贵 阳 看 妇 科 病 哪 家 医 院 最 好挂号窍门

原标题: 贵 阳 看 妇 科 病 哪 家 医 院 最 好百度专题
The Smell of Dirt泥土的芬芳A lot of people love that fresh-dirt smell. The surprising thing, though, is that it isn’t coming from the dirt itself.不少人喜欢闻新鲜泥土的芬芳,出人意料的是芬芳不是来自泥土本身,Microbiologists have traced the pleasant odor to an organic chemical called “ geosmin“.”微生物学家寻根溯源,发现宜人的香味是来自有机化学物:土臭素。No way! But how does geosmin get into dirt?这不可能!土臭素怎么钻进泥土的呢?A microbial geneticist named Keith Chater at the John Innes Center in England has traced geosmin down to a common bacterium called Streptomyces coelicolor.Keith Chater 是英国John Innes中心的一名微生物遗传学者,他发现一种常见的叫蓝色链霉菌的细菌可以分泌土臭素。He even found out exactly which gene in the little critters causes them to produce geosmin.他甚至还能确定蓝色链霉菌中哪种基因产生土臭素。No way! A bacterium is producing the chemical that smells so good?没可能啊!细菌能分泌好闻的化学物质?Interestingly enough, there are unconfirmed reports that animals are attracted to fresh dirt in the desert, and go there looking for water.有趣的还不止这个,有报道还称沙漠动物就是靠新鲜泥土的芬芳寻找水源,不过有待考。As they nose around the dirt, they pick up plenty of S. coelicolor,动物们找寻绿洲的同时,成为大量蓝色链霉菌的媒介,which then hitch a ride from one oasis to the next.搭载蓝色链霉菌游曳绿洲间。If it’s true, then the bacteria in general may create the odor in order to attract animals.如果蓝色链霉菌普遍散发香气吸引动物,The animals find water, the bacteria are sp, and everyone is happy.动物寻找到水源;而蓝色链霉菌也能因此繁衍,这不是双赢吗? /201212/213610Science and technology科学与技术Splay-footed, not flat-footed不是扁平足而是八字足A new fossil shows that evolution does not always mean change新发现的化石显示,进化并不总意味着变化Palaeontology古生物学Then and now今与昔WHEN a coelacanth, a type of lobe-finned fish once considered the missing link between fish and amphibians, was found off the coast of South Africa in 1938, it came as a shock to palaeontologists.1938年当一种空棘鱼目鱼类—曾被认为是一种消失的连接鱼类和两栖动物的物种在南非海岸被发现时,古生物学家们为之一惊。Until then, the most recent traces of such a creature had been in rocks dating from the last days of the dinosaurs, 65m years ago.至到当时,这种生物最新的踪迹只出现在可以追溯到距今六千五百万年前恐龙时代末期的化石中。It was, in its way, as surprising as if a live Tyrannosaurus had been found hiding in an obscure part of Montana.其惊人程度就如同在蒙大拿的某个阴暗地方发现了一只躲藏于其中的活体霸王龙。Now the same experience is hitting palaeontologists again—but this time in reverse.如今,同样的事件再次让古生物学家们感到震惊—但是这次恰恰相反,Instead of finding a living fossil identical to an ancient beast, they have found a real fossil identical to a modern one.他们不是发现了一个与远古生物雷同的活化石,而是发现了一个与现代生物一致的真化石。The fossil in question, a 100m-year-old specimen from north-east Brazil, belongs to the genus Schizodactylus.这里所讨论的化石中的生物是一个来自巴西东北部距今一亿年前的物种,属于Schizodactylus昆虫科。These are large, carnivorous, cricket-like insects whose feet splay out wildly in different directions.它们是一些大型,蟋蟀状食肉昆虫,其足向不同方向伸展。Modern Schizodactylus use their feet like snowshoes, to help them remain stable as they travel over sandy terrain in search of prey.当现代Schizodactylus科昆虫在沙地中搜寻猎物时,其足有如雪鞋可以帮助它们保持稳定。If the new fossil—whose discovery has just been published in ZooKeys by Sam Heads of the Illinois Natural History Survey and Léa Leuzinger of the University of Fribourg, in Switzerland—were merely similar to modern splay-footed insects, the find would not be particularly surprising: it simply demonstrates a phenomenon called evolutionary stasis, in which a specific type of body form hangs around for a long time.如果该新发现的化石—它的发掘已经被来自伊利诺亚州自然历史调查所的山姆.海兹以及来自瑞士夫里堡大学的雷.卢辛格发表在了《Zookeys》杂志上—仅仅是与现代八字足昆虫相似,那么这一发现也没有什么大惊小怪的:因为这只显示了一种叫做进化停止的现象,其间某一特定体态在相当长一段时间内保持不变。What is surprising is just how static Schizodactylus has been.然而让人感到惊奇的是Schizodactylus科昆虫的进化尽然是如此得缓慢。Evolutionary stasis is fairly common at the higher levels of the Linnaean system of biological classification.