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时间:2018年02月25日 21:26:03

Scotland is a unique and austere place,laden with history,where you can find aristocratic palaces and castles,as well as the traditional parades in national costumes.It has some of the most beautiful cities in Europe,a living testimony of a proud and splendid past.苏格兰是一个独特的地方,自然条件虽不得天独厚,历史的厚重感却随处可见。豪门望族的府第与城堡历历在目,仪仗队的士兵也还穿着传统装。这里有全欧洲最美的城市,诉说着苏格兰昔日的荣光。In order to see and discover the true soul of Scotland today,what forged the character of this splendid region,we have to go towards the northern regions,to the Grampian Mountains.Beautiful and unspoiled,it was difficult to farm.The Scots subdued the environment with simple spades and strong arms.想看看真正的苏格兰,追寻这里民族精神的源泉,就得去北部的格兰扁山区。格兰扁山区景色怡人,还没有受到现代文明的污染。格兰扁一度不适合耕作,倔强的苏格兰人,凭着双手征了这片土地。The history of this ancient struggle,and its people’s ancient love affair with the hard land,is enclosed within the walls of the Angus Folk Museum.You are able to get a feel of the typical rural atmosphere of times past from the everyday artifacts displayed here.苏格兰先民的艰苦劳作与他们自古对这片贫瘠土地的眷恋,在这个物馆里一览无余。这里展出的都是平常的物品,营造出往日乡间的氛围,使人油然而生怀旧之情。From coastal Aberdeen in towards the interior of the Grampian Mountains there runs the Castle Trail,a road that touches on many fortresses,which are witnesses of continual revolts against the dominion of neighboring England in Scottish history.从沿海的阿伯丁,有一条古堡之路,一直蜿蜒到格兰扁山区深处。沿途很多昔日的要塞,都是苏格兰在历史上不断反抗英格兰统治的见。Perhaps the most uplifting moment for Scottish autonomy is the one experienced inside this ancient abbey of Arbroath,where,in 1320;the Declaration of Independence was celebrated,at the instigation of King Robert the Bruce.He carried out the plan for autonomy drawn up by the great popular hero William Wallace,to whom cinema has dedicated the wonderful film;Brave heart;,the winner of five Oscars.苏格兰争取自治的过程中最大快人心的时刻莫过于1320年在这个修道院,布鲁斯国王鼓动百姓大肆庆贺独立宣言签订。布鲁斯采纳传奇英雄威廉·华勒斯所献的计策,完成了自治大业,这个故事后来被改编成电影《勇敢的心》,该片曾摘取了五项奥斯卡奖。This is Glamis Castle.It is often remembered for being the residence of King Macbeth and Queen Elizabeth in her childhood.Among the most assiduous guests here are the inevitable ghosts,which are nourished,if not actually created,by ancient popular beliefs.These have been handed down over the centuries by a people inclined to live with mystery,with the forces of the supernatural.这座城堡之所以名闻遐迩,却是因为曾经的两位主人——苏格兰国王麦克白与幼年时的伊丽莎白女王。如今这里最相看无厌的客人当数传说中挥之不去的幽灵,这些传说即使不是源于世代相传的民间故事,也大有借鉴化用的嫌疑。苏格兰人似乎生来就笃信超自然的力量,因此才有了这些传说。Another attraction here is a legendary monster:the Loch Ness Monster.Is it real or imaginary,this monster,which has been nicknamed Nessie,has collected a good 3000 sightings over the last 50 years?To fuel the debate about the monster,and perhaps also curiosity about the lake,a price of 500,000 pounds sterling has been put on Nessie’s head.这里游人如织的另一个原因则是尼斯湖的怪兽。真假姑且不论,这个昵称Nessie的怪兽在过去的半个世纪中已经吸引了三千余名游客。如今它头上有五十万英镑的悬赏,使得学术界的争论日益激烈,或许也会令游人的好奇日盛吧。The true flag of Scotland,tartan,is recognizable from the brightly colored plaid patterns which are used to distinguish the various clans.Over the last few decades this fabric has made a comeback and is part of the daily life of this country.苏格兰格子呢是苏格兰真正的旗帜。