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来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 息烽县治疗宫颈糜烂哪家医院最好的土豆经验
Our strongest personality traits can be deduced simply from our facial features, scientists believe.科学家认为,他人能够通过我们的面部特征轻易推算出我们最显著的人格特质。Research shows those with higher IQs are usually good-looking, while those with wider faces are usually perceived as being more powerful and successful.研究显示,智商高的人通常面容姣好,面部较宽的人则通常被认为更有权、更成功。There is even evidence that sexual deviancy can be picked up from facial features, with paedophiles more likely to have minor facial flaws.甚至有据明能够通过面部特点看出性癖异常,有恋童癖的人更可能有不太严重的面部缺陷。The new evidence means the judgments we make when we meet strangers - which is usually concluded in less than a tenth of a second - are often accurate.这项新的据意味着我们遇到陌生人时做出的判断——这种判断通常在十分之一秒内就完成了——常常是准确的。Mark Fetscherin, professor of international business at Rollins College, Florida, has recently found a link between company profits and the shape of its chief executive#39;s face.佛罗里达州罗林斯学院的国际商贸学教授马克·费斯凯林(Mark Fetscherin)近期发现公司利润和首席执行官的脸型之间存在联系。In his new book, CEO Branding, Mr Fetscherin describes how the executive tended to have wider faces than the average male.在他的新书《CEO Branding》中,费斯凯林先生描述了高级主管的脸颊通常比正常男性更宽。A wider face means that the person is viewed as dominant and successful, Mr Fetscherin said. He also found a positive link between that shape face and the profits of the company.费斯凯林先生说:“更宽的脸颊意味着这个人看起来更有权势、更成功。”他还发现了宽脸和公司利润之间的正比联系。He told The Sunday Times: #39;Facial width-to-height ratio correlates with real world measures of aggressive and ambitious behavior and is associated with a psychological sense of power.#39;他告诉周日泰晤士报(The Sunday Times):“脸的宽高比例与真实世界对攻击性行为和有野心的行为的衡量标准存在相关性,与心理上的权力感也有关联。”British researchers found a similar result when they analysed the results of FTSE chief executives.英国研究人员在分析富时指数公司(FTSE)高管的业绩时也得出了相似的研究结果。Jamie Ward, professor of psychology and his co-author Shuaa Alrajih, suggested the underlying factor was high levels of testosterone, which is linked to aggression and the pursuit of dominance. Testosterone can also influence bone and muscle structure.心理学教授杰米·沃德(Jamie Ward)以及他的合著者舒阿·阿尔拉吉(Shuaa Alrajih)认为其潜在因素是高水平的睾丸激素,这种激素与攻击性以及追求控制权有关。睾丸激素还能影响骨骼和肌肉构造。A typical example might be advertising agency boss Martin Sorrell, who runs WPP, and sportsmen such as Vinnie Jones.一个典型的例子可能是WPP广告公司的老板马丁·索瑞尔(Martin Sorrell)以及运动员,比如说维尼·琼斯(Vinnie Jones)。Elsewhere, scientists also believe people can decipher negative attributes from a person#39;s face. At Cornell University, scientists showed subjects mugshots of those who were guilty and innocent and found the majority could tell them apart.另外,科学家还认为人们能够从一个人的脸上辨认出不好的品性。美国康奈尔大学(Cornell University)的科学家们向研究对象展示了一些罪犯和无罪的人的面部照片,发现大多数人能够将他们区别开来。Researchers have also found that those with a high IQ tend to be better looking.研究人员还发现高智商的人通常颜值也高。An example is Kate Beckinsale, who won poetry awards as a teenager, then studied Russian literature and English at Oxford.以凯特·贝金赛尔(Kate Beckinsale)为例,她十几岁就获得了诗歌方面的奖项,后来到牛津大学学习俄罗斯文学及英语。Actress Natalie Portman also graduated with a psychology degree from Havard in 2003.还有女演员娜塔莉·波特曼(Natalie Portman),她2003年毕业于哈佛大学,获心理学学士学位。Leslie Zebrowitz, professor of social relations at Brandeis University, near Boston, said the trend was due to the high quality of DNA, with few mutations, that those people have inherited.莱斯利·泽布维兹(Leslie Zebrowitz)是位于波士顿附近的布莱迪思大学(Brandeis University)的社会关系学教授,她表示,这一趋势是因为这些人继承了基本没有突变的优质DNA。 /201510/402954

Mo Zi (470 B. C.~391 B. C.) was a Chinese philosopher.墨子(公元前470年~公元前391年),哲学家。According to tradition, Mo Zi was originally a follower of the teachings of Confucius, until he became convinced that Confucianism laid too much emphasis on a burdensome code of rituals and too little on religious teaching, at which time Mo Zi decided to go his own way and finally evolved a doctrine of universal love that gave rise to a religious movement called Mohism.按传统的说法,墨子最初是孔子教义的追随者,后来墨子确信儒家学说过于强调繁缉的礼仪,而对宗教教义强调极少,于是墨子决定自寻出路,最终发展成“兼爱”学说,从而创立了墨家思想。Mo Zi#39;s life, however, resembled that of Confucius in many important respects.然而,墨子的生活在很多重要方面都与孔子相似。He was widely and well versed in the tradition of the Chinese Classics.墨子的著述被广泛阅读,他精通中国经典。Except for a brief period when he held public office. Mo Zi spent most of his life traveling from one feudal state to another in the hope of meeting a prince who would allow him to put his teachings into practice.除了做了短期的公务人员之外,墨子一生大部分时间都在周游列国,希望能找到采纳自己政见的君主。The Mo Zi, the principal Mohist work, condemned offensive war and urged people to lead a simple life harmful to none.《墨子》是墨家主要著作。这本书谴责了攻击性的战争,力劝人们过简单无害的生活。The gist of it is found in the three sets of chapters of its second section, which give an overview of the 10 major tenets: exaltation of the virtuous, identification with the superior, universal love, condemnation of offensive war, economy of expenditures, simplicity in funerals, will of heaven, on ghosts, denunciation of music as a wasteful activity, and antifatalism.《墨子》要点在中篇的三组文章里。这些要点给出了十大命题: “尚贤”、“尚同”、“兼爱”、“非攻”、“节用”、“节葬”、“天志”、“明鬼”、“非乐”、“非命”。Since Mohism split into three schools after Mo Zi#39;s death, the three sets of chapters may well represent the three sets of texts preserved by the three schools.墨子去世后,墨家学派一分为三,《墨子》三篇被认为是“三墨”各自所依据的经典。The other sections of Mo Zi might be listed as follows: First , summaries and abstracts of Mo Zi#39;s teachings; Second, discussions on logic and physical sciences; Third, records of Mo Zi#39;s doings and sayings; Finally, a manual of military defense.《墨子》的其它部分是:一,墨子教义的总结和摘要; 二,逻辑思想和物理科学; 三,墨子的言行记录; 四,守城技巧与城防制度。 /201510/402114