进化停止在生物分类法的林奈分类体系中的高级别生物里比较常见。Natural selection hits on a good design.当自然选择挑中了一个理想的设计后,That design is then adopted in slightly different forms by species after species.一个接一个的物种便以略微不同的形式采纳这种设计。The shelled bodies of turtles, for example, evolved between 250m and 200m years ago, while the body plans of scorpions have been around for more than 400m years.举个例子,海龟的甲状躯壳约在2亿5千万年前至2亿年前就已经进化完成,相比之下蝎子的身体构制更是在4亿多年内都未有大的变化。That does not mean, however, that a zoologist would mistake a 200m-year-old turtle or a 400m-year-old scorpion for any species now alive.然而,这并不意味着一位动物学家可以将一只2亿年前的海龟或是一只4亿年前的蝎子与现在对应的活体物种混为一谈。What is remarkable about the new find is that it is so similar to modern animals that it can be assigned to an existing genus—the lowest level of Linnaean classification above a species—rather than just to some higher taxonomic group.而这一新发现令人关注的地方在于化石中的物种与现代对应物种是如此得相似以至于它可以被当作是现代物种的某一现存种类—种类是林奈物种分类法中最低的一级,而不是更高级别的种群。That is rare indeed.这的确很罕见。Even the modern coelacanth, on closer examination, had to be put in a different genus from any known fossil.经过进一步检验,就算是现代空棘鱼的种类也有别于任何已知化石中的空棘鱼的种类。Clearly the body plan of Schizodactylus is not merely good, but optimal, at least for the environment the animal lives in.显然,Schizodactylus科昆虫拥有的的身体构制不仅令人满意,而且是最佳的,至少是为了其所生存的环境而生。Alas for Schizodactylus, the sandy deserts it prefers have retreated from north-eastern Brazil and its optimality there has vanished.而让Schizodactylus科昆虫感到悲哀的是其所青睐的沙漠在巴西已经消退而它们的最佳身体构制也随之消失。But its discovery shows better what this part of the world was like 100m years ago—and also illustrates an important point about evolution that is often forgotten in biologistsunderstandable focus on the development of novelty.但是该化石的发现更好地展示了世界的这一地区在1亿年前是个什么摸样---同时也阐明了有关进化的一点重要内容,一个经常在生物学家对于发展的推陈出新所持有的一种可理解的关注中而被遗忘的一点内容。The first rule of natural selection is: If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it.自然选择的第一条规则就是:未损勿修。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/228526

Science and Technolgy.科技。Social status and health.社会地位与健康。Misery index.贫困指数。Low social status is bad for your health. Biologists are starting to understand why.社会地位低对身体不好,生物学家开始理解此中的奥秘。ONCE upon a time the overstressed executive bellowing orders into a telephone, cancelling meetings, staying late at the office and dying of a heart attack was a stereotype of modernity. That was before the Whitehall studies, a series of investigations of British civil servants begun in the 1960s. These studies found that the truth is precisely the opposite. Those at the top of the pecking order actually have the least stressful and most healthy lives. Cardiac arrest-and, indeed, early death from any cause-is the prerogative of underlings.曾今,人们对现代化的一个根深蒂固的印象是,领导们在巨大压力的折磨之下,对着电话狂吼,下达命令,取消会议,待在办公室到很晚,最后死于心脏病。可是,自1960年代开始的英国白厅对英国政治家们展开的一系列调查之后,这种印象开始改变,因为调查发现事实却完全不是那么回事。实际上处于社会高层的人们承受的压力最小,生活最健康。心跳骤停——而且,确实是,不管是出于什么原因的早死——那都是做下属的才有的事。Such results have since been confirmed many times, both in human societies and in other primate species with strong social hierarchies. But whereas the pattern is well-understood, the biological mechanisms underlying it are not. A study just published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, however, sheds some light on the matter.在人类社会,还有等级严格的其他的灵长类物种中,都已多次验这种结果的正确性。但是,虽然这种模式很容易理解,潜在的生物学机制却并不这么认为。杂志《国家科学院》最新出版的专题里,对此现象有相关阐述。