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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年04月21日 00:17:18
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Business商业报道Middle managers中层管理者In praise of David Brent赞扬大卫#8226;布兰特Middle managers are not as useless as people think中层管理者并不像人们认为的那样没有用处IN “UNDERCOVER BOSS”, a British television programme, company chiefs disguise themselves and work on the shop floor of their own companies.英国有一档电视节目叫“卧底老板”,公司老板乔装打扮后,下到自己公司一线与员工一起工作。The climax comes when the boss reveals his true identity to his co-workers.当老板向一起工作的员工揭开自己的真实身份时,节目达到了高潮。Much to his surprise, the shop-floor grunts often have no clue who he is.让老板感到吃惊的是,这些基层员工常常不知道自己的老板是谁。The cult of the chief executive has reached absurd proportions.对于首席执行官的狂热已经达到了一种荒谬的地步,Business magazines splash their smug faces on glossy covers, and give them all the credit for achievements to which thousands of others have contributed.商业期刊的封面上尽是他们的大幅照片,个个自命不凡。数千员工辛苦劳动取得的功劳全部记在他们的头上。Yet a recent study by Antoinette Schoar, an economist at MIT, found that the person at the top accounted for just 5% of a Fortune 500 firms performance.但最近麻省理工学院经济学家安托瓦内特#8226;斯考尔进行的一项研究发现,在财富500强公司中,最高领导对公司业绩的贡献仅有5%。Some bosses believe their own hype: a survey by the Economist Intelligence , our sister company, found that many were convinced that their own words and actions were the key to motivating employees.有些老板非常相信自己的号召力,经济学人智库“我们的姊公司”进行的一项调查发现,许多老板对自己的言行对员工的感召深信不移。Yet when the same survey asked workers what they thought, more said that it was their relationship with their line manager that counted.但该调查也征询了员工的看法,很多员工表示,他们与现场主管的关系更为重要。As Marcus Buckingham, a management writer, once quipped, “People join companies but leave managers.”这正应了管理学作家马库斯#8226;贝克汉姆的一句妙语:公司员工进来时看公司,出去时看领导。Yet middle managers could hardly be less fashionable.然而,中层管理者可能是最不风光的职位。Companies sack them by the truckload. Sitcoms such as “The Office” mock them.公司大批大批地对他们进行解雇。情景剧《办公室》就是这些人的真实写照。The days of general managers who know “a little about lots” are completely over, claims Lynda Gratton of London Business School in “The Shift”, a new book.伦敦商学院的琳达#8226;布兰顿在他的新书《大转移》中断言,总经理事无巨细管理公司的日子早已过去。Knowledge workers often receive feedback from peers working on the same project, she observes.她观察到,知识工人常从在一个项目中工作的同事那里获得反馈。Technology helps them monitor each others output, with little need for supervision by a middle manager.他们可以借助技术手段来监控彼此的产出情况,不再需要中层管理者的监督。Many firms have become nimbler by removing unnecessary bureaucracy.很多公司通过清除不必要的繁文缛节而变得更加灵活。Unilever, a consumer-goods firm, used to have as many as 36 tiers of management; now it has, by some counts, only six.消费品公司联合利华过去管理上有36个层级,有人发现现在只剩下了6个。But cutting out too much of the middle can start to look like corporate hara-kiri.但是砍掉这么多的中间管理层对公司来说,也许无异于切腹自杀。Ethan Mollick, of Wharton Business School in Pennsylvania, argues that firms should nurture managers with the initiative to balance the needs of day-to-day operations against the need to implement the boards strategy. Middle managers also act as a crucial filter.宾夕法尼亚沃顿商学院的伊桑#8226;莫立克认为,公司应该用创新精神培养管理者,使他们既能搞好日常管理工作,又能贯彻董事会战略。中层管理人员就像一个过滤器,作用十分重要。A large firm may have tens of thousands of employees. The CEO cannot possibly listen to them all.一家大公司可能有数万员工,公司的CEO不可能听到他们每个人的声音。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201303/231165

  