Ernest Hemingway was not only a commanding figure in 20th-century literature, but he was also a pack rat. He saved even his old passports and used bullfight tickets, leaving behind one of the longest paper trails of any author.欧内斯特·海明威(Ernest Hemingway)不仅是20世纪文坛中一位举足轻重的人物,同时也是个收集狂。他就连旧护照和斗牛比赛票根也要留着,因此在身后留下了庞大的书面资料,在作家当中堪称数一数二。So how is it possible that “Ernest Hemingway: Between Two Wars,” which opens on Friday at the Morgan Library amp; Museum, is the first major museum exhibition devoted to Hemingway and his work? It could be simply that no one thought of it before. Most of Hemingway’s papers are at the John. F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum in Boston. After Hemingway’s death in 1961, President Kennedy, a fan, helped his widow, Mary, get into Cuba and retrieve many of his belongings there. Partly in gratitude, she later donated Hemingway’s archive to the new presidential library. But the Kennedy Library, where this exhibition will travel in March, is not accustomed, as the Morgan is, to putting on big crowd-pleasing shows.“欧内斯特·海明威:两次世界大战之间”(Ernest Hemingway: Between Two Wars)将于周五在根图书馆与物馆(Morgan Library amp; Museum)开展,人们不禁奇怪,之前怎么根本就没有关于海明威及其作品的大型物馆展览呢?可能只是的确没有人想到吧。海明威的大多数文件都保存在波士顿的约翰·F·肯尼迪总统图书馆与物馆(John. F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum)。海明威于1961年去世后,崇拜他的肯尼迪总统帮助他的遗孀玛丽到古巴取回许多遗物。部分是为了表示感谢,玛丽后来把海明威的资料捐献给了新落成的肯尼迪总统图书馆。但是肯尼迪图书馆并不像根图书馆这样擅长举办人们喜闻乐见的大型展览(本展览亦将于明年3月来到肯尼迪图书馆)。Even at the Morgan, Hemingway was something of an afterthought. Declan Kiely, the museum’s head of literary and historical manuscripts and the show’s curator, said recently that he and Patrick Milliman, the director of communications, began idly talking about Hemingway in 2010, after concluding that an exhibition about J. D. Salinger, who had just died, was probably not feasible. The Hemingway exhibition, mounted on walls that have been painted tropical blue to suggest his years in Key West and in Cuba, takes him all the way from high school (where one of his classmates described him as “egotistical, dogmatic and somewhat obnoxious”) to roughly 1950, when he turns up as a self-caricature in Lillian Ross’s famous New Yorker profile. But the largest and most interesting section focuses on the ’20s, Hemingway’s Paris years, and reveals a writer we might have been in danger of forgetting: Hemingway before he became Hemingway.即便是在根,海明威展也并非优先考虑。物馆文学与历史手稿部门的负责人、本次展览的策展人迪克兰·基利(Declan Kiely)前不久说,2010年,他和物馆的公关主管帕特里克·米利曼(Patrick Milliman)聊起,为当时刚刚去世不久的J·D·塞林格(J. D. Salinger)做一次展览似乎不太现实,然后他们才随口聊起了海明威。在这次海明威展上,墙壁被漆成颇具热带风情的蓝色,象征着他在基韦斯特与古巴度过的岁月,展品从他的中学时光(有个同学形容当时的他“任性、固执,有点讨人厌”)一直来到20世纪50年代,那时他的形象已经成了莉莉安·罗斯(Lillian Ross)在《纽约客》发表的那篇著名报道中的自我讽刺形象。但展览中最重头也是最有趣的部分集中在20世纪20年代,海明威的巴黎岁月,它揭示出一位我们有可能会忘记的作家——成为著名作家之前的海明威。The exhibition does not fail to include pictures of the bearded, macho, Hem, the storied hunter and fisherman. He’s shown posing with some kudu he has just shot in Africa and on the bridge of his beloved fishing yacht, the Pilar, with Carlos Gutiérrez, the fisherman who became the model for “The Old Man and the Sea.”展览中也有不少照片,展示那个留大胡子,富于男性气概的“海姆”,那个传奇的猎手和渔夫。一张照片是他在非洲与自己猎杀的大羚羊的合影,还有一张是他在自己最心爱的钓鱼艇“皮拉尔”上,与渔夫卡洛斯·古铁雷兹(Carlos Gutiérrez)的合影,此人正是《老人与海》(The Old Man and the Sea)中老渔夫的原型。But the first photo the viewer sees is a big blowup of a handsome, clean-shaven, 19-year-old standing on crutches. This is from the summer of 1918, when Hemingway was recovering from shrapnel wounds at the Red Cross hospital in Milan and trying to turn his wartime experiences into fiction. For the first time, he tried out the Nick Adams persona. The manuscript is at the Morgan, scrawled in pencil on Red Cross stationery.但展览上的第一张照片是一张放大照,19岁的海明威相貌英俊,面庞光洁,拄着双拐。照片摄于1918年的夏天,海明威在“一战”中身受伤,正在米兰红十字医院中休养,试着把自己的战时经历写成小说。当时他第一次在小说中使用“尼克·亚当斯”(Nick Adams)这个角色。手稿也在这次根的展览中展出,用铅笔写在红十字医院的信纸上。Perhaps because of the famous “For Whom the Bell Tolls” jacket photo (also at the Morgan), which shows Hemingway bent over a Royal portable, or because of the cleanness and sparseness of his prose, we tend to think of him as someone who wrote on the typewriter. But the evidence at this exhibition suggests that, in the early days anyway, he often wrote in pencil, mostly in cheap notebooks but sometimes on whatever paper came to hand. The first draft of the short story “Soldier’s Home” is written on sheets he appears to have swiped from a telegraph office. The impression you get is of a young writer seized by inspiration and sometimes barreling ahead without an entirely clear sense of where he is going.或许是因为海明威在《丧钟为谁而鸣》(For Whom the Bell Tolls)一书封套上用皇家手提打字机打字的照片太有名了(这张照片也出现在根展上),又或者是因为他的文风简洁明快,我们都觉得他肯定是用打字机写作的人。但这次展览上的展品却表明,他早期经常用铅笔写作,经常是写在廉价的笔记本上,有时也写在手头的任何纸张上。他的短篇小说《士兵之家》(Soldier’s Home)的第一稿写在显然是从电报局偷回来的纸片上。你会觉得这是一个被灵感火花抓住的年轻作家,有时一气呵成地飞快写下去,几乎不清楚自己究竟在写什么。He began the original draft of his first novel, “The Sun Also Rises,” which he finished in just nine weeks during the summer of 1925, on loose sheets and then switched over to notebooks. It wasn’t until the end of the third notebook that he wrote a chapter outline on the back cover (which also records his travel expenses and his daily word counts, something Hemingway kept careful track of), and some of the pages on display show him slashing out not just words and sentences but whole passages as he writes. “Writing it first in pencil gives you one-third more chance to improve it,” Hemingway wrote later in an Esquire article. “That is .333, which is a damned good average for a hitter.”他的第一部小说《太阳照常升起》(The Sun Also Rises)是1925年夏天花九个星期写完的,初稿写在活页纸上,后来又在笔记本上写。直到写完第三个本子,他才开始在本子封底上写章节大纲(这页封底上还记录了他的旅费与每天说了几个单词,海明威有时候会细心地去数),本子里有几页显示他不仅大刀阔斧地删掉字句,有时整段都会删掉。“先用铅笔写,这样你就多了1/3的修改机会,”海明威后来在给《Esquire》杂志的文章中写道。“这就是.333,对于击球手来说是个极好的平均数。”