In it, a group of researchers led by Jenny Tung and Yoav Gilad at the University of Chicago looked at the effects of status on rhesus macaques. Experience has shown that these monkeys display the simian equivalent of the Whitehall studies findings. The high risk of disease among those at the bottom of the heap in both cases suggests that biochemical responses to low status affect a creatures immune system. Those responses must, in turn, depend on changes in the way the creatures genes are expressed. To investigate this phenomenon means manipulating social hierarchies, but that would be hard (and probably unethical) if it were done to human beings. You can, however, do it to monkeys, and the researchers did.专题里,詹妮东和要吉拉德领导的研究小组在芝加哥大学,研究地位之于恒河猴的影响。实验经过表明,这些猴子所表现出来的是英国白厅研究发现的猴子版本。社会地位低的患病风险高,这既适用于人类界也同样适用于猴子。这暗示了社会地位低的物种的生物化学反应影响其免疫系统。反过来,这种生物化学反应又取决于物种生物基因的变化方式。若要调查这种现象,那就意味着需要控制社会等级,在人类身上进行,很困难(而且很可能不道德)。但是,你可以在猴子身上做实验,而且研究人员也是这么做的。Unhappy minds in unhealthy bodies.不健康的身体,不快乐的心情。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad took 49 middle-ranking female macaques (females were chosen because a lot of previous work on animal hierarchies has been done on female macaques) and split them into groups of four or five. The researchers were able to control where in a group an individual ranked by the order in which it was introduced into its group (newly introduced monkeys almost always adopt a role subordinate to existing group members). The hierarchies thus established, the team conducted tests on cells in the monkeys blood, in an attempt to determine the effect of a macaques rank on her biochemistry and, in particular, on how rank influences the activity of various genes.士东和吉拉德,用49个中等地位等级的女性猴子做实验(用女性猴子的原因是,前期大量动物地位等级的准备工作都是在女性猴子身上做的),并把他们分为四到五组。根据猴子们加入研究群体的时间顺序,研究人员给她们的地位等级编号(新来的都是要听前辈的,这是潜规则)。等级于是得以建立。研究团队采集猴子血液做细胞研究,试图搞清楚恒河猴的地位等级对其生物化学的影响,特别是地位等级是如何对各种基因活动起作用的。The answer is, a lot. Dr Tung and Dr Gilad looked at the expression in each animal of 6,097 genes (30% of the total number in a monkey genome-or, for that matter, in a human one). They were searching for correlations between social rank and gene activity, and in 987 genes they found one. Some genes were more active in high-ranking individuals; others were more active in low-ranking ones. The relationship was robust enough to work the other way round, too. Given a blood sample and no other information, it was possible to predict an individuals status within her group with an accuracy of 80%. 研究结果有很多。每个动物有6097个基因,士东和吉拉德观察每个动物的基因(一个猴子基因组总数的30%——这也适用于人类),寻找社会等级与基因活动之间的相互关系。在987个基因中,他们找到了一个。某些基因在等级高的个体中更活跃,而其他的基因则活跃于等级低的个体中。这一结果很牢靠,倒过来看也成立。只提供血液样本而没有其他相关信息,就可以预测个体在群体里的地位等级,且精确度达到80%。The next question was what all these genes actually do. Sure enough the answer, for a substantial fraction of them, was that they regulate aspects of the immune system. In particular, low-status individuals showed high levels of activity in genes associated with the production of various immune-related cells and chemical signalling factors, as well as those to do with inflammation (a general immune response that involves tissue swelling and increased immune-cell activity in the affected area). Although the researchers did not explicitly examine the health of their simian charges, chronic, generalised inflammation is a risk factor, in people, for a long list of ailments ranging from heart trouble to Alzheimers disease.下一个问题,所有这些基因,真正起的是什么作用。很显然,对大部分基因而言,它们起着调节着免疫系统的作用。这非常明显地体现在,社会地位低的个体,产生各种与免疫相关的细胞和化学信号基因的活动更为明显,还有那些有关于炎症的基因(一种普通的免疫反应,包括细胞组织的膨胀,还有增加免疫细胞在疫区免疫细胞活动)。虽然研究人员没有仔细分析参与实验的猴子们的健康状况,但是慢性的、全身性的炎症对猴子们来说是危险因素,人类的部分,就是从心脏病到老年痴呆症等一大长系列疾病。Finally, the team investigated the mechanisms behind these differences in gene expression. In keeping with previous work, they found that high- and low-rank individuals showed different levels of responsiveness to a class of hormones called glucocorticoids, which regulate immune-system activity and response to stress. They also found changes in the mix of cells within the animals immune system itself. But what is new, and intriguing, is that they discovered, for the first time, evidence that a phenomenon called epigenetic change is at work.