  Books and Arts; Book Review;Racism in sport;文艺;书评;运动场上的种族歧视;The black white hope;黑白的希望;The Longest Fight: In the Ring with Joe Gans, Boxings First African-American Champion. By William Gildea.《最漫长的比赛:与首位美裔黑人拳击冠军——乔甘斯同行》威廉姆吉尔迪亚著。“THE whitest black man that ever entered the ring,” said a famous American sports writer a century ago in praise of Joe Gans. Given the place and the time, the comment was unexceptional. It is Ganss reaction to the insulting words that still astounds. Far from being offended, the first American-born black boxer to win a world title regarded it instead as a compliment. So, less remarkably, did his numerous white fans.一百年前,某位著名的美国体育记者曾这样赞赏乔甘斯:“他是拳击场里最受白人拥戴的黑人。”彼时彼地,这绝不是一条普普通通的评价。甘斯对别人的侮辱有着惊人的忍耐力。对于首位赢得世界第一的美国本土黑人拳击手来说,这样的评价绝不是冒犯,而是褒扬。就连他不计其数的白人粉丝听后也感到甘之如饴。Against enormous odds, as William Gildea recalls in his episodic biography, Gans had by 1906 achieved the seemingly impossible. He actually left the ring a popular winner in successfully defending his title against Battling Nelson, a Danish-American, in Goldfield, Nevada. Even grizzled prospectors whooped when, after two hours and 48 minutes, the longest championship fight of the 20th century, Nelson was disqualified for a deliberate low blow.威廉吉尔迪亚在传记里回忆到,虽然困难重重,但是甘斯在1906年做到了似乎不可能做到的事情。他挫败了来自内华达州金矿市的美裔丹麦选手贝特林纳尔逊,成功地捍卫了自己世界第一的称号,以最受拥戴的胜者姿态告别了拳击场。这场耗时两小时四十八分钟的比赛是20世纪最漫长的拳击赛,当纳尔森因蓄意打在甘斯的腰下部位而被判出局时,就连头发花白的老矿工也大声呐喊起来。Extraordinary stoicism earned Gans his lasting popularity in America. Born and brought up in Maryland, a state bordering on the old Confederacy, he had to put up with the everyday humiliations suffered by all African-Americans there. And, on top of these, he had also to tolerate the particular horrors suffered by Americas black sportsmen.超凡的忍耐力为甘斯赢得了美国人民经久不衰的爱戴。乔甘斯生在马里兰,长在马里兰,这个州紧挨着老联盟,他每天都要忍受当地所有美裔黑人都会遭受的羞辱。除此之外,他还要忍受美国黑人运动员都会遭受的恐吓。Gans, a naturally polite and cheerful man, was tutored always to show restraint by Bob Fitzsimmons, a world champion at three weights, who argued that you should do as you would be done by. In consequence, Gans learnt to remain impassive in the face of the most egregious provocations: even, for instance, when one opponent called him “133 pounds of black meat” and when another spat in his face as they squared up in the centre of the ring.乔甘斯天性谦和开朗,世界冠军鲍勃费茨西蒙斯教会了他忍耐,因为鲍勃主张“己所不欲,勿施于人”。后来,甘斯学会了对于种种恶意挑衅漠然视之,就算有对手戏谑他是“133磅的黑肥肉”,就算在拳击场角斗时对手向他脸上啐唾沫,他也绝不动怒。Like other black boxers, Gans was exploited by the low-life types that inhabited professional boxing. Promoters paid him less than his white rivals, even when he was the main draw. His sleazy manager, Al Herford, bet heavily against Gans in two fights and then ordered him to lose. Gans eventually sacked his manager, confessed to the fixed fights, won international recognition as a fine champion and was mourned by thousands, white and black, at his funeral in Baltimore, when he died from tuberculosis at the then typically early age of 35.和其他黑人拳击手一样,甘斯也要遭到职业拳击行业里手段卑鄙的剥削。虽然双方打平,赞助商付给甘斯的酬劳却比付给他白人对手的要少。他下作的经纪人阿尔赫福德下了大注赌乔甘斯输,于是他便命令乔甘斯必须输。甘斯最后解雇了他的经纪人,并向公众坦承自己操纵了比赛,甘斯因此赢得了全世界的肯定,成了人们心目中最受尊敬的冠军。但是甘斯却在35岁是因罹患肺结核而英年早逝,在他巴尔迪的丧礼上,成千上万的粉丝,无论白人黑人全部为其默哀。Mr Gildea, a talented sports journalist with a y following among American ers, is nostalgic for the days when crowds of 125,000 jammed into wooden stadiums to watch prizefights although not, of course, for the racism that then infected this and other sports. He is also nostalgic for the days when Goldfield was a rip-roaring, hard-drinking, sinful boom town. Those times, too, have gone. On a day trip to Goldfield, he saw several empty shops and houses, only four other people and a petrol station with a sign ing: “OPEN EXCEPT WHEN CLOSED”. This is a memorable book about a time that should not be forgotten.才华横溢的体育记者吉尔迪亚将和众多拭目以待的美国读者一起缅怀那段熙熙攘攘的125000人涌进木质体育场里观看职业拳击赛的光辉岁月,当然他们的缅怀的绝不包括当时影响了拳击和其他体育比赛的种族歧视。吉尔迪亚怀念的还有当年热闹喧嚣,酒鬼遍地,罪恶却繁荣的金矿市。那些日早已一去不返。吉尔迪亚花了一天时间故地重游,商铺和住宅已经人去楼空,只看见聊聊四人和一个加油站,上面写着:“关门大吉”。这是一本关于一段值得铭记的岁月的回忆录。201207/190936。

  