F. Scott Fitzgerald (some of whose correspondence with Hemingway, beginning that year, is also on view) famously urged him to cut the first two chapters of “The Sun Also Rises,” complaining about the “elephantine facetiousness” of the beginning, and Hemingway obliged, getting rid of a clunky opening that now seems almost “meta”: “This is a story about a lady. Her name is Lady Ashley and when the story begins she is living in Paris and it is Spring. That should be a good setting for a romantic but highly moral story.” In 1929, in a nine-page penciled critique, Fitzgerald also suggested numerous revisions for “A Farewell to Arms.” Hemingway took some of these, but less graciously, and soon afterward his friendship with Fitzgerald came to an end. At the bottom of Fitzgerald’s letter he wrote: “Kiss my ass/E.H.”F·斯科特·菲茨杰拉德是经常与海明威书信来往的人之一,他们的通信正是从这一年开始,它们也在这次展览中展出。菲茨杰拉德曾经建议海明威把《太阳照常升起》的前两章删掉,说它们作为小说开头有种“笨拙的滑稽”,这件事非常著名。而海明威也照办了,删去了笨重的,现在看来近乎“庞大”的开头:“这是关于一个女人的故事,她的名字就叫做阿什莉,故事开头时,她住在巴黎,当时正是春天。这样的环境更适合浪漫故事而不是道德感极强的故事。”1929年,菲茨杰拉德用铅笔写来长达九页的,对《永别了,武器》(A Farewell to Arms)提出大量修改意见。海明威采纳了其中一些,但并不那么有风度,不久后他和菲茨杰拉德的友谊也走到了尽头。在菲茨杰拉德的来信末尾,海明威写道:“亲我的屁股/E.H.”。The papers at the Morgan show a Hemingway who is not always sure of himself. There are running lists of stories he kept fiddling with, including one with his own evaluations: “Tour de force,” “Pretty good,” “Maybe good.” And there are lists and lists of possible titles, including the 45 he considered for “Farewell” (among the discards, thank goodness, were “Sorrow for Pleasure,” “The Carnal Education” and “Every Night and All”).根展上的文件表明,海明威并不总是那么自信。他列了很多单子,上面是他一直在修改的短篇小说,旁边还有他自己的评语:“杰作”,“不错”,“也许还行”。还有无数给小说起的名字,比如他光是为《永别了,武器》就想了45个名字(被放弃的名字中包括“欢娱的悔恨”、“肉体教育”和“每个夜晚与一切”,真是谢天谢地)。Hemingway also tried 47 different endings for that novel. Those on view at the Morgan include the so-called “Nada” ending (“That is all there is to the story. Catherine died and you will die and that is all I can promise you”) and the only slightly more hopeful one suggested by Fitzgerald, in which the world “kills the very good and very gentle and the very brave impartially. If you are none of these you can be sure it will kill you too but there will be no special hurry.”海明威还为这部小说写了47个不同的结尾。根展中有一个被称为“虚无”的结局(“故事就是这样的,凯瑟琳死了,你也会死,我只能说这么多”),还有一个稍微带点希望色的结局,是菲茨杰拉德建议的,在这个结局里,“世界一视同仁地杀死那些好人、温柔的人与勇敢的人。如果这三种你都不是,它当然也会杀掉你,不过不会特别着急。”In display case after display case, you see Hemingway during his Paris years inventing and reinventing himself, discovering as he goes along just what kind of writer he wants to be. In a moving 1925 letter to his parents, who refused to “In Our Time,” his second story collection, he writes: “You see I’m trying in all my stories to get the feeling of the actual life across — not just to depict life — or criticize it — but to actually make it alive. So that when you have something by me you actually experience the thing. You cant do this without putting in the bad and the ugly as well as what is beautiful.” As the years go by, he also puts on weight, grows a mustache (seen in a Man Ray photograph) and for some unfathomable reason poses for an oil painting as “Kid Balzac,” a challenger y to knock out the great 19th-century realist.走过一个又一个展柜,你可以看到海明威在巴黎是如何一再重新塑造自己,渐渐发现自己希望成为什么样的作家。他的父母不愿读他的第二本短篇小说集《在我们的时代里》(In Our Time),1925年,他在一封感人的信中对他们说:“你们看,我试着为我全部的小说注入真实生活的感觉——不是去描写生活或是批判生活——而是让它真的活起来。这样当你们读到我写的东西时,你们就可以真的体验到那些事物。要做到这一点,就得把坏的、丑的东西也放进去,就像把美好的东西放进去一样。” 几年后,他发了福,留起了胡子(正如曼·雷[Man Ray]的照片所示),由于某些无法了解的原因,他还为一幅名叫《少年巴尔扎克》(Kid Balzac)的油画当模特,在这幅画中,巴尔扎克被塑造成一个冲击伟大的19世纪现实主义文学的挑战者形象。By the time the Second World War broke out, Hemingway had solidified — fossilized even — into the iconic figure we now remember: Papa. Even J. D. Salinger calls him this, in a 1946 letter written while Salinger is in an Army psychiatric hospital, in which he says of the war that a 1944 meeting with Hemingway in Paris was “the only helpful minutes of the whole business.” Hemingway, often drinking and despondent, didn’t know it, but his best work was behind him by then, though there is perhaps an inkling of diminished expectation in a July 1949 letter he wrote to the screenwriter and novelist Peter Viertel that ends: “I don’t know any place left in the states where it’s the kind of wild I like.”“二战”爆发期间,海明威的形象已经固定下来——而且像化石一般坚不可摧——就是那个我们如今熟悉的“爸爸”(Papa)的符号形象。就连J·D·塞林格都这么称呼他,1946年,塞林格在一家陆军精神病院给他写信,说在这场战争中,1944年在巴黎见到海明威是“整件事中唯一充满希望的时刻。”海明威经常喝酒,陷入沮丧,他不知道这封信,但当时他最好的作品正呼之欲出。1949年7月,他给编剧和小说家彼得·维尔特尔(Peter Viertel)的信以这样一句话结尾:“美国已经没有我喜欢的旷野。”这或许流露出了一丝小小的迹象。A blustery, cranky Hemingway appears in 1949 when aboard the Pilar he grabs an old fishing diary and begins scrawling an angry letter to Harold Ross, the editor of The New Yorker (whom he addresses as “Mister Harold”), complaining about Alfred Kazin’s review of “Across the River and Into the Trees,” not, in truth, a very good book. Kazim or Kasim, or whatever his name is, Hemingway tells Ross, can take his review and shove it you know where, and he will supply the grease. As Hemingway gets angrier and angrier his pencil almost goes through the paper, and then, as suddenly as it struck, the squall passes. The letter was never sent.1949年,一个爱吵闹,怪脾气的海明威登上“皮拉尔”的甲班,他拿过一本老旧的打渔日志,开始愤怒地给《纽约客》的编辑哈罗德·罗斯(Harold Ross)写信,称他为“哈罗德先生”,抱怨阿尔弗莱德·卡津(Alfred Kazin)评价《过河入林》(Across the River and Into the Trees)不算一本好书。海明威告诉罗斯:卡津还是卡辛,不管这人叫什么,可以拿上他的塞进自己的某个器官,他会帮他上油的。海明威愈写愈气,铅笔快要戳穿纸背,然而愤怒来得快去得也快,这封信从来没有被寄出去。A more endearing writer is the one who reveals himself in a series of uncharacteristically shy wartime letters to Mary Welsh, who would become his fourth wife. In one, he apologizes for not knowing enough adjectives. In another, in a sort of stream-of-consciousness vision of intimacy apparently written in darkness while he is traveling with the infantry as a war correspondent, he says: “It would be lovely to be in bed now, legs close and all held tight and lip like when you’ve pulled the pin from a grenade and let the handle ease up under your hand.”在致第四任妻子玛丽·威尔士(Mary Welsh)的战时信件中,这位作家显得可亲可爱得多,这些信少有的羞涩,展示出他的自我。在一封信中,他道歉说自己不怎么会用形容词。另一封信有点像亲昵的意识流,显然是他在做战地记者随步兵行军时,在黑暗中写的,他写道:“现在能上床就好了,腿紧紧合在一起,嘴唇也是,你把引信从手榴弹里拔出来,用你的手爱抚手柄。” /201510/402140