最后,研究小组用基因表达调查造成这些不同的机理原因。与之前工作结果一致,他们发现地位高和地位低的个体,对被称为糖皮质激素的一组基因,表现出的反应级别不一样。糖皮质激素控制免疫系统活动和对压力的反应。同时他们发现,在动物免疫系统自身,混合细胞有发生改变。但是最为新奇的是,他们头一次发现了后天改变在起作用的据。Epigenetics—currently one of molecular biologys hottest topics—is a process by which genes are activated or deactivated by the presence or absence of chemical structures called methyl and acetyl groups. Dr Tung and Dr Gilad found that methylation patterns were systematically different in high- and low-ranking animals. Crucially, these changes are generally passed on to the daughter cells produced when a cell divides, and are thus perpetuated throughout an animals life. To the extent that epigenetic marking is involved in creating social status, then, status may be being maintained by the animals cells as they replicate.表现遗传学——目前分子生物学最热的话题之一——是这样一个过程,基因的激活或是失效取决于被称为甲基和乙酰基的化学结构的存在或是消失。士东和吉拉德发现甲基模式在地位高级和地位低级的动物之间是不一样的,且这种不一样是系统性的不一样。至关重要的一点是,这些变化一般在细胞分裂的同时传递给子细胞,因此这些变化将贯穿动物的一生。从此意义上讲,后天标记参与社会地位的形成,社会地位的维持靠动物细胞的复制。Destinys child?命运的产物?Those who believe in progress will, however, be pleased to know that epigenetics is not necessarily destiny. Methyl groups may help maintain the status quo, but if that status quo is interrupted by outside events they can be wiped away and a new lot put in place.但是,相信事物是发展变化的人们会很高兴,因为表现遗传学并不是上天注定,难以改变的。甲基或许可以帮助维持现状,但是如果外来事件打断了它,那么甲基将被移除,新的一批上任。Dr Tung and Dr Gilad discovered this because a few of their monkeys did change status within their groups. When that happened, changes in gene expression appropriate to the new status quickly followed. Those who do break free from their lowly station, then, may begin to reap the health benefits almost immediately.士东和吉拉德能够发现了这一点,是因为,参与实验的几个猴子确实改变了她们在群体中的地位等级。地位等级一旦发生改变,与之相应的基因表达随即改变。那些确实改变了它们之前卑贱地位的猴子们,身体状况几乎都立刻获得改善。As with any animal study, this one cannot simply be mapped straight onto humans. But it does provide pointers that researchers who work on people can use. In particular, the experiment ensured that social rank was the only factor being changed, providing strong evidence that the chain of causality runs from low social status, through a disrupted immune system to worse health, and not the other way around. The best medicine, then, is promotion. Prosper, and live long.不管以什么动物为研究对象,结果都不能直接简单地运用于人类,这个也不例外。但它确实给研究人类的学者们提供了一些建议。该实验的独特之处是,它确保了实验中社会等级是唯一发生改变的因素。它为因果关系链的正确模式提供了一个强有力的据,正确模式是低等的社会等级通过被破坏了的免疫系统损害健康。而不是反过来的顺序。晋升是疗效最好的药物。因为成功,所以活得长久。 /201209/200526

Scientists Use Ancient Shells To Learn About The Past科学家用远古贝壳了解过去If you were traveling from the ed States to Singapore, a guide book could tell you what sort of climate to expect. But if, like paleontologists and geologists, you needed to know what the weather was like in Singapore tens of millions of years ago, you’d have to consult a different source.如果你从美国到新加坡旅行,一本指南能告诉你会有什么样的天气。但是,如果你是古生物学家和地质学家,需要知道几千万年新加坡的天气是怎么样的,你得去别的原始资源找寻。By examining the chemistry of shell fossils, researchers can discover what temperatures were like in ancient climates.通过研究贝壳化石的化学物质,研究者能够知道在古气候时天气是怎样的。Oxygen provides the key to finding out about ancient temperatures. Oxygen comes in two different forms—heavy and light. By determining the ratio of the two different types of oxygen in the fossils, researchers can make an educated guess at the temperature of the environment the animals lived in.氧气是发现原始天气的关键。氧有两种不同的形式——重的和轻的。通过决定在化石中两种氧气的比例,研究者对动物生长环境做出有根据的推测。