  Don: Nice telescope, Yael, what are you looking at?唐:不错的望远镜,雅艾尔,你在看什么?Yale: Bacteria.雅艾尔:细菌。Don: In space?唐:在太空吗?Yale: Not that far out, Don. Scientists recently collected three brand new species of bacteria from the Stratosphere. When I heard about it, I couldnt believe it. Researchers have been using balloon lifted cryosamplers to collect bacteria and fungi from the stratosphere for years.雅艾尔:没那么远,唐。最近科学家们从平流层收集到三种新的细菌品种。当我听说时,我不太相信。多年来,研究人员一直在利用气球举起低温采样器来收集大气中的细菌和真菌。Don: I didnt think that anything can live that high in the amosphere.唐:我不认为在那么高的大气中会有生命存在。Yale: Neither did I. The stratosphere extends from ten to thirty miles above the surface. Thats above the clouds where temperatures can get as cold as minus 76 degrees Fahrenheit, and theres lots of ultra violet radiation.雅艾尔:我以前也是。平流层位于距地表10英里至30英里的高度。那里在云端之上,温度可低至零下76摄氏度,并且有大量的紫外线辐射。Don: So How do they think bacteria got up there?唐:那他们认为细菌是如何到达那里的?Yale: Some scientists think they ride up on particles ejected from volcanoes. Others think bacteria might be sucked through updrafts caused by a special kind of lightning that travels upwards from cloud tops. Forest fires can also cause thunderstorms that toss immense plumes of smoke into the stratosphere. Bacteria could ride on the soot.雅艾尔:有些科学家认为细菌是由火山喷射出的粒子带上去的。还有人则认为,细菌也许是卷入了一种自云层顶端向上运行的特殊闪电造成的上升气流。森林火灾会引起雷暴,将大量浓烟掷入平流层。细菌可能会驾尘而上。Don: And they are the same kind Of bacteria that live here on the surface?唐:那么它们与生活在地表的细菌是同一种类吗?Yale: Some are known species. They have found rod-shaped Bacillus that are very common here as well as Staphylococcus species related to disease causing bacteria. Others are completely new, including two new Bacillus species. Theres also a third group of bacteria found in clumps that cant be cultured in normal bacterial nutrients. So far, they are a puzzle.雅艾尔:有些种类是一样的。已经找到的有非常普遍的杆状杆菌,还有致病细菌——葡萄球菌。 其他的则是完全未知的,包括两个新的杆菌品种。还有第三种细菌,它们成群生长,不能在平常的细菌培养液中培养。到目前为止它仍是个谜。Don: Thats really out of this world, Yael. But you really are trying to see bacteria with your telescope, are you?唐:那真是不可思议,雅艾尔。但你真的在用望眼镜观察细菌,是吗?Yale: No, Don. They are away too small. Im just out enjoying the stars.雅艾尔:不,唐。它们太远,并且太小。我只是在观赏星星。原文译文属!201302/227680At one time it was believed that heat was a liquid. Sure, that sounds kind of crazy, but if you think for a second, you might see why. Suppose you have an object thatrsquo;s very hot ; say a metal spoon thatrsquo;s been sitting in hot coffee. Pick it up and you can feel the heat sping to your hand. The longer you hold on, the more heat seems to enter your hand. Ouch! Well, maybe heat is an invisible liquid that pours from the spoon into your hand. After all, that theory fits all the evidence, doesnrsquo;t it? But therersquo;s a problem. Another simple experiment you can do shows heat canrsquo;t be a liquid.曾有一段时间,有人认为热量是液体。当然,这听起来有点疯狂,但如果你仔细想一想,您可能会明白其中的道理。假设你有一个很热的物体;;放在热咖啡中的一个金属勺。拿起勺子,你能刚到热量蔓延到你的手,握的时间越长。传到你手上的热量越多。哎哟!好吧,也许热是一种无形的液体,它从勺子中倒入你的手中。毕竟,这理论符合所有的据,不是吗?但是有一个问题。你可以做另外一个简单的实验,来明热热量不是液体。201201/169390When Europes been peppered with uncertainty the whole year. And Monti was always a technocratic government that came in with a specific mandate. Then of course, Italys a democracy, said you will step aside and theres an election. Could come back as a politician. Maybe not. I think the fear is who could replace him. But I think hes done an excellent job and hes steadied the ship. But he did say he would step aside after a year, done certain measures.