For me, visiting Italy is a bittersweet experience. The sweetness comes from knowing that virtually everything I taste — from the morning’s first expertly pulled espresso to the sip of limoncello in the trattoria at evening’s end — will be intensely memorable. The bitterness comes later, usually when the plane has left Leonardo da Vinci airport and I’m confronting the minor insult of the in-flight meal, and the tiny tragedy of my first sip of reheated filter coffee. By then it’s aly too late: Once again, I’ve left Rome behind, and the sprezzatura has started to drain from my day.在我而言,游览意大利是种苦乐参半的体验。乐,是因为我知道,几乎所有我品尝到的美味,从清晨第一杯娴熟萃取的意大利浓缩咖啡,到晚间意大利餐厅里的柠檬酒,都会让我极度难忘。苦,则伴随其后,通常是在我乘坐的航班离开列奥纳多达文西机场(Leonardo da Vinci airport),面对着飞机餐带给我的小小屈辱,还有第一口经过重新加热的过滤咖啡带给我的小小悲怆时。事至如此,已然晚矣:又一次地,罗马在我身后渐渐远去,所有的云淡风轻开始自我的日子中剥离。It’s a maddening hallmark of the culture. Italians, who are extraordinarily good at elevating simple tastes and textures into the realm of the extraordinary, will also go to great efforts to make the whole process look effortless. Five hundred years ago, the humanist author Baldassare Castiglione labeled such studied nonchalance “sprezzatura,” from the verb meaning “to undervalue.” “We may call that art true art,” he wrote in “The Book of the Courtier,” “which does not seem to be art.” For a gracious nobleman in Renaissance Urbino, that meant being able to finish dancing the most elaborate saltarello with a double hop and a self-deprecatory shrug.这是一种令人痴狂的文化印记。意大利人极为擅长将简单的品味与质地提升到超凡脱俗的境界,他们也会付出巨大的努力,让这一整个过程看上去仿佛毫不费力。五百年前,人文主义作家巴尔达萨雷·卡斯蒂廖内(Baldassare Castiglione)根据意指“低估”的动词,为这种刻意为之的若无其事,创造了一个名词“云淡风轻”(sprezzatura)。“我们可以称这种艺术为真正的艺术,”他在《廷臣论》(The Book of the Courtier)中写道,“这种看不出是艺术的艺术。”对于文艺复兴时期乌尔比诺(Urbino)的一名优雅贵族而言,这意味着能够在跳完最为精妙的萨尔塔雷洛舞(saltarello)时,用一个双跃和一个谦虚的耸肩作为收尾。In Rome, I am fooled by sprezzatura all the time, especially when it comes to food. When I tried my first rectangle of pizza bianca, salted flatb slathered with olive oil, at a bakery in Campo de’ Fiori, it seemed like the most uncomplicated of snacks; in reality, it keeps its characteristic texture, crispy outside and chewy inside, for only a few minutes after being pulled from an overachieving industrial oven.在罗马,我一直在被这种云淡风轻骗到,特别是跟吃的有关的时候。我在鲜花广场(Campo de’ Fiori)内的一间面包店里,尝试了我的第一块方形白披萨——在一块咸面饼上只抹了橄榄油而已,这貌似是最不用心的一种小吃了;但实际上,从不同凡响的工业用炉中取出后的短短数分钟里,它保持着自己独特的口感,外层酥脆,内有嚼劲。The first time I wandered into the gelateria around the corner from the Trevi Fountain, the flavors on offer seemed pretty basic — no cookie dough or cherries jubilee in sight — until I learned that the owners of San Crispino made their limone with handpicked lemons from the Amalfi Coast, and the basil gelato with leaves left to ferment for six months.在我第一次逛到特莱维喷泉(Trevi Fountain)附近的冰淇淋店时,店里提供的似乎都是些最基础的口味——触目所及既没有曲奇饼干口味也没有樱桃盛宴口味——直到我得知,这间San Crispino的老板是用精心挑选的阿玛菲海岸(Amalfi Coast)产柠檬制作柠檬酱,用发酵过六个月的罗勒叶制作罗勒冰淇淋的。At the Sant’Eustachio caffè, near the Pantheon, every espresso is topped with an improbably thick layer of chestnut-hued foam; a plastic flap alongside the nozzles on the machine prevents customers from glimpsing how much sugar the baristas add to the crema (a case of sprezzatura turned into proprietary secret). In Italy, you should never underestimate the amount of finesse brought to bear on the most elemental of pleasures.在万神殿(Pantheon)附近的Sant’Eustachio咖啡店,每杯浓缩咖啡顶部都浮着一层厚到不可思议的栗色泡沫;咖啡机上的喷嘴一侧有个塑料盖,不让顾客看到咖啡师往油脂里加了多少糖(这就是一种变成了独门秘方的云淡风轻)。在意大利,永远不要低估人们在最基本的乐趣中所投入的用心程度。On this trip, I decided not to leave Rome without trying to pick up a few bravura techniques of my own. Learning to cook a few Italian staples there would be the surest way to develop my own sense of sprezzatura. So this summer, I rented an apartment with a basic but functional kitchen in the Trastevere neighborhood, close to some of Rome’s best markets. Surely I would be able to master a contorno — a seasonal vegetable side dish — and a couple of Roman pasta staples. I vowed to start with the simplest of all: cacio e pepe, a dish said to attain perfection through the use of only three ingredients: pasta, cheese and pepper.在这一次的旅行中,我决定,没有学会几样漂亮招数的话,就不离开罗马。学做几道意大利主食,想必会是培养我自己“云淡风轻”感的最可靠途经。于是在这个夏天,我在特拉斯提弗列(Trastevere)一带,靠近几间罗马最棒的集市的地方,租了一间公寓,里面有间布置简单但功能齐全的厨房。我肯定能够掌握一道时蔬配菜(contorno)和几种罗马式意面的做法。我决定先从最简单的一种学起:黑胡椒起司意大利面(cacio e pepe),这道料理据说只需运用三种材料,意面、起司和胡椒,便可完美呈献。Knowing where to start, though, is harder than it looks, especially with cacio e pepe, a dish whose trendiness has recently led to a proliferation of recipes. Last year, President Obama was served a plate, along with a glass of 2006 Brunello, at a private dinner party at Villa Taverna, the American ambassador’s residence in Rome.不过,搞懂从哪里开始入手,可要比看上去难多了,尤其是黑胡椒起司意大利面,它的盛行近来催生出了一些不同版本的做法。去年,美国驻罗马大使的宅邸Villa Taverna,就在一次家宴上,为奥巴马总统呈上了一盘黑胡椒起司意大利面,还有一杯2006年的布鲁奈诺红葡萄酒(Brunello)。When an earthquake hit the Emilia-Romagna region three years ago, the three-star Michelin chef Massimo Bottura raised money for the region by offering a risotto of cacio e pepe that used wheels of Parmigiano-Reggiano broken by the quake at his Modena restaurant, Osteria Francescana. Gwyneth Paltrow and Mario Batali have published cacio e pepe recipes that call for Parmesan (and in Mario Batali’s case, butter).三年前,一场地震侵袭了艾米利亚罗马涅区(Emilia-Romagna),米其林三星厨师马西莫·图拉(Massimo Bottura)用地震中被压碎的帕马森雷加诺圆形干酪(Parmigiano-Reggiano)做成了一道黑胡椒起司意大利饭,在自己位于德纳(Modena)的餐厅Osteria Francescana里供应,通过这种方式为该区筹集资金。格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)和马里奥·巴塔利(Mario Batali)曾经公布了几种需要用到帕马森奶酪(马里奥·巴塔利用的是黄油)的黑胡椒起司意大利面菜谱。For true Roman cooks, this is an abomination: While there is room for debate about the pasta to be used, there can be none about the cheese. The cacio — an old dialect term for cheese — in question can only be salty, fatty pecorino Romano. A brine-washed ewe’s cheese aged for a minimum of eight months, it is also considered one of the oldest Italian cheeses: Pliny the Elder described its production in the Roman countryside two millenniums ago.