它显著的花格子图案曾经是区分不同宗族的标志。在过去几十年里,格子呢在苏格兰再度流行,如今则已在日常生活中不可或缺。The typical Scottish garment,the kilt,is de rigeur when the Scots play the Great Highland bagpipes,especially when they march in parades.苏格兰传统的褶裙按照礼节是应该在演奏高地风笛时穿的,尤其是列队前进的时候。Bagpipes and dancing open the competitions of local sporting events,which are called Highland Gatherings.The games,which have strange rules,involve a spirit that has more to do with brute force than with athletics.高地风笛与利尔舞揭开了高地运动盛会的序幕。运动会的比赛项目规则奇特,与其说是田径比赛,不如说是大力士的较量。 /201409/332819

TOKYO — When you speak to foreign English educators in Japan, one thing becomes crystal clear: English education in Japanisn#39;t working. It#39;s just awful. While English classes are mandatory in Japanese schools, the percentage of students who emerge with actual English abilities are surprisingly low. Students in China, Korea and Japan are in an arms race tosee who can produce students with the best English, and Japan seems to be trailing far behind in third place.东京——当你同日本的外国英语教育者对话时,有一件事情变得非常明晰:英语教育在日本行不通。实在可以用糟糕来形容。虽然日本学校中实行强制性的英语课堂,可是拥有英语能力的学生少得可怜。中日韩三国的学生互相竞争看谁拥有最好的英语能力,而结果似乎是日本落在了第三名With the Olympic Games coming up in 2020,the Japanese government has proposed changes to increase the level of English ability in their students. Changes like starting introductory English classesin 3rd grade elementary school and making the subject compulsory from the 5th grade. Are these changes really going to help? We#39;ve gathered opinions fromboth foreign teachers and Japanese citizens about issues with the system and what might improve it.随着2020年奥运会即将到来,日本政府提议做出改变从而提升学生们的英语水平。比如在小学三年级就让学生学习一些入门的英语知识,以及在5年级时让英语学习成为必修课。这些举措真的有效吗?就这方面的问题,我们搜集了外国教师和日本民众的看法,看看如何提高日本的英语教育。Every foreigner who spends any amount oftime in Japan will understand the fundamental need to change the way students study English. But a recent th on the Japan subreddit, which seems to havebeen started by an English educator, tried to assemble as many opinions aspossible about the matter in one place. Many of the complaints fell into three main categories:在日本呆过一段时间的外国人都会意识到有必要对日本学生学习英语的方法进行根本性的改变。最近网上有一名英语教育者发表了一个帖子,就这个问题激起了人们的讨论,很多抱怨可归到以下三种:1. Teaching to the tests应试教育For those unfamiliar with the Japanese school system, most high schools and universities have a test that prospective students must take and pass. Especially in the case of high schools, there is amandated set of content that appears. And so, Japanese Teachers of English(JTEs) focus on the grammar and vocabulary that will be on the test. A broader understanding and the practical uses of English are largely ignored because they have to cover the specific material and don#39;t have time for anything else.在日本,大多数的中学和大学都有入学考试,想要就读的学生必须参加考试并通过才行。特别是中学,有一系列强制性的测试需要学生参与。所以为了应付这样的考试,日本的英语教师就把焦点放在了语法和词汇上了。对英语更广范围的了解和实际应用往往被忽视了。So, if Japanese students have to learn specific material for the tests, why should they learn anything else? There isno point in actually learning the language if all that is required is being able to pick the correct answer on a multiple choice test. Many Japanese netizens agree, ;Why change anything unless the style of testing is changed?;所以,为了通过考试学生们不得不学习某些指定的英语素材,那他们还有必要学习英语其他方面的知识吗?