Both types of oxygen are found in carbon dioxide, which is found both in the atmosphere and in water. The amount of carbon dioxide water contains depends on the temperature of the water. Cooler water contains more carbon dioxide.两种形式的氧气都能在二氧化碳中发现,还可以在空气和水中发现。水中含有二氧化碳的量取决于水的温度。比较冷的水含有更多的二氧化碳。But as the water warms, carbon dioxide gas escapes. Carbon dioxide made of the lighter oxygen escapes at cooler temperatures, leaving more carbon dioxide made of the heavy oxygen in the water. At warmer temperatures, carbon dioxide made of heavy oxygen begins to escape, leaving less heavy oxygen in the water.但是当水热起来了,二氧化碳会消失。由轻氧构成的二氧化碳在较冷天气下会消失,剩下更多的由水中重氧组成的二氧化碳。在温暖的天气下,由重氧构成的二氧化碳开始消失,剩下不重氧在水中。Since animals living in the ocean use the carbon and oxygen that remains in the water to build their shells, the shells of animals that lived in a cool climate contain more heavy oxygen.自从在海边生存的动物使用仍然在水中的氧气和二氧化碳去建它们的贝壳,在凉爽气候下生存壳类动物蕴含更多的重氧。By grinding up the shells and determining how much of each type of oxygen they contain, researchers can learn what temperatures were like in ancient environments.通过磨碎贝壳和测试每种氧它们富含多少,研究人员能够了解到在古环境下天气是什么样的。 /201206/185933Dear Annie:亲爱的安妮:My 21-year-old niece has been dealing with a drinking problem since high school. I also have a drinking problem that only my husband and kids know about. My husband, who was having a serious talk with my niece, decided it was in her best interest to tell her about my problem.我21岁的侄女在高中就染上了酗酒恶习。我也有酗酒的毛病,但只有我的丈夫和孩子知道这一点。我的丈夫和我的侄女进行了一次严肃的谈话,决定告诉她我酗酒的秘密。他认为这样做对她有好处。I am very private and want no one to know about my drinking because of the stigma attached. I dont want my parents or siblings to have to worry about me or look at me differently.我非常自私。我希望没有人知道我的酗酒恶习,因为我认为那是一种耻辱。我不希望我的父母或兄弟们为我担心,也不希望他们以异样的眼光看我。I cant be certain my niece will blab this information to everyone, but somehow, I think she will eventually. Do you think my husband had good reason to tell her? I dont see how it would help, and it sure made me angry. Shouldnt such personal information come directly from me? - Upset Wife我不知道我侄女会不会把我的这个秘密告诉每个人。但我觉得她最终会的。你认为我的丈夫有权利告诉她我的秘密吗?我不知道这对我的侄女会否有所帮助,但这肯定让我很生气。这样的个人秘密难不应只属于我一人吗? ;; 一个忐忑不安的妻子Dear Upset:亲爱的忐忑女士:Your husband should have asked you first if it was okay to give your niece this information, but you cant put the cat back in the bag. It is very possible that learning her aunt has a similar problem was comforting to your niece and will inspire her to work harder. We think having this information will do more good than harm, and we hope you will forgive your husband so you can be a source of encouragement to your niece.你的丈夫在向你侄女透露这个秘密之前,确实应该征询你的意见。但另一方面,你总不能把秘密守一辈子吧?也许当你的侄女知道她的婶婶也有同样的困扰时,她会稍感平衡,并将激励她更加努力地工作。我们认为,将这个秘密告诉你的侄女,总会利大于弊。我们希望你会原谅你的丈夫,还希望你可以给你的侄女予以鼓励。201202/172840Business Transport in Japan Bullet v budget商业 日本的交通 票战vs站票Can low-cost airlines beat bullet trains?低成本航空公司能击败子弹头列车吗?THE worlds busiest train route, and one of the busiest air routes, is between Tokyo and Osaka, Japans two biggest metropolitan areas.世界上最繁忙的铁路线和最繁忙的航线之一连接着日本最大的两个大都市区——东京和大阪。 (On that corridor, the shinkansen, as Japans bullet trains are known, were born in 1964.就是)这样一条通道在1964年见了如日本子弹头列车一样出名的新干线系统的诞生。They whizz 120,000 passengers a day smoothly from one place to another, on trains that leave every ten minutes.每10分钟一班,该系统一天之内可以快速且流畅得将120,000名乘客送抵各自的目的地。Although humans, not robots, are at the controls, the average delay is a miraculous 36 seconds.虽然该系统由人而非机器控制,却可以将平均延迟时间控制在令人不可思议的36秒内。To take all those passengers by air would require 667 aircraft, each with 180 seats, or five times Japans fleet of Boeing 737s, estimates Macquarie, an investment bank.据一家叫做麦格理的投资估算,如果上述乘客改乘飞机,则需动用667架180座的客机,5倍于整个日本的波音737保有量。