在真正的罗马厨师看来,这种事很让人不爽:对于使用哪种意大利面,一直存在着不同的意见,但涉及奶酪时却非如此。这里所说的cacio——奶酪在一种古老方言中的叫法——只能是咸味的高脂羊奶干乳酪。这是一种用盐水浸泡的母羊奶酪,经过至少八个月的陈化,也被认为是历史最为悠久的意式奶酪之一:老普林尼(Pliny the Elder)在两千年前,就描述过罗马乡下是如何生产这种奶酪的。At Felice a Testaccio, a trattoria that has been open in Testaccio, a working-class neighborhood on the east bank of the Tiber River, since 1936, the bowl of unmixed cacio e pepe that is brought to the table at first looks as appetizing as an autopsy pan heaped with viscera.台伯河东岸上的工薪阶层聚集地——泰斯塔西奥(Testaccio)区内,有一间自1936年便营业至今的意式饮食店Felice a Testaccio,在这里,刚上桌时的黑胡椒起司意大利面不会直接拌好,看上去就像一盘摆满各式内脏的解剖盘一样令人“开胃”。Fat, slimy noodles of tonnarelli — a fresh, egg-based pasta that in Rome is acceptable as a deluxe alternative to spaghetti — are puddled with the soapy-looking water the pasta has cooked in. It is only the flick of the waiter’s wrist that makes them into something appetizing. With a spoon and a fork, he lifts the noodles from the bowl, at the same time giving them an energetic clockwise half turn. Every motion coats the pasta with the mound of finely grated pecorino, flaked with coarsely ground black pepper, that is hidden in the bottom of the bowl. The result is the cremina, a sauce whose unctuousness results not from butter or cream, but from the combination of the fat from the pecorino, the starch from the pasta and the residual heat of the cooking water. (This is also the way to make a real Roman Alfredo sauce, which consists of butter, Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese and fettuccine, but not a drop of cream.) It’s a privileged display of sprezzatura at work.圆滚滚、粘糊糊的意式粗面(tonnarelli)——这种新鲜的加蛋意面在罗马可被当作是意式细面(spaghetti)的豪华版——被和用来煮熟意面的滑腻汤汁拌在一起。只有侍者抖动的手腕,才能让它们变成一道美味的佳肴。只见他用一把勺子和一把叉子,将面条从碗中挑起,同时沿着顺时针方向画出一个充满活力的半圆。经过精细研磨的羊奶干酪被切成薄片,撒上粗磨的黑胡椒粉,藏在碗底,此时则随着侍者的每一个动作,厚厚地裹在意面的外表。最后得到的便是奶油酱(cremina),这种酱料的油腻感并非来自黄油或奶油,而是羊奶干酪中的脂肪、意面中的淀粉以及面汤余热的共同结果。(这也是真正的罗马白酱(Roman Alfredo)的制作方法,原料有黄油、帕马森雷加诺干酪和意式宽面,但是一滴奶油也没有。)这是一种只有在工作中才能展现出来的云淡风轻。“This is the secret, how to do the perfect cacio e pepe,” said my lunch companion Laura Perez, as she watched the mixing process. (“I have the most photographed hands in Rome,” quipped the waiter when I asked if I could him at work.) Born in the suburbs of Rome, Laura is a talented home chef who appeared on “La Prova del Cuoco,” a popular cooking show on the Rai television network. She told me that her grandmother, who was from the Lazio region outside Rome, was her first teacher.“这就是其中的秘诀,做出完美的黑胡椒起司意大利面的方法,”与我共进午餐的劳拉·佩雷斯(Laura Perez)看着这道搅拌过程说。(“我有一双全罗马上镜次数最多的手,”侍者在被我问及能否让我录制下他制作过程中的画面时,如此调侃道。)生在罗马郊区的劳拉,是位才华横溢的家庭厨师,上过意大利广播电视公司(RAI)的一档人气烹饪电视节目《厨师的挑战》(La Prova del Cuoco)。她告诉我说,她那来自罗马以外的拉齐奥区(Lazio)的祖母,是她的第一位老师。“She was perfect, my grandmother,” Laura said. “From her, I learned to do everything all’occhio, by eye, just by watching what she did.”“她完美无缺,我的祖母,”劳拉说,“从她那里,我学会了一切全凭目测,就是看她怎么做的。”To make cacio e pepe for two, Laura starts by bringing a pot filled two-thirds full with water to boil, adding sale grosso — enough kosher salt to fill the hollow in the palm of her cupped right hand — just when the first bubbles appear. (“Otherwise it becomes too salty.”) When you add the spaghetti or tonnarelli, she says, “test it as you cook, so it’s al dente; in Rome we don’t like pasta mushy.”为了做出两人份的黑胡椒起司意大利面,劳拉先在一只锅里加入三分之二的清水,放在火上煮,在第一堆水泡出现时加入粗盐(sale grosso)——足够她用右手满满地抓上一把的粗盐。(“不然会变得太咸。”)当你把意式细面或意式粗面下入锅里时,她会说:“做的过程中要尝一尝,这样才能让面保持嚼劲;在罗马,我们不喜欢软趴趴的面条。”Using a slotted spoon, rather than a colander, she scoops the pasta on top of the pecorino and pepper mix. The cooking water comes last. “Usually it’s two spoons for a plate. Not three, because it becomes a soup — it’s not good.” For Laura, the combination of simple, high-quality ingredients makes this a classic Roman dish.她用漏勺,而不是漏锅,将意面舀到拌好的羊乳干酪与胡椒上面。最后再淋上面汤。“通常一盘只要淋上两勺。不能是三勺,那样就变成一道汤品了——这样不好。”在劳拉看来,将这些简单但高品质的原料组合起来,便成就了一道经典的罗马料理。“Cacio e pepe is not the kind of pasta you can eat every day. Too many calories. Even when you are young, you have it maybe once a month.”“黑胡椒起司意大利面不是那种你可以天天吃的意面。它的卡路里太高了。就算是年轻人,大概也就一个月才吃上一次。”When I tested her recipe in the kitchen of my apartment, I got her point: After a few bites, my stomach revolted against the prospect of another caloric hit. It didn’t help that my first attempt came out a clumpy mess, an issue I resolved in later versions by stirring in extra virgin olive oil with the cheese and pepper. I’m aly learning a key paradox: When it comes to cooking like a Roman, there may be no absolute truth, but there are well-defined limits.当我在自己的公寓厨房里试做她的食谱时,才理解了她的意思:刚吃了几口,我的肠胃就开始抗拒下一口的卡路里飨宴。再加上我的第一份“作品”完全坨得一塌糊涂,后来再做时,我在奶酪和胡椒里拌入了一些特级初榨橄榄油,用这个办法解决了这个问题。我已经学到了一条重要的悖论:在像个罗马人一样烹饪时,或许没有绝对的真理,但确实有明确的限制。My next instructor, so to speak, was Katie Parla, a popular food blogger and fellow contributor to The New York Times who moved to Rome from New Jersey 12 years ago. “In Italy,” Katie said as she navigated the stalls of an indoor food market near the Vatican, “there is no recipe, but there is, you know what I mean? And everybody will fight to the death to prove their recipe is the best recipe — even though their knowledge is usually based on rumor.”第二位称得上我的指导老师的人,是凯蒂·帕拉(Katie Parla),一名很红的美食客作者,也是《纽约时报》的撰稿人,在12年前从美国新泽西搬去了罗马。“在意大利,”凯蒂在梵蒂冈附近一间室内菜市场的摊位间穿行时说,“没有食谱,但又有食谱,你明白我的意思吗?所有人都会拼死明自己的食谱才是最棒的——即便他们的认知通常都建立在谣言的基础上。”Katie had offered to help me assemble the ingredients for an amatriciana sauce. A staple on Roman s, it is most often eaten with the long, hollow noodles called bucatini (the word means “pierced”) whose unruliness on the fork means the tomato-based sauce cries out for a napkin to be tucked into the collar. I met Katie in the Prati neighborhood, outside the Mercato Trionfale, one of the indoor markets that have almost completely replaced Rome’s well-loved sidewalk markets.凯蒂曾经主动提出,愿意帮我准备好阿马特里西酱(amatriciana sauce)的所有材料。这是罗马式菜单上的一道主食,常与一种叫作“bucatini”(“穿透”之意)的细条空心粉一起食用,这种空心粉完全无法用叉子驾驭,导致这些番茄酱极需你在领口间塞上一块餐巾。