如果学生们需要做的就仅仅是在多项选择题中挑选出正确,那么还有必要学习这门语言吗?许多日本网民也觉得,当务之急就是要改变这样的考试制度。2. The quality of the textbooks is quitelow教科书的质量相当的低下Many foreign language teachers criticized the textbooks used in the classrooms, complaining about all manner of things including content and grammatical errors. Even more specifically, many peoplefound the choice of grammar included to be suspect, saying it wasn#39;t grammarused very often in native English. The JTEs have to teach these archaic forms through topics such as recycling plastic, people and animals dying in WWII andboring Japanese history, causing students to be apathetic. (Topics like theseare required in government approved textbooks.)很多外语教师都批评课堂中使用的教科书,包括其中存在的内容和语法方面的错误。而且人们认为教科书中的语法内容是可疑的,因为这些语法都不常用在地道的英语中。日本英语教师在教授这些陈旧的语法时,所使用的话题包括再生塑料,二战中人类和动物的死亡,以及无聊的日本历史,导致学生们对英语学习缺乏兴趣。(在政府批准的教科书中,这些话题是必备的。)3. A focus on translating into Japanese and JTEs speaking in only Japanese. Where is the English?Perhaps one of the biggest complaints wasthe amount, or lack of English used in the classrooms.集中于将英文翻译成日文,而且日本英语教师只说日语。那英语哪去了?或许人们最抱怨的事情之一就是课堂中英语的使用程度不高或者根本没使用英语。The JTEs often teach all the grammar in Japanese, and check that the students can follow the textbook by translating the English into Japanese. Assistant Language Teachers (ALTs) are regulated to human tape recorders, and then set free to roam the class and ;help; thestudents. Of all the hours of English education, how many of those hours were spent actually listening to and speaking English? (Repeating English is not the same as speaking it.)日本英语教师通常用日文来讲授英语语法,而且通过要求学生将英文翻译成日本的形式来考查学生的英语学习进度。一些助理语言教师相当于人类录音机,然后踱步于课堂间并“帮助”学生。在英语学习的整个期间,有多少时间是真正花在听和说英语上了?(重复英语和说英语可是两码事啊。)Japanese people agree that the current teaching style often limits students to what little English they hear from the teachers and what words are put in front of them. Successful teaching should include as many senses as possible to surround students in English. One Japanese netizen suggests that TV dramas should be utilized to hear real English, while seeing the facial expressions and mouth movements all togetherin one package. How can a student not be excited to learn phrases like ;OK, I#39;m on my way;, ;What#39;s the problem?; or ;Freeze! You#39;reunder arrest!;日本民众认为目前的教学方式使得学生们接触到的英语知识极少。成功的教学应该从多个方面让学生们融入在英语学习环境中。其中一名日本网民建议说可以利用电视剧来让学生们听到真正的英语,而且还能同时看到剧中人物的脸部表情和嘴部动作。比如,“OK, I#39;m on my way”(好的,我已经在路上了), “What#39;s the problem?”(啥情况)或者 “Freeze!You#39;re under arrest!”(别动!你被逮捕了),看到这样酷酷的英语表达时,学生们怎么会没有学习英语的热情?Which brings us to the main problem with the current system: Japanese students don#39;t understand the benefits of learningEnglish. This is certainly not limited to Japanese learners, but how many time do you hear a student say, ;I#39;m Japanese, so I will never use English in thefuture.; Studying English as a language is one of the least interesting thingsabout it. But, what about all the different things that you can experience whenyou understand English? TV shows, movies, books, games, and it#39;s not even limited to entertainment, scientific journals, international business and the majority of the Internet is conducted in English.