伯格综合症(Asperger#39;s syndrome)。Wall Street talks up the importance of being contrarian. But in 2007, most traders subscribed to the mantra that the Fed wouldn#39;t let housing crumble or that the boom would continue, while others couldn#39;t find a good way to short subprime mortgages. They left it for the amateurs to figure out.华尔街会大谈反向操作的重要性。但2007年多数交易员都笃信Fed不会放任住房市场崩溃,他们还坚信市场的繁荣局面会持续下去,另一些交易员则找不到做空次级抵押贷款的好办法。于是他们任由圈外人去绞尽脑汁。Less well known, but no less dramatic, is the story of America#39;s energy transformation, which took the industry#39;s giants almost completely by surprise. In the early 1990s, an ambitious Chevron executive named Ray Galvin started a group to drill compressed, challenging formations of shale in the U.S. His team was mocked and undermined by dubious colleagues. Eventually, Chevron pulled the plug on the effort and shifted its resources abroad.没那么广为人知,但一样充满戏剧性的是美国能源产业的变革之路,这一过程可以说是完全出乎行业巨头的意料。在20世纪90年代初,雪佛龙一位名叫拉伊?加尔温(Ray Galvin)的雄心勃勃的高管组建了一个团队,试图在美国对富有挑战性的紧硬页岩层进行开采。他的团队受到将信将疑的同事的嘲笑和打击。最终,雪佛龙叫停了页岩气开采,将能源重心转移到了国外。Exxon Mobil also failed to focus on this rock -- even though its corporate headquarters in Irving, Texas, were directly above a huge shale formation that eventually would flow with gas. Later, it would pay billion to buy a smaller shale pioneer.埃克森美孚也没能关注页岩气开采――尽管该公司位于德克萨斯州欧文(Irving)的总部正下方就是一个最终开掘出天然气的巨大页岩层。该公司后来以310亿美元收购了一家规模较小、开创页岩气开采先河的公司。#39;I would be less than honest if I were to say to you [that] we saw it all coming, because we did not, quite frankly,#39; Rex Tillerson, Exxon Mobil#39;s chairman and CEO said last year in an interview at the Council on Foreign Relations.埃克森美孚董事长兼首席执行长雷克斯?蒂勒森(Rex Tillerson)去年在美国外交关系委员会接受采访时表示:“如果我对大家说,我们预计到了页岩气时代的来临,那我就太不诚实了,因为坦率地说我们并没有预见到。”In 2003, Alan Greenspan warned that the nation#39;s gas fields were running dry and urged Congress to back costly facilities to import gas. Famed investors Warren Buffett and Henry Kravis invested in a record-setting utility-company buyout in 2007, wagering that a dearth of U.S. natural gas would send prices higher. Instead, the U.S. has so much cheap natural gas today that it is set to export it. The country is also pumping 7.9 million barrels of oil a day, up more than 50% since 2006 and the most in nearly 25 years.2003年,格林斯潘警告称,美国的天然气田即将枯竭,他敦促国会持兴建昂贵的设施以进口天然气。著名投资者沃伦?巴菲特和亨利?克拉维斯(Henry Kravis) 2007年对一桩价格创纪录的公共事业公司股权收购交易进行了投资,他们押注美国天然气的紧缺会推高价格。但事实却是,美国如今拥有大量便宜的天然气,不仅能满足国内需求,而且有望出口。此外,美国一天可产790万桶石油,较2006年增产逾50%,为近25年来最高水平。The resurgence in U.S. energy came from a group of brash wildcatters who discovered techniques to hydraulically fracture -- or frack -- and horizontally drill shale and other rock. Many of these men operated on the fringes of the oil industry, some without college degrees or much background in drilling, geology or engineering.美国能源行业的复苏要归功于一批自负的投机勘探者,是他们首创了水力压裂以及页岩和其他岩石的横向 探技术。这其中许多人从事的是石油行业的边缘领域,一些人并没有大学学位,也没有什么 探、地质学或工程背景。In the late 1990s, George Mitchell, the son of a Greek goatherder, ran a midsize Houston-based company with shrinking natural-gas production. His stock price was falling, the industry was on its back, the 79-year-old had been diagnosed with cancer and his wife was in the early stages of Alzheimer#39;s disease. In almost two decades of trying, his men had not been able to coax enough natural gas from Mitchell Energy#39;s Texas shale fields. But in 1998, one of Mr. Mitchell#39;s engineers finally figured out how to properly fracture shale, stunning colleagues and larger competitors while launching the American energy revolution.20世纪90年代末,希腊牧羊人的儿子乔治?米切尔(George Mitchell)在休斯敦经营一家名为米切尔能源(Mitchell Energy)的中型公司,当时这家公司面临天然气产量不断减少的局面。公司股价在下跌,整个行业都在走下坡路,79岁的米切尔被诊断出癌症,他的妻子则患有早期阿尔茨海默病(Alzheimer#39;s disease)。经过近20年的尝试,米切尔手下员工仍未能从该公司位于德克萨斯州的页岩田中开采出充足的天然气。但到了1998年,米切尔手下一名工程师最终找到了压裂页岩的适当方法,这件事为美国能源革命拉开了序幕,震惊了同行及更大的竞争对手。Harold Hamm grew up dirt-poor in a tiny town in Oklahoma. He began school around Christmas-time each year, once it became too cold to pick cotton, and he started his career raking out oil tanks. Over the past six years, Mr. Hamm and his company have discovered so much oil in North Dakota that he is now worth billion. Aubrey McClendon and Tom Ward of Oklahoma were land-leasing specialists; they managed to build the nation#39;s second-largest gas producer by leading the charge into shale fields. Charif Souki, a Lebanese immigrant and former restaurateur who knew more about fajitas than fracking, today runs Cheniere Energy, a Houston-based company that is on track to become the first to export gas from the contiguous U.S.哈罗德?哈姆(Harold Hamm)成长于俄克拉荷马州(一个小镇,家里穷得叮当响。他每年从 诞节前后开始上学,因为这时候天冷得不能摘棉花了。哈姆最初做的是清理油罐的工作。在过去六年里,哈姆和他的公司在北达科他州发现了非常多的石油,现在他的身价高达140亿美元。俄克拉荷马州的奥布雷?麦克伦登(Aubrey McClendon)和汤姆?沃德(Tom Ward)是从事土地租赁的专业人士;作为页岩气领域的先行者,他们成功地建起了美国第二大天然气生产商。相比水力压裂,黎巴嫩移民、曾为餐馆老板的谢里夫?苏基(Charif Souki)更熟悉墨西哥烤肉,但如今他经营总部位于休斯敦的公司Cheniere Energy,该公司有望成为第一家从美国本土出口天然气的公司。Bucking conventional wisdom is always risky, and many would-be mavericks in finance and the energy industry have failed. But corporate caution and complacency have their costs too, and today#39;s emphasis on short-term performance means that executives are even less likely to take long-term risks, to anticipate the unexpected. For the next great business revolution, it would be smart to bet once again on stubborn, flamboyant dreamers.挑战传统智慧总是充满风险的,在金融和能源行业,许多想要特立独行的人都失败了。但一些企业的谨慎和自大也是有代价的,如今,对短期业绩的强调导致企业高管越发不愿承担长期风险和面对意外情况。在下一场商业大革命中,明智的做法是再度押注执着、自负的梦想家。 /201311/265176 贵阳/宫颈糜烂的症状贵 阳 治 疗 尿 道 炎 要 多 少 钱

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