今年一整年内欧洲经济充满不确定性因素。蒙蒂政府是临危受难,肩负特殊使命的技术专家政府。当然,意大利是一个民主国家,蒙蒂即将辞职,将进行新的一轮选举。这一次可能是由政治家来担当此重任吗?可能不会。我想,人们担心的是,谁能够取代蒙蒂?因为我认为,他的工作非常出色,稳定了局势。但是他曾说过,在采取了一定措施后的一年后他要辞职。Now heres the question. Is it the issue of Monti stepping aside when he was sort of the steady hand on Italys unsteady finances, if you like? Or is it respective Berlusconi coming back that really has people worried? Because the bond markets, we see the yield rising on the 10-year Italian bonds as it seems that stock markets plummet in Milan.现在的问题是,蒙蒂目前已成为意大利不稳定财政的坚定领导人时,他真的要退出政府吗,你希望这样吗?或者,人们真正担心的是贝卢斯科尼再次掌权。因为,虽然债券市场的10年长期意大利国债收益正在增加,米兰的股票市场看起来却在大幅下跌。Yes, but its a one-day wonder that you saw the euro come off this morning, bounced right back. These markets are incredibly volatile and theres not much to do. So people are obviously to sell the story. Yes, of course, theres a few of them may replace him. Technocratic government did what the markets liked, gave us certainty but as I said, this is a democracy and democracies create uncertainty. And so wholl replace him? We dont know. But I think this big story moves on to Spain, the ESM and whether the ECBs going to start printing or not.是的,但是这只是一天的奇迹,今早欧元开始好转,有所反弹。毫无疑问,市场是易变波动的,有时候,人们有心无力。因此,人们很容易被说,是的,当然能取代蒙蒂的人不多。技术型政府可以采取任何市场喜欢的措施,给我们带来确定性。但是,如我已经说过的,这是一个民主国家,民主就会产生不确定性。因此,对于,谁能取代蒙蒂,无人所知。但是,我认为,现在欧洲现在的大问题已经转移到了西班牙,额外西班牙货币以及欧洲中央是否启动印制?OK. Now thats an interesting one. 2013 looming as I was saying before. Does that mean were going to have a full-on Spanish bailout in the early months of next year?是的。是让人感兴趣的问题。2013将至,这是否意味着,明年的最初几个月,将进行西班牙全面救市?I think could come even late this year. I think if it wasnt for the fiscal cliff and the market changing its focus over tension onto the US, we would have pressurized aly Spain into coming to the ESM, which as you know, ESM stands for Extra Spanish Money. So it shouldnt be a surprise when they confirm.我想可以要到明年晚些时候。我认为,如果不是到财政悬崖,以及市场将压力焦点转向美国,我们不会迫于压力,让西班牙采用额外西班牙货币,你知道,ESM的意思。如果此事得以确定,也在意料之中。Rather the European stability.只要欧元区能够稳定。Yes, absolutely.是的,绝对如此。Might even have gotten lost in the alphabet soup aly that EU’s created to try and solve the eurozone crisis. Well, what about credit rating cuts for some of these countries, notably just going back to the issue of Italy and the face of so much uncertainty? This is going to make it very difficult for these countries to try to cut their enormous amount of debt of debt-to-GDP, cut their budgets. And if they do get downgraded, will their debt becomes more expensive.也许问题都能够在这一缩写词语中得到解决,欧盟创造该词语以试图解决欧元区危机。不过,这几个国家的信用评级下调情况如何?特别是,刚才谈到的意大利问题,我们又如何面对这么多不确定性?这些国家试图减少债务率(债务占国内生产总值的比重)债务以及减少预算,都将变得非常艰难。如果他们的信用评级下调,那么他们的债务将变得格外昂贵。Well, not in the case weve seen of France. They got downgraded with, again, a one-day wonder. They sold off and French yields are straight back down again. The problem is if your debt-to-GDP starts rising but you think austeritys the answer, and you do austerity but growth starts to plummet, then you need more austerity and then growth goes down. And thats the Greek situation we’ve got ourselves in for. So Id say just ignore the rating agencies and try to do the right thing. Get growth going and dont overdo the austerity.是的,不过我们看到法国的情况例外。法国被降级了,不过这也是一天之内的奇迹。他们的股票低价抛光,法国再次收回了收益。问题在于,如果债务率开始上升,但是你却认为只有采取紧缩政策,并且你实施了紧缩政策,但是增长急剧下降,于是,你需要采取更多的紧缩,增长继续衰减。这就是我们让自己陷入希腊危机的原因所在。因此,我宁愿大家暂时忽略评级机构,而专注于做正确的事情:让经济增长,不要过于倚重紧缩政策。 201212/217889