聊到这里,就涉及到了目前英语教育系统中存在的一个主要问题:日本学生不懂得学习英语的好处。当然,这并非日本英语学习者独有的问题,但是你有多少次听到一名日本学生说“我是日本人,所以我以后是不会使用英语的,”把英语当成一门语言来学习是英语学习中最无趣的一面之一。但是,在学会英语后,你知道你能体验到多少不同的东西吗?英语电视节目,电影,书籍,游戏,还还包括英语科学杂志,国际商业,而且大多数的网络内容都是以英语呈现出来的。When the exposure of English is limited to the classroom and the unfortunate textbooks, a majority of the students will disengage from it and end up not learning anything. When students are forced to study and learn about certain grammar points and vocabulary, with no know ledge about how you can apply it to all the amazing things in English, of course, thestudents are going to do poorly. Expose them to the idea that, yes, this is a subject you have to study, but look at what you can do with it outside the classroom.You can excite students with that and promote self-study, which is a much better approach than learning ;This is a pen; for the sake of a test.所以如果只在课堂和书本上学习英语的话,最终大多数学生将不会对英语学习产生兴趣,从而什么都学不到。如果仅是被强迫去学习语法和词汇而不懂得如何将这些知识应用在日常的英语使用中的话,那么学生们的表现肯定不好。所以应该给学生们的灌输的一种思想是:是的,这是你必须学习的一门课程,但是学成后,你可以在课外很好的利用这些知识,拓展自己的视野。你可以利用这种方式来激励学生,从而提升他们的英语自学能力。 /201410/336687

Loulou de la Falaise was a French icon and an enduring muse to Yves Saint Laurent. With her unstudied style and indefatigable spirit, she also represented everything that is brilliant about fashion.卢卢·德·拉·法莱斯(Loulou de la Falaise)是一位法国偶像,也是伊夫·圣·罗兰(Yves Saint Laurent)长久的灵感缪斯。她自然的风格、不知疲倦的精神代表着时装界的各种精。Much has been written about the heady, hedonistic Paris fashion scene of the 1970s and #39;80s, and much of it is true. But of all the characters who animated those nonconformist, wildly indulgent, hyperinventive years, Loulou de la Falaise, who died in 2011 at the age of 64, was the star. Celebrated for inspiring and accessorizing Yves Saint Laurent#39;s couture and y-to-wear collections for almost three decades, she is the subject of ;Loulou de la Falaise,; a new book by Ariel de Ravenel and Natasha Fraser-Cavassoni.关于20世纪七八十年代冲动兴奋、快乐至上的巴黎时装界,人们已经写了很多,其中很多都是真实的。是许多人共同造就了那个不墨守成规、疯狂放纵、极具创意的年代,而卢卢·德·拉·法莱斯则是其中最耀眼的明星。她于2011年去世,享年64岁,人们认为,在将近30年的时间里,她给伊夫·圣·罗兰的高级定制和成衣系列带来灵感,并为其设计配饰。阿里尔·德·拉夫纳尔(Ariel de Ravenel)和娜塔莎·弗雷泽-卡瓦索尼(Natasha Fraser-Cavassoni)的新书《卢卢·德·拉·法莱斯》讲述正是她的故事。From 1975 to 1990, I lived and worked in Paris as a reporter for Women#39;s Wear Daily, where I had a ringside seat to Loulou#39;s transformation from the haute-bohemian daughter of a French marquis and the eccentric British model Maxime de la Falaise into Saint Laurent#39;s trusted muse and a designer in her own right. For those of us who watched her at work and play, she was not simply Yves#39;s most colorful collaborator, but one of the most vivid female fashion personalities since Coco Chanel.从1975年至1990年,我在巴黎生活、工作,任《每日女装》(Women#39;s Wear Daily)的记者,近距离地看着卢卢从一位法国侯爵和古怪的英国模特马克西姆·德·拉·法莱斯(Maxime de la Falaise)放荡不羁的女儿蜕变为圣·罗兰最信任的缪斯,以及一位独立的设计师。对我们这些目睹她工作和游戏的人来说,她不仅是伊夫最为多姿多的合作者,而且是可可·香奈儿(Coco Chanel)之后时装界最活跃的女性人物之一。