Undeterred, between March and August three low-cost airlines will have started operations in Japan.即便如此,这仍未吓倒将于3月到8月份在日投入运营的三家低成本航空公司。It would be a miracle if they could help hammer down train and plane fares in Japan, which are excruciating.若其能冲击到日本高的离谱的火车和飞机票价的话,那(无疑)将会是个奇迹。For example, a one-way shinkansen ticket from Tokyo to Osaka costs ¥14,000 (0), and there are no discounts for return fares or for booking early.例如,一张东京到大阪的新干线单程票价为14,000日元(0),并且往返票和提起订票均不打折。But compared with Europe and other parts of Asia, where budget airlines have quickly gained market share, in Japan the low-cost model is expected to take time to take off.但与被低成本航空公司迅速抢占市场份额的欧洲和其他亚洲国家相比,日本廉价运输模式的施行还需时日。There are three main reasons for that, analysts say.First, all three newcomers have established parents. 分析师们认为主要原因有三: 一,即将投入运营的三家航空公司均有各自的母公司。Peach, which started flying in March, and Air Asia Japan, which starts in August, are part-owned by ANA, one of Japans two main carriers.分别于3月份和8月份营业的Peach和Air Asia Japan 的股东中均有ANA(日本最大的两家运输公司之一)的影子。Jetstar Japan, which launches operations in July, is one-third owned by Japan Airlines (JAL).Japan Airlines (JAL)持有Jetstar Japan(将于7月份投入运营)三分之一的股份。Such ties have usually hobbled low-cost airlines elsewhere: incumbents hate to cannibalise their own business. (Australia, where Qantas owns Jetstar, is an exception.) Analysts say the upstarts will thrive only if ANA and JAL step out of their way, letting them shake up the domestic tourist market.像这种关系通常会阻碍其他地方低成本航空公司的的发展:虎毒不食子。 (作为澳洲Jetstar母公司的Qantas除外) 分析师们还认为,除非ANA 和 JAL让出场子,即将登台的新贵们才有可能在国内旅游市场的舞台上大显身手。The big boys could then concentrate on long-haul and business travel.也好让诸位前辈(更好地)专注于长途和商务旅行上面。Second, the budget airlines may struggle to make similar profits to their lucrative low-cost counterparts in other countries because, despite deregulation, airport costs and fuel taxes in Japan remain among the highest in the world.其次,与其他国家的同行相比,尽管日本的低成本航空公司不受政府直接管制,但高居世界前列的机场建设费和燃油税却使他们难以企及其他国家同行们的高盈利能力。That could limit expansion, though Jetstar Japan is boldly aiming for 100 aircraft by the end of the decade, up from three at its launch.即使从3架飞机起家的Jetstar Japan将目标大胆得订为10年内实现100架飞机保有量,但依然改变不了上述困境限制航空公司扩张的事实。Third, it will be hard to convince finicky Japanese passengers that low fares make up for the lack of comfort and convenience they are used to.第三,推行低廉票价难免降低早已被日本民众所习惯的乘坐舒适和便利程度,然而说这些挑剔的乘客接受这一点却并不容易。Jetstar and Air Asia are using Narita airport as their hub, which is expensive and time-consuming to get to from Tokyo.兼做Jetstar和Air Asia航空港的成田机场不仅租金昂贵,而且与东京之间的交通不便。The main carriers use Haneda, which is closer to the capital and cheaper. The shinkansen zoom out of the city centre, with no reservations needed.主要运输公司以Haneda作为航空港,该港不仅离首都更近而且租金更便宜, 毕竟时时都有新干线列车从Haneda市中心风驰而出。Miyuki Suzuki, the boss of Jetstar Japan, says her companys strategy is to use low fares to persuade people to make trips they would otherwise not have made at all.Jetstar Japan的老总Miyuki Suzuki说依她执掌的公司战略来看,如果票价降低,人们就可能做一些他们以前压根就不会做的旅行。More tourists, she hopes, will start visiting Japans most far-flung islands. She says she will not go head-to-head with the shinkansen (though her airline will fly between Tokyo and Osaka).她希望有更多的游客光顾偏远的日本岛屿, 并且表示将不会与新干线正面交锋(虽然该公司也运营东京到大阪的航线)。Peach and Air Asia Japan have their sights not only on domestic flights but also on the route between Tokyo and Seoul, the nearest foreign capital.Peach 和Air Asia Japan的业务不仅涉及日本国内航空,还包括一条东京到首尔(离东京最近的外国首都)的航线。They may be eyeing the East Asian market, where low-cost penetration lags behind the rest of Asia.并且因为东亚低成本航空业务不及亚洲其他地区,因此他们可能会进军该市场。Alas, none of Japans new budget carriers is expected to be as cut-throat as low-cost carriers elsewhere.不幸的是,日本没有一家新的特价航空公司像其他地区的同行一样极具竞争力。Ms Suzuki says Jetstar Japan will allow its passengers to book through travel agents, which are still ubiquitous, as well as online.Suzuki女士说Jetstar Japan的乘客既可以从无处不在的售票中介那里购票,也可以选择网购。;This is Japan,; she says, with a sympathetic air unusual for a budget-airline boss, ;its not all going to be self-service.;她以一种同行老总很少表露的同情的语气说道:;这是在日本,不是所有的机票都会实自助售卖。; /201212/212975