我是在普拉蒂附近的Mercato Trionfale外面认识凯蒂的,这种室内集市几乎完全取代了罗马备受百姓喜爱的路边集市。“Campo de’ Fiori is one of the only outdoor markets left,” she told me, “but it’s also the saddest, because there are very few produce stalls, just a lot of bottles of limoncello and olive oil baking in the sun.”“鲜花广场是仅存的户外集市的其中一间,”她说,“但它也是最悲哀的那间,因为里面总共没有多少蔬果摊,只有很多瓶装的柠檬酒(limoncello)和橄榄油曝晒在阳光下。”The 200 vendors at Trionfale, she pointed out, are offered subsidized rent and have been given access to fresh running water. (Some of new indoor markets, like the airy complex in the Testaccio district, offer sit-down cafes and lunch stands, and have become destinations for visiting foodies.)她指出,特里安法勒(Trionfale)的200家摊贩均可享受租金补贴,还获准使用新鲜的自来水。(有些新建的室内集市,例如泰斯塔西奥区那间通风良好的综合集市,提供可以小坐的咖啡馆和午餐摊,已经成了享用美食的目的地所在。)Efficiently steering her way through the older women who make up the bulk of the morning shoppers, Katie stopped at a stall where plastic crates were piled high with eggplant, cucumber, cantaloupe and zucchini. The white-gloved vendor handed her a paper bag full of fat, ripe cherry tomatoes, still on the vine.迅速地穿过年纪较大的妇女们(她们是清早的顾客主力),凯蒂在一个摊位前停下脚步,那里的塑料箱里堆满了茄子、黄瓜、甜瓜和南瓜。戴着白手套的摊贩递给她一只纸袋,里面装满了肥硕饱满的圣女果,一颗颗的还挂在藤上。“I love that smell,” she said, plunging her nose in the bag. “Summertime.” Tomatoes, it turns out, are one of the only things that Romans agree goes into an amatriciana sauce, though even their inclusion is disputed by culinary authorities.“我喜欢这种气味,”她说着,把鼻子探到了袋子里。“夏日的感觉。”西红柿,似乎是罗马人在制作阿马特里西酱时愿意加入的少数几样东西之一,尽管美食权威们对此却颇有争议。“Amatriciana,” Katie said, “is a cured pork and tomato-based sauce that includes pecorino and sometimes onion and sometimes garlic and sometimes chile peppers and sometimes black pepper.” Its origins are traditionally traced to Amatrice, a sleepy provincial town in the Sabine Hills northeast of Rome. Food scholars believe the earliest versions predated the 18th-century popularization of tomatoes in Italy. A tomato-free “white amatriciana,” known as gricia, can still be found on Roman s; its key ingredients, grated pecorino and guanciale (pork jowl that has been cured, though not smoked) also go into the traditional sauce.“阿马特里西酱,”凯蒂说,“是一种以腌猪肉和番茄为基本原料做成的酱料,里面会加入羊乳干酪,还有洋葱,或者大蒜,或者辣椒,或者黑胡椒。”这道酱料的起源一般会追溯到阿马特里切(Amatrice),位于罗马东北部萨宾山(Sabine Hills)中的一座宁静小镇。食品领域的研究者认为,它最早的版本要早于18世纪才在意大利普及的番茄。不加番茄的“阿马特里西白酱”,被唤作格里西酱(gricia),在如今的罗马人菜单上仍能找到;其主要原料,磨碎的干酪和风干猪脸肉(guanciale)(经过腌制但无烟熏的猪脸肉),在早年的酱料中也有使用。After a vendor gave us two tiny red pepperoncini — similar to dried Thai bird’s-eye peppers — without charge, we left the market and walked two blocks to La Tradizione, a delicatessen that proved to be an Aladdin’s cave of Italian cheeses and cured meat.一名摊贩递给我们两只小小的红色希腊金椒(pepperoncini)——跟风干后的泰国鸟眼椒(Thai bird’s-eye pepper)很像——而且没要我们的钱,随后我们便离开集市,走过两个街区前往La Tradizione,一间堪称意大利奶酪与腊肉宝库的熟食店。A counterman in a white smock wrapped up a half-pound of guanciale, enough for three people, and selected a piece of pecorino from beneath a huge glass bell that can be lowered to keep some of the shop’s 400 kinds of cheese fresh. I was surprised when Katie handed me a package not of bucatini, but of a variety of dried pasta shaped like a truncated cylinder.一名身穿白色工作的店员,包了半磅风干猪脸肉——足够三人食用——然后从一只用来为店内奶酪(总共有400个品种)保鲜的大玻璃罩下挑了一块羊乳干酪。我很意外凯蒂递给我的袋子里,装的竟然不是细条通心粉(bucatini),而是一种经过干燥的意面,形状就像被截成一段一段的空心圆柱。“It’s a bit controversial,” she admitted. “A very classic amatriciana would be rich and heavy, and made with bucatini. I prefer making mine a little lighter, and using these mezze maniche.” Key to her amatriciana, she said, is combining fresh tomatoes with passata, the uncooked tomato sauce, strained to remove seeds, available in grocery stores. Wishing me buona fortuna, she promised to email me a recipe, and headed off for the day’s appointments.“这是有点不太寻常,”她承认道,“非常经典的阿马特里西酱,口感油腻又厚重,而且是和细条通心粉一起吃的。我自己做时,更喜欢让它的口感清淡一点点,然后配搭这些袖筒面(mezze maniche)。”她说,她所做的阿马特里西酱,秘诀在于在新鲜的番茄中掺入意式番茄酱(passata),这是一种生番茄酱,经过过滤去除了番茄籽儿,可在食品杂货店里买到。为我献上深切祝福后,她答应我,会用电子邮件发送一份食谱给我,然后便见她那天约好的人去了。Before attempting my own amatriciana, I decide to sample the versions served at two of Rome’s best trattorias. At Flavio al Velavevodetto, in Testaccio, the sauce is rich and salty-sweet, but the chef, Flavio De Maio (who trained for seven years in the kitchen of Felice a Testaccio), opts to use rigatoni, which, when cooked in the Roman style, verges on the crunchy side of al dente.在动手试做我自己的阿马特里西酱之前,我决定先到罗马最好的两间饮食店里弄点他们做的作为样品。在泰斯塔西奥的Flavio al Velavevodetto里,这道酱料的口感油腻,咸中带甜,不过店内大厨弗拉维奥·德马约(Flavio De Maio)(他曾在泰斯塔西奥的Felice餐厅的厨房中受训了七年)选用的则是肋状通心粉(rigatoni),用罗马人的方法煮熟后,嚼劲中更带着一种酥脆感。I decided that the classic bucatini all’amatriciana served at Da Cesare al Casaletto, a trattoria on the lower floor of a residential building on the Janiculum Hill, would be the one I tried to emulate. Slurping up the wriggly bucatini, after all, is part of the dish’s sloppy charm. (Full disclosure: The owner of Da Cesare, Leonardo Vignoli, noticed my note-taking and came to my table to offer me a glass of Cirsium, by the Lazio-based vintner Damiano Ciolli, and the combination of the swirling tannins of the lightly oaked red and the sauce’s inherent saltiness elevated the experience to another plane.)我最后确定,位于贾尼科洛山(Janiculum Hill)一座住宅楼低层中的饮食店Da Cesare al Casaletto所供应的那种经典口味的阿马特里西酱细条通心粉,就是我想要模仿的口味。毕竟,吞吸着弯弯曲曲的细条通心粉,也是这道料理粗放魅力的一部分。(大爆料:Da Cesare的老板莱昂纳多·维诺里(Leonardo Vignoli)留意到我在记笔记后,走到我的餐桌前,为我上了一杯拉齐奥(Lazio)产区的葡萄酒商Damiano Ciolli酿造的Cirsium,酒红色液体内的单宁令人眩晕,再加上酱料自身特有的咸味,将整个口感提升到了一个新的层次。)The next day, though, my own attempt at amatriciana, based on the directions that Katie had emailed me, resulted in an inedible mess of intolerable saltiness. I realized that following a recipe isn’t enough: I needed to work side by side with a genuine Roman cook.不过我在第二天,按照凯蒂发给我的做法试做出的阿马特里西酱,却咸得不得了,根本没法吃。我意识到,单纯地遵从食谱并不够:我需要和一位真正的罗马厨师联手合作。