Upbeat, savvy, beautiful and boyishly slim, she looked like a Saint Laurent fashion sketch. How she put herself together was even more remarkable: When she arrived at about 9 a.m. every day to the YSL couture studios on Paris#39;s Right Bank, it was an event. The pants, jackets, skirts, blouses, dresses, stockings, shoes, shawls, bags and jewelry that she assembled and donned each morning in her 14th Arrondissement apartment were unlike anything anyone else in Paris wore, or had ever seen. Heiresses, countesses, models, movie stars and scores of fashion editors wanted to look like Loulou. Whether she was channeling an 18th-century Indian princess, a pre-Soviet Russian peasant or a 20th-century East Village flower child, her getups went beyond costume. They looked fresh, contemporary. She didn#39;t dress up to wow the paparazzi (although she was photographed countless times), but rather to delight herself, surprise her friends and, most crucially, impress Yves.乐观,聪慧,美丽,男孩子似的苗条——她看起来像圣·罗兰的时装草图。她的着装方式更是引人注目:大约每天上午9点她到达巴黎右岸伊夫·圣·罗兰的高级定制工作室,那绝对是个重要时刻。每天早上她在第14区自己的公寓里搭配起来的裤子、上衣、半身裙、衬衫、连衣裙、长筒袜、鞋子、披肩、手包和珠宝跟巴黎任何其他人穿的或见过的都不一样。女继承人、女伯爵、模特、电影明星和很多时装编辑都想模仿她。不管她是模仿18世纪的印度王子、前苏联时代的俄罗斯农民还是20世纪东村鼓吹爱与和平的嬉皮士,她的打扮都超越了装。它们看起来新鲜、时尚。她打扮不是为了赢得仔队的喝(虽然她被偷拍了无数次),而是为了让自己高兴,让朋友惊讶,最重要的是,给伊夫留下深刻印象。Loulou, Yves and my editor at WWD, John Fairchild, were great buddies. A mutual admiration society of three fashion titans, they also challenged and teased each other mercilessly. I can#39;t remember a single season over two decades that John and I didn#39;t meet at the YSL headquarters to take photos of a new y-to-wear collection in progress, inspect a sketch of a couture gown or watch a model being fitted for a tuxedo jacket and pants. At work, Loulou and Yves weren#39;t very chatty; they communicated in a sort of code. The way she flicked her hair back, extinguished a Camel or uncrossed her colt-like legs sent a signal to Yves, who watched her constantly. He would then pick up a pencil, pause, adjust his glasses, and Loulou would get whatever message he was sending back to her. When she laughed — heartily and from the throat — everyone in the room cracked up too. It was hard not to want to do what Loulou did. At times, the normally self-possessed, sometimes imperious John was so smitten that he couldn#39;t speak.卢卢、伊夫和我在《每日女装》的编辑约翰·费尔柴尔德(John Fairchild)是好朋友。这三位时装界巨星互相仰慕,但也会无情地互相质疑、取笑。二十年来,每一季约翰和我都会在伊夫·圣·罗兰的总部碰头,给制作中的新成衣系列拍照,审视高级定制礼的草图,或者观看模特试穿无尾礼和裤子。工作时卢卢和伊夫不怎么说话,他们像是在用一种密码进行交流。她把头发向后撩起,掐灭骆驼牌香烟或者把交叉起来的小马似的双腿放下来——这些都是在给时常看她的伊夫发信号。然后他会拿起铅笔,停一下,扶一下眼镜——卢卢能领会他返回的任何信号。她大笑的时候——是真诚的,从嗓子里发出的笑声——房间里的每个人都会跟着笑。你很难不去模仿卢卢做过的事。有时,通常很冷静、有时有点专横的约翰会因为不能说话而感到受打击。I wonder if Loulou#39;s charm was rooted in her odd sense of self. At once disciplined, rambunctious, confident and vulnerable, I suspect that she wasn#39;t totally convinced of her power or beauty. She was impish and fun, never condescending or snappy. She looked artistic, and sounded worldly and intelligent in either English or French. She loved all-night parties, didn#39;t exercise and smoked like a San Bernardino wildfire, but then so did everyone else in Paris those days. Ditto for the drinks and drugs, which were also pretty ubiquitous in those stylish Parisian circles.And although she excelled at socializing with Rothschilds and the Rolling Stones, she seemed happier when she was with Yves, her reserved husband Thadée Klossowski de Rola — a writer and son of the painter Balthus — and their daughter, Anna. Their wedding party, in June of 1977, was staged on an island in the Bois de Boulogne in Paris. Several hundred guests arrived in a fleet of flower-garlanded boats. Loulou wore a deep delphinium blue outfitwith a headdress sprouting stars and a crescent moon.