Science and technology.科技。Age and wisdom.年龄与智慧。Older and wiser?姜是老的辣?Americans get wiser with age. Japanese are wise from the start.美国人年龄越大越聪明。日本人从小就聪明。ONE stereotype of wisdom is a wizened Zen-master smiling benevolently at the antics of his pupils, while referring to them as little grasshoppers or some such affectation, safe in the knowledge that one day they, too, will have been set on the path that leads to wizened masterhood. But is it true that age brings wisdom? A study two years ago in North America, by Igor Grossmann of the University of Waterloo, in Canada, suggested that it is. In as much as it is possible to quantify wisdom, Dr Grossmann found that elderly Americans had more of it than youngsters. He has, however, now extended his investigation to Asia-the land of the wizened Zen-master-and, in particular, to Japan. There, he found, in contrast to the West, that the grasshoppers are their masters equals almost from the beginning.提到智慧的时候,人们脑海里总会出现这样一个老套的画面:一个削瘦的禅宗大师面容慈祥的对他的弟子微笑着,一边叫他们;小不点;,心中十分确定他们迟早会走上这条通往智慧的禅宗之道。但是智慧真的与年龄有关吗?两年前,加拿大滑铁卢大学Igor Grossmann士的研究显示情况的确如此。由于智慧可以标准量化,他发现年长的美国人的确比年轻人要聪明。但是,如今他将调查扩展至整个亚洲——这个拥有禅宗大师的神奇土地——特别是日本。在那里他发现,与西方相比,几乎从一开始,这些弟子与大师在智力方面难分伯仲 。Dr Grossmanns study, just published in Psychological Science, recruited 186 Japanese from various walks of life and compared them with 225 Americans. Participants were asked to a series of pretend newspaper articles. Half described conflict between groups, such as a debate between residents of an impoverished Pacific island over whether to allow foreign oil companies to operate there following the discovery of petroleum. (Those in favour viewed it as an opportunity to get rich; those against feared the disruption of ancient ways and potential ecological damage.) The other half took the form of advice columns that dealt with conflicts between individuals: siblings, friends and spouses. After ing each article, participants were asked ;What do you think will happen after that?; and ;Why do you think it will happen this way?; Their responses were recorded and transcribed.Grossmann士研究结果刚发表在《心理科学》。他招募了186个来自各行各业的日本人并且与225个美国人做对比研究。他要求参与者阅读一些假装在报纸上发表的文章。其中一半描述了一些团体斗争,比如太平洋小岛上当地居民关于是否允许外国石油公司开发刚发现的石油资源。(赞成开采的人认为这是一个发展当经济的机会而反对开采的人则害怕破坏了古老的生活方式并且会对生态环境带来潜在威胁)。另一半文章以专栏的方式提供兄弟、朋友、配偶之间的个人斗争解决建议。在阅读完文章之后,研究人员会问参与者两个问题,分别是;此事发生后,你认为事态将会如何发展??;和;为什么你认为事态会这样发展?;然后研究人员会记录他们的。Dr Grossmann and his colleagues removed age-related information from the transcripts, and also any clues to participants nationalities, and then passed the edited versions to a group of assessors. These assessors were trained to rate transcribed responses consistently, and had been tested to show that their ratings were statistically comparable with one another.Grossmann士和同事们会在记录中剔除与他们年龄和国籍相关的信息,然后将处理过的记录版本交给经过培训的一组评委,他们都对的有一致的评分标准。这些评估成员经过训练,能够始终以相同标准对纸上进行评分;并且已通过测试表明其评出的分数在统计方面相互具有可比性。The assessors scored participants responses on a scale of one to three. This attempted to capture the degree to which they discussed what psychologists consider five crucial aspects of wise reasoning: willingness to seek opportunities to resolve conflict; willingness to search for compromise; recognition of the limits of personal knowledge; awareness that more than one perspective on a problem can exist; and appreciation of the fact that things may get worse before they get better.