I decided to call a group called Home Food, which offers cooking lessons and home-cooked meals to visitors. Founded by a sociology professor from the University of Bologna in 2004, the nonprofit group now organizes visits with 400 home cooks, known as Le Cesarine (or “Little Caesars”), whose goal is to keep traditional home-cooking techniques alive in an age of microwaves and takeout.我决定致电给一个名叫家常料理(Home Food)的团体,他们会为游客提供烹饪课程和家常口味的菜肴。这间非营利组织由洛尼亚大学(University of Bologna)的一位社会学教授创建于2004年,目前在一间名为Le Cesarine(意为“小凯撒”)的餐厅里,组织着400名家庭厨师的交流活动,他们的目标是要在这个受微波炉和外卖配的时代,保持住传统家庭料理技艺的生命力。Flavia Pantaleo, the cesarina who welcomed me into her apartment east of Villa Borghese, showed me why my attempt at an amatriciana tasted like a mouthful of water from the Dead Sea. Because pecorino and cured pork are aly salty enough, she said, it’s important to undersalt the water you cook the pasta in. (Flavia prefers to use dried pasta made by Libera Terra, a supermarket brand produced in regions that have been freed of Mafia influence; for her amatriciana, she surprised me by opting for pancetta, from the pig’s belly, rather than traditional guanciale from the jowl.)他们的家庭厨师弗蕾维亚·潘塔莱奥(Flavia Pantaleo),在她位于鲍格才别墅(Villa Borghese)东边的公寓里接待了我,让我明白了我做的阿马特里西酱为何尝起来就像死海的海水一样咸。她说,因为羊乳干酪和腊肉本身都已经含有足够的盐分,因此在煮意面的水里少放盐就很重要。(弗蕾维亚喜欢用Libera Terra制作的干意面,这是几个摆脱了黑手党控制的地区内崛起的一个超市品牌;在她的阿马特里西酱配方中,很是让我意外地选用了用猪腩肉制成的意式培根(pancetta),而非传统的风干猪脸肉。)After uncorking a bottle of Frascati, that crisp, young white wine of ancient pedigree that so perfectly accompanies the Roman summer, Flavia sets me to work on my last challenge: making stuffed, deep-fried zucchini flowers. As I cut a ball of mozzarella into rectangles, she explained that her mother, though baptized as a Catholic during the Fascist era, grew up in a Jewish household and taught her daughter some of the staples of Rome’s Jewish community, the oldest in continued existence in Europe. Fiori di zucca ripieni is one of the most spectacular: the male flowers of the squash plant, whose involutions call to mind the membranous ears of a bat, are stuffed with anchovies and cheese, then dipped in batter and deep fried. Served in pairs, wrapped in cones of wax paper, they remain the summer appetizer of choice in Rome’s Jewish ghetto.我们开了一瓶弗拉斯卡蒂(Frascati),这款口感清爽鲜嫩,继承了古老血统的白葡萄酒,与罗马的夏日契合得浑然天成;然后,弗蕾维亚让我进行了最后一项挑战:制作填有馅料的油炸南瓜花。在我把一块球状的马苏里拉奶酪切成小方块时,她向我解释道,她的母亲虽然在法西斯统治时期受洗成了一名天主教徒,却是在犹太家庭中长大,并且教了她几道主食,全部出自罗马的犹太人聚集地——这里也是欧洲延续时间最久的犹太人聚集地。油炸酿南瓜花(Fiori di Zucca ripieni)便是其中一个最奇葩的一道:在南瓜植株上的雄花(枯萎后会教人想起蝙蝠的兜风耳)内填上凤尾鱼和奶酪,然后裹在面糊里下锅彻底炸透。成品会成对地包在蜡纸筒里上桌,迄今依然是罗马犹太区在不二选的夏季开胃菜。Naturally, controversy attends the correct way of making them. Katie Parla prefers stuffing them with well-rinsed salted anchovies; Flavia thinks that anchovies packed in oil make for a less salty dish. Some cooks opt for ricotta, but Flavia prefers the texture of melted mozzarella; she recommends fior di latte over bufala. (Everybody agrees that removing the pistils, which are bitter, before cooking is essential.)当然,在制作这道美食的正确方法上,也出现了不同的声音。凯蒂·帕拉喜欢在这些南瓜花里填入腌制后经过彻底水洗的凤尾鱼;弗蕾维亚则认为,裹上一层油的凤尾鱼做出的成品会没有那么咸。有些厨师会选用意式乳清干酪(ricotta),弗蕾维亚则喜欢马苏里拉奶酪融化后的质地;比起软乳酪(bufala),她更推荐莫萨里拉干酪(fior di latte)。(所有人都同意,在制作前除去花里苦味较重的雌蕊,是道必不可少的手续。)As I watched Flavia at work, I saw she did it all all’occhio, by eye, adding a spoonful here, a pinch there, never using exact measures. After combining flour, salt and white wine (“You can put in beer, too,” she says, “because it’s bubbly. If you have some leftover prosecco, that’s even better”), she left the batter to settle for a few minutes while filling a deep pan with peanut oil. As it heated on the stove, she threw in a few grains of salt, which, she told me, will keep the flowers from spitting as they fry in the hot oil.在我看着弗蕾维亚操作时,我发现,她在整个过程中靠的都是目测,这里加一勺,那里捏一撮,从头到尾都没有用过任何精确的测量工具。将面粉、盐和白葡萄酒在一起和好后(“你也可以用啤酒,”她说,“因为它的泡沫很丰富。如果你有一些吃剩下的葡萄,那就更好了。”),她将这些面糊放置了几分钟,让它自己沉淀一下,在此期间往一只炸锅里倒了很多花生油。油锅上炉子加热时,她撒了少许盐进去,据她说,这能让南瓜花在下锅油炸时不会散开。As we sat at the dining room table, I marveled as I bit into the orange and green flowers, each one batter-bound and enfolding a nugget of anchovy and molten mozzarella, and sighed as I spooned up the last of the perfectly salted amatriciana sauce.在餐桌前落座后,我咬了一口这些橘色与绿色相间的南瓜花,为其口感惊叹不已:每只南瓜花的外面都裹着面糊,里面则包着一块凤尾鱼肉混合融化后的马苏里拉奶酪;然后在舀起最后一勺咸度拿捏得十分完美的阿马特里西酱时,叹了一口气。“Bonissimo, eh?” said Flavia, with quiet satisfaction.“棒极了,是不?”弗蕾维亚问道,带着一种教人难以察觉的满足感。Indeed. That evening, I witnessed the essence of finesse: Flavia elevated simple dishes into something remarkable, without recourse to measuring cups or cookbooks. In so doing, she’d given me a living demonstration of Castiglione’s true art, “that art which does not seem to be art,” one best learned through practice and imitation, rather than bookish study.的确如此。那天晚上,我见识到了高超手腕的精髓所在:弗蕾维亚在没有任何量杯或食谱帮助的情况下,将几道简单的料理,提升到了一种非比寻常的高度。由此,她生动地向我展现了卡斯蒂廖内(Castiglione)所说的真正艺术,“看不出是艺术的艺术”,只有通过实践和效仿才能最好地学到其中的精神,而不是靠书呆子式的研究。And this, I realize, is the most important lesson of all: To cook as they do in Rome — a place where they know the best recipe is no recipe at all — the only secret ingredient you really need is a pinch of your own sprezzatura.而这,我意识到,就是最最重要的一课:要想学到罗马这个人人都知道最好的食谱就是完全没有食谱的地方的烹饪技巧,唯一需要的秘密材料,就是你自己的一份云淡风轻。 /201512/414909In mid-December, Phil McNulty, the B’s chief football writer, offered us his predictions for the rest of the English Premier League season. My interest in football is limited but I found McNulty’s efforts fascinating. Even the most sceptical about football can learn a great deal from the episode.12月中旬,英国广播公司(B)首席足球作家菲尔麦克纳尔蒂(Phil McNulty)为我们提供了他对英超联赛(English Premier League)本赛季剩下比赛的预测。我对足球兴趣有限,但我发现他的预测令人着迷。即使是对足球最持怀疑态度的人,也可以从中学到很多东西。A brief piece of context for those sceptics. Chelsea, the champions, had just played Leicester City, a team that had been relegation favourites just a few months before. Leicester won the game. This result would have been surprising had it not been set against the even more surprising pattern of the season. Champions Chelsea had slumped towards the bottom of the league after producing an unprecedentedly appalling run of form; Leicester, meanwhile, were top of the table. Nobody was shocked to see them vanquish Chelsea but it felt like a significant moment nonetheless.