我不知道卢卢的魅力是否源于她对自己的奇怪感觉。她既自律又难以驾驭,既自信又脆弱,我怀疑她对自己的力量或美貌不完全自信。她顽皮风趣,从不居高临下或者发脾气。她看起来很风雅,不管说英语还是法语,听起来都世故而聪明。她喜欢整晚参加派对,从不运动,抽烟抽得很凶,但那时候巴黎所有人都这样。在当时的巴黎时尚圈,酒和毒品也很常见。虽然她擅长与罗思柴尔德家族和滚石乐队打交道,但她似乎在和伊夫、她内敛的丈夫撒德·克洛索斯基·德·罗拉(Thadée Klossowski de Rola)——作家,他的父亲是画家巴尔蒂斯(Balthus)——和他们的女儿安娜(Anna)在一起时更快乐。1977年6月,他们在巴黎布洛涅森林公园的一个小岛上举行了婚礼。几百名客人坐着一群装饰着花环的小船前来。卢卢穿着深翠雀蓝套装,头饰上有星星和新月。As Loulou and Thadée got older, they spent more and more time in Italy at his family#39;s sparsely furnished castle. Toward the end of her life, she became an avid gardener, tending the property at their French country house in Boury-en-Vexin. During her last few years, she designed a collection of jewelry for Oscar de la Renta and a line of clothing and accessories for HSN. Thadée stayed home and wrote — he was always the grounded one, Loulou the live wire. Even though she#39;s gone, she#39;s as electrifying now as ever.卢卢和撒德年老以后,更多的时间在撒德家族装修简单的意大利城堡里度过。晚年,她热衷于园艺,喜欢打理他们位于法国韦克桑布里的乡间别墅的花园。最后几年,她为奥斯卡·德拉伦塔(Oscar de la Renta)设计了一系列珠宝,还为购物网站HSN设计了一系列装和配饰。撒德待在家里写作——他总是脚踏实地,她总是活泼好动。虽然去世了,但她仍然一如既往地令人振奋。 /201409/326814

Taste is mostly genetic. But appreciating a fine bottle of wine can be learned. One expert, Gary K. Beauchamp, director of the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia, which studies smell and taste and how they affect human health, offers his view of what goes on when we sip.味觉是否灵敏通常由先天决定。但是人们可以通过后天学习来品鉴出一瓶酒的好坏。加里?比彻姆(Gary K. Beauchamp)是费城莫内尔化学感官研究中心(Monell Chemical Senses Center)主任,专注于研究嗅觉、味觉以及它们对人类健康的影响,这位专家给出了自己对于品酒的见解。That Tingly Feeling轻微的刺痛When we talk about flavor, says Dr. Beauchamp, three factors come into play. The first two are the most familiar: The tongue and palate sense the primary taste categories of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami. And smell receptors at the top of the nose capture molecules floating in the air. In fruit season, for instance, #39;the odors and the tastes interact with different receptors and all converge in the brain, which tells you that this is a peach,#39; he says.比彻姆士说,谈到口味,就必须要提及三个要素。前两个要素我们非常熟悉:舌头和上颚感受几种最基本的口味──甜、咸、酸、苦和鲜味。而鼻腔上部的嗅觉受体捕捉空气中的分子。他说,比如到了盛产水果的时节,桃子的气味和口味与身体中不同的受体相接触,最终汇聚到大脑,告诉你这是一个桃子。For wine, a third factor is also important -- an irritation in the mouth, the throat and the nose that some people like and others find unpleasant. #39;We don#39;t have a good term for it, but it#39;s that sense of pain you feel when you taste something spicy or fermented -- that little stinging,#39; Dr. Beauchamp says.而对于品酒来说,第三个要素也同样重要──一种对口、喉、鼻同时造成的刺激感,这种感受是否讨喜则见仁见智。比彻姆士说,这种感觉就是当你尝到一些辛辣或发酵过的东西时的那种轻微的刺痛感,但我们还没找到一个合适的词语来形容它。For example, #39;If you were to give a spoonful of extra virgin olive oil to people in the U.S., many wouldn#39;t like that burning sensation,#39; says Dr. Beauchamp, who has done studies on this particular condition. #39;But if you give it to people from the Mediterranean, they will recognize the feeling as the sign of the very best olive oil.