评委将参与者的按1至3分进行评分。他们想通过这种方法把握心理学家认为的五个有关于智慧方面的重要程度,分别是:寻求解决争端机会的意愿;寻求折中方法的意愿;对个人知识有限的认识度;对问题存在多个方面的意识程度;和对事情在往好的方向发展前的趋坏倾向的估计程度。A score of one on any aspect indicated a participant gave no consideration to it. A score of two indicated some consideration. A score of three indicated a great deal of consideration. Each participants scores were then added up and mathematically transformed to create an overall value within a range of zero to 100 for both interpersonal and intergroup wisdom.1分代表参与者根本就没有考虑过,2分代表参与者有了些思考但并不深入,3分代表参与者对这些问题有深入的思考。将参与者的每个问题的得分相加,再把总分从人际关系及团体关系两方面分别转换为百分制。The upshot was that, as Dr Grossmann had found before, Americans do get wiser with age. Their intergroup wisdom score averaged 45 at the age of 25 and 55 at 75. Their interpersonal score similarly climbed from 46 to 50. Japanese scores, by contrast, hardly varied with age. Both 25-year-olds and 75-year-olds had an average intergroup wisdom of 51. For interpersonal wisdom, it was 53 and 52.与Grossmann士以前的结果一样,美国人随着年龄的增长智慧增加。25岁的美国人社会群体的判断力平均数是45而75岁的美国人平均数是55.他们人际关系的判断力平均数同样随年龄由46攀升至50。但是与美国人的结果相反,日本人的分数与年龄并无太大关系。25岁和75岁的人的社会群体的判断力平均数都是51;对于人际关系判断力反而是25岁的是53,75岁的人是52.Taken at face value, these results suggest Japanese learn wisdom faster than Americans. One up, then, to the wizened Zen-masters. But they also suggest a paradox. Generally, America is seen as an individualistic society, whereas Japan is quite collectivist. Yet Japanese have higher scores than Americans for the sort of interpersonal wisdom you might think would be useful in an individualistic society. Americans, by contrast-at least in the maturity of old age—have more intergroup wisdom than the purportedly collectivist Japanese. Perhaps, then, you need individual skills when society is collective, and social ones when it is individualistic. All of which goes to show that the real root of wisdom is this: do not assume, little grasshopper, that your prejudices are correct.这些结果显示日本人比美国人更早变聪明一些。年轻人以一分的优势险胜那些削瘦的禅宗大师们。但是却有一个悖论:通常说来美国被视为是一个充满了个人主义的社会,然而日本则更推崇集体主义。但是日本人在人际关系能力这一项上的得分却比美国人要高,而人际关系判断力是大多数人认为在个人主义社会中十分受用的能力。相反,美国人——至少在年龄比较高的那一组中——在群体判断力的得分上比据称崇尚集体主义的日本人要高。也许,当社会推崇集体主义的时候你也需要人际关系技巧,在推崇个人主义的社会里你同样需要社交技巧。所有的这一切都表明,智慧的真正根源是:别事先假定你的成见是正确的,也别轻看了那些;小不点;。 /201209/198567

In his first orchestral work, Tchaikovsky had demonstrated skill and some originality in his handling of the orchestra.在他的第一首管弦乐作品中,柴可夫斯基展示出在驾驭乐团上的技能和一些创意。But more significantly he had shown an ability to capture the motivating forces of the drama.但更重要的是他已经展现出可以捕捉戏剧最打动人心的地方的能力。But none of this was seen at the time.但这一切都没有被发现。The piece incurred the intense displeasure of his teacher, Anton Rubinstein, for going far beyond what was expected from a second-year student and Rubinstein insisted that a performance was quite impossible.这部分引起了他的老师安东·鲁宾斯坦的强烈不满,因为这远远超出一个二年级学生的预期而且鲁宾斯坦坚持这样的演出是不可能的。The work was never published or even played during Tchaivoskys lifetime.这部作品从未出版或甚至在柴科夫斯基的一生中也从未演奏。With its virtues unrecognized and its daring condemned, the Storm, was an inauspicious start for a young man who had come late to music and whose talent had aly been described as quite unexceptional.有着未被认知的优点和未被谴责的大胆,风暴这部作品对于一个很晚才涉足音乐界并且已经被描述为非常普通的年轻人是一个不祥的开始。But worse was to follow.但更糟的事又接踵而至。For his graduation exercise, Tchaikovsky was given the task concerting Schillers Ode to Joy.对于他的毕业作业,柴可夫斯基被要求表演席勒的《欢乐颂》。Time was limited, and the subject did not touch his imagination.时间有限,而且主题和他的想象力无关。注:听力文本来源于普特 201209/201609

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