以下是一份为那些持怀疑态度的人提供的简短背景说明。获得上赛季冠军的切尔西(Chelsea)刚刚和莱斯特城(Leicester City)踢了一场比赛。在仅仅几个月前,莱斯特城还是一只濒临降级的保级队,然而莱斯特城赢了这场比赛。这样的结果本应让人感到惊讶,可是相比之下本赛季的走势更让人大跌眼镜。冠军队切尔西在史无前例的一系列糟糕表现后跌至联赛末尾。同时,莱斯特城则处于积分榜首。看到莱斯特城击败切尔西,没人感到震惊,尽管如此,这依然让人感觉是一个重大时刻。What of McNulty? At the beginning of the season, he had predicted that Chelsea would be champions again, while Leicester would finish in the bottom three and be relegated from the Premier League. Both of those outcomes are now inconceivable. After admitting that his initial prediction had been about as wrong as it is possible to be, McNulty proposed a new set of predictions.麦克纳尔蒂的情况如何呢?本赛季伊始,他曾预测过切尔西会卫冕成功,而莱斯特城将以最后三名的成绩结束本赛季并从英超联赛降级。现在来看,这两个结果都是不可想象的。承认自己最初的预测大错特错后,麦克纳尔蒂提出了一套新的预测。Those predictions were … but wait. Why on earth should you care? McNulty knows a great deal about football — far more than I do — but he had conclusively proved that he can’t see into the future. And yet he felt bold enough to offer another forecast, which many sports fans with great interest.他的预测是这样的……但是等等。你干嘛要关心这个呢?麦克纳尔蒂对足球非常了解——比我的了解深得多,但事实已经确凿地明他没法预见未来。然而他胆子足够大,又进行了一次预测,很多运动迷兴致勃勃地阅读了他的预测。This is a common pattern in football and beyond: pundits make forecasts, their audience consume those forecasts with relish, the forecasts are proved wrong, nobody is very surprised, and the cycle begins again. Why?这是足球和足球以外的领域的一个共有模式:专家做出预测,观众津津有味地消费了这些预测,事实明预测是错误的,没人感到很惊讶,然后这一周期重新开始。为什么?Part of the explanation is wishful thinking: we like to believe that the world runs on rails, and to trust in experts who claim to have decoded the timetable and can therefore explain what is going to happen, when, and why. Forecasters with a record of some success — such as data-driven political and sports analyst Nate Silver — soon find themselves saddled with unrealistic expectations.部分原因是人们的主观愿望:我们倾向于相信世界在轨道上运行,倾向于信任那些专家,他们声称自己破译了时刻表、因此能够解释何事将于何时因何种原因发生。那些曾取得一些成功的预言者,很快就会背负上人们对他们不切实际的期待,比如依靠数据进行预测的政治和运动分析师纳特缠尔弗(Nate Silver)。Silver correctly predicted the fine details of the 2012 presidential election but he is happy to admit three things: that US elections are data-rich environments and much more predictable than most; that he had some luck; and that the bar for forecasting success had been set very low by partisan pundits much more interested in cheerleading than accuracy.西尔弗正确预测了2012年美国总统大选的精确细节,但他大方承认了三件事情:美国大选的数据很充足,比大多数事情容易预测得多;他有点幸运;党派专家将预测成功的门槛设得很低,因为比起精准他们对声援造势更感兴趣。Sure enough, when Silver and his colleague Ben Lauderdale tried to predict last year’s UK election result, their performance was woeful. This was partly because the seat-by-seat polling data are far less detailed than in the US and partly because Silver’s good luck didn’t last.果然,西尔弗和他的同事本劳德戴尔(Ben Lauderdale)试图预测去年英国的选举结果时搞砸了。部分原因是,比起美国,英国大选中有关每一个议席的详尽民调数据要少得多,还有一部分原因是西尔弗没能继续交好运。We would be wise to have more realistic expectations, even of careful data-driven forecasters such as Silver. But perhaps our expectations are irrelevant. Even when we know that the forecasts are useless, when the pundits have no track record, when the events in question have always been unpredictable (the stock market; geopolitical shocks; recessions), we remain hungry for opinions about the future.即使是对西尔弗等谨慎的、依赖数据的预测者,我们也应该抱一种更切合实际的期待,这才是明智的。但或许我们的期待无关紧要。即使我们明知预测无用,即使专家没有过往成败记录,即使相关问题一直都难以预测(股市、地缘政治突发事件、衰退),我们依然渴求对未来的观点。The truth is that forecasts are like Pringles — nobody thinks that there’s any great virtue in them but, offered with the fleeting pleasure of consuming them, we find it hard to resist. I am not sure quite why this should be so, but I have a couple of theories.真相是,预言就像是品客(Pringles)薯片——没人认为它们有什么很大的好处,但享用它们带来的短暂快乐让我们难以抵抗。我不是很清楚为何事情是这样的,但我对此有两种解释。Possibility one is that the moment we hear a forecast, we imagine it happening. It then becomes a believable outcome and one that is easy to call to mind in the future. The scenario that we imagine looms large in our minds; other scenarios, equally plausible, fade to the background. As a result, we can be sceptical of forecasts in general yet still hooked by a particular one.一个可能性是,在我们听到预言的那一刻,我们会想象预言的实现。然后,预言会变成一个可信的结果,我们很容易在未来回想起来。我们想象的场景在我们的脑海中很突出,而同样言之有理的其他场景将会淡入背景之中。其结果是,我们可能在整体上对预测抱怀疑态度,但依然会被某一个预言迷住。I notice this tendency in myself whenever I hear someone opining on the stock market. As an abstract proposition I think that it’s almost impossible to predict what the stock market will do. But the moment someone starts to tell me a story about what will happen to it, I’m hypnotised.我注意到,每当我听到有人发表对股市的意见,我自己身上就会显露出这种倾向。在抽象的观念上,我认为股市走势几乎不可能预测。但有人告诉我将会发生什么事情的时候,我就被迷住了。Possibility two is that forecasts offer us a lazy way to understand a complex world. The background to the conflict in Syria is complicated. So is Chinese politics. So, too, is the evolution of the Japanese economy. Trying to understand what is going on in any of these places requires an investment of time and attention that most of us are not willing to make. Wise heads at this newspaper could explain the intricacies to you or to me for hours yet barely have begun to do the topic justice.第二种可能性是预言为我们提供了一种理解复杂世界的懒人办法。叙利亚争端的背景很复杂。中国政治,以及日本经济的发展同样如此。试图理解这些地方中的任何一个在发生什么都需要投入时间和注意力,而我们大多数人并不情愿这样做。本报的一些聪明人可能花费数小时为你我解释错综复杂的细节却还没开始说到正题。But a forecast? That’s different. A forecast about what will happen in Syria, China or Japan is a simple way to convey a fleeting sense of understanding. The forecast will probably be wrong. But at the instant it is consumed, it gratifies. As I say, a lot like Pringles.预言呢?那就不同了。有关叙利亚、中国或者日本将会发生什么的预言能够简单地给人一种“懂了”的短暂感觉。预言很可能是错误的。但人们在消费它们的一瞬间获得满足感。就像我说的,和品客薯片很像。 /201601/423439

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