#39; Enjoying that subtle pain is learned, scientists believe, but Dr. Beauchamp says they don#39;t yet understand how that happens.比彻姆士举例说道,如果你让一个美国人品尝一勺特级初榨橄榄油,多数人都不会喜欢它灼热的口感,他的实验也实了这一情况。但地中海的居民就能从中品尝出极佳橄榄油的感受。科学家们相信,对于那种轻微刺痛感的享受是学习得来的,但比彻姆士表示他们尚未弄清这背后的玄机。Expert Palate“专家级”味觉One of Dr. Beauchamp#39;s colleagues explains that wine flavors are made up of many chemical structures. They arise from materials in the grape, from enzymatic reactions with grape compounds, through alcoholic fermentation and even from the wooden barrels used in the aging process. In the glass, those scents and flavors react with the nose and tongue at different times during sipping, which may cause one person to taste a cherry bouquet and another a leather finish from the same vintage.比彻姆士的一位同事解释道,酒的口感由很多化学成份组成,包括葡萄自身的成份、葡萄化合物的?促反应以及酒精发酵的产物,甚至还包括存放过程中木桶里的成份。品尝一杯红酒,这些不同气味和口味会在不同的时间与鼻子和嘴发生反应,因而同一瓶佳酿既可能如樱桃般醇美,也可能像呛人的皮革一样难以下咽。Professional wine tasters are trained to notice the different flavors that tannins, sugars, acids and various processes give to a particular wine, and to put words to them. But tasters#39; physiology is basically the same as everyone else#39;s. #39;It#39;s not as though they were born with more receptors or grew more over time. They simply developed an ability to notice small differences,#39; says Dr. Beauchamp. #39;With experience, some people can become more attuned to certain smells and tastes, which may lead them to like particular wines more, but their chemistry doesn#39;t change; it#39;s a cognitive effect.#39;专业品酒师能够品尝出丹宁、糖分、酸以及生产工艺所赋予一瓶红酒的不同味道,并对这些味道做出评价。这些品酒师生下来感官并不比别人灵敏。比彻姆士说,他们并非天生就具备更多的感觉受体或随着年龄的增长感觉受体越来越多。比彻姆士说,他们只是训练出辨识酒中细微差别的能力,有了一定的饮酒阅历,人们就逐渐喜欢上某些气味、口味,对特定的酒产生偏好,但这当中的原理只有一个;这是认知效应的结果。Bitter Evolution“苦涩”的进化Among the basic tastes, people seem to differ the most on bitter -- a big factor in appreciating fine wine. #39;It#39;s not exactly clear why there is so much more variation on bitter than sweet and salty. But we have evolved to detect bitter things differently, perhaps to protect us against danger in the environment,#39; he says.在所有基本的口味中,人们似乎对“苦”的感受存在最大的差异,而这恰恰是品酒过程中的一个重要因素。比彻姆士说,至今仍不清楚?什么相较于甜、咸的口感,人们对苦的感受差别巨大。然而是人类的进化让我们对苦产生不同的感受,因而这或许是?了更好地保护自身远离环境中的危险。And because so many factors are at work in the preference for certain wines, it would be very difficult for one person to tell another what he should like.因为如此多的因素共同决定了我们对于酒的偏好,所以品酒是一个因人而异的事情。#39;Take your genetics plus your experience, and we are all living in our own sensory world,#39; Dr. Beauchamp says. For that reason, he has one simple recommendation: Enjoy what you enjoy, and don#39;t worry about what the other guy is savoring.比彻姆士说,遗传加上阅历,造就了我们每一个人的感官世界。也正因如此,对于品酒,他的建议很简单:喝自己爱的酒,让别人说去吧。 /201311/263751

Coca-Cola has launched its first major new Cola in nearly a decade: Coke Life. It comes in a green can, with a small leaf logo, and promises to be much healthier than standard Coke.可口可乐公司推出近十年来第一种主要新型产品:可口可乐生命(Coke Life)。它包装在绿色的罐子里,上有小树叶标志。公司承诺,它比标准的可乐更健康。A 330ml can has 89 calories - a third less than the 129 found in standard Coke. That is because, alongside sugar, it is also uses stevia leaf extract from the stevia plant. This naturally very sweet plant contains zero calories. The company hopes that many consumers will not be able to tell the difference between ;green Coke; and normal Coke.330毫升饮料中含有89卡路里,与标准可口可乐相比少了三分之一。这是因为除糖外,它还使用了从甜叶菊植株上提取的树叶。这种天然的甜味植株不含卡路里。可口可乐公司认为,许多消费者不能区分绿色的可乐和普通的可乐。James Quincey at Coca-Cola Europe says: “With Coca-Cola Life, we have innovated to provide consumers with a new option with fewer calories. It complements our existing brands and is well-positioned to meet changing lifestyle trends, providing people with a great-tasting, lower calorie cola sweetened from natural sources.”可口可乐欧洲公司的詹姆斯·昆西昆西(James Quincey)说:“通过可口可乐生命,我们创新性地向消费者提供了低卡路里的新选择。它是对我们现存品牌的补充,并且向人们提供了口味佳,通过自然资源获得甜味实现低卡路里的可乐,在迎合新生活方式的潮流中占据了先机。”The company appears to brush over the fact that the sugar used in standard Coke in the UK is derived from either cane sugar or sugar beet -- both natural sources, grown in fields.可口可乐公司似乎忽视了一个事实,英国标准可口可乐中使用的糖也是从生长在田里的自然资源蔗糖和甜菜中提取的。Also, Coke Life despite being lower calories still contains 22g of sugar -- a quarter of an adult#39;s recommended daily allowance.另外,即使可口可乐生命卡路里更低,但仍含有22克糖,这是一个成年人每天建议摄入量的四分之一。The Telegraph hit the streets of central London to find out whether consumers could tell Coca-Cola Life from normal Coca-Cola, and which drink they preferred. In all, nearly thirty people undertook the taste test, with the majority, especially regular Coke consumers, able to spot they were different drinks.英国电讯报在伦敦中心进行了街头采访,探究消费者能否区别可口可乐生命和普通可口可乐,他们更喜欢哪种口味。近30人参与了测试,其中的大多数,尤其是可口可乐长期消费者,能够发现饮料的不同。 /201408/324869

The NSA recruiting Twitter account sent out a confusing message on Monday morning. While some thought the account had been hacked or a mess of typos had been actually tweeted, the message was actually a cryptogram:周一早上,美国国家安全局的官方招募推特账号发布了一条让人不解的消息。有的人还以为是这个账号被黑客入侵或者是出现了乱糟糟的打字错误,但实际上这是一条密码:For a pro, this is actually a relatively easy code to figure out. It translates to:对于一个专业人士而言,这条密码其实挺容易解出,翻译过来就是:;Want to know what it takes to work at NSA? Check back each Monday in May as we explore careers essential to protecting our nation.;“想知道怎样才能在美国国家安全局工作吗?记得5月的每个周一来看我们发布的消息,我们会带你探究那些对于保护我们国家至关重要的职位。”The tweet is a substitution cipher, in which each letter is swapped for another. In the code, each #39;word#39; is twelve letters long, unless there is punctuation. This suggests that the spaces in the tweet do not matter, only the letters determine the code. This is one of the oldest (and easiest to solve) cryptograms, a necessity to decipher for any potential NSA cryptographer. If you couldn#39;t figure it out, global communications surveillance probably isn#39;t a good career path for you.这则推特消息是一个替代密码。每一个字母都被另一个替代。在代码中,每一个“单词”都长达12个字母,除非是中间有标点隔开。这就暗示着消息之间的空格并不重要,只有字母才能决定密码内容。这是最古老的加密方式之一(也是最容易破译的),任何一个有潜力成为美国安全局加密高手的人都必须会破译。如果你不能破解的话,全球通讯监控的工作可能就不是适合你的职业道路了。An NSA spokesperson told N News that the coded tweet is ;part of recruitment efforts to attract the best and the brightest.; If you#39;ve ever dreamt of doing puzzles for the government, now is your chance to apply.美国国家安全局的官方发言人对N新闻说道,这则加密的推特消息是他们“尝试吸引最优秀和最聪明的人来应聘的办法之一”。如果你曾经梦想要为美国政府做解密工作的话,现在就有机会来申请了。 /201405/297081


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