  Stuttering Ear用“耳朵”治口吃Remember that kid in your grade school class who stuttered? Well, he was in good company–a whopping three million people in the ed States alone are affected by this problem.还记得小学时班上那个说话结巴的孩子吗?其实,他的同伴可不少--光是在美国,就有多达三百万的人有这个毛病。It isnt life threatening, but it certainly can be life hampering, as anyone who has a stutter can tell you. Theres something very interesting about stuttering, though, which you might not expect: it can be effected by what you hear. For a long time stutterers have understood that talking along in a group, such as when you recite the pledge of allegiance, can make the problem diminish.当然,结巴并不会危及生命,但是,相信任何一个结巴的人都会告诉你:它确实会给生活带来不少麻烦。然而,关于结巴,还有个有趣的现象是出乎你意料的:结巴跟你的耳朵关系密切。实际上,结巴会受所听内容的影响。一些结巴患者经过长期实践发现,如果连续地说上一段话结巴现象就会缓和不少,比如说在不停地背诵效忠誓言。With the age of electronics, it was found that hearing your own voice played back to you almost as soon as you speak helps a stutter as well. Thats called the “Delayed AuditoryFeedback” effect. Altering the pitch of the playback gives an extra boost to the effect as well; thats called “Frequency Altered Feedback.”人们发现,如果在说话时能够几乎同步地听到自己所说的内容会有助于减缓口吃。这就是所谓的“延时听觉反馈”效应。并且,改变所听内容的音调会加强这一效应,这就是“移频听觉反馈”。Now, researchers at East Carolina University in Greenville, North Carolina have created a small device that combines both these effects in a portable earpiece. The device fits inside your ear, picks up the sound of you speaking, alters the pitch a little, and plays it back to you. The first tests look promising: many of the volunteers who had a stutter found that their problem was helped by wearing such an electronic earpiece.目前,位于美国北卡罗来纳州格林维尔市东卡罗莱纳大学的研究者们已经研发出一种便携式耳机,这种耳机将上文所说的两种效应结合在了一起。你只需将耳机放入耳朵,它便会收集你的话语并适当地改变音调,最后在回放给你听。第一批测试看起来效果不错:很多参与实验的口吃志愿者都发现,佩戴上这种电子耳机后,口吃情况有所好转。Scientists who study stuttering sound a more cautious note: such effects, while real, have shown a tendency to be short-term. Still, even if it isnt a “fix,” tiny microelectronic devices like this may indeed be a help–and we may be seeing more and more of them in the future.然而,研究口吃的科学家们给出了一个更为谨慎的结论:这些效果固然真实,但持续时间不够长久。但是,即便这一效果不长,像这样的微电子设备确实对口吃有所帮助--相信在以后会有越来越多这样的产品出现。 /201302/225166

  

  Business. 商业。 Women in management. 女性管理者。 A word from your sponsor. 后台一句话的事。 Time for women to stop being shrinking violets at work. 职场女性,从此不再羞答答的开。 ;I DONT know any successful women who havent had a powerful sponsor in their organisation to give them their first big break,; says Avivah Wittenberg-Cox, the boss of 20-first, a consultancy that helps companies put more women into senior jobs. That sentiment is echoed by many people who work in this field. But why do women need so much help. ;在一个组织里,对于女性而言,没有过硬的后台帮助她们完成人生的首次突破,还能够风生水起的,我实在是没咋地见过,;阿维娃?维滕贝格-考克斯,性别顾问公司20-First总裁,如是说。顾问公司20-First帮助很多的公司,让更多的女性做高层领导。她的这一观点得到众多同行的呼应。但是为啥女性需要那么多的帮助呢? Many men who climb the corporate ladder have sponsors, too. Indeed, they find it easier than women to persuade a senior colleague to sponsor them. But women need help more because they are generally more reluctant to promote themselves. They are also less likely to build up useful networks of contacts. 许多女性要想晋升,必须有后台,这一道理同样适用于公司。确实,女性要想劝高层领导帮助自己,不是件太难的事。但是女性需要更多的帮助,原因就是,一般来的来说,她们不愿意推销自己。同时,她们也不大可能去建立一个对自个有用的关系网。 That may help to explain why women, although they now enter white-collar jobs in much the same numbers as men in many countries, still find it so hard to get anywhere near the executive suite. A new report, ;Sponsor Effect: UK;, produced by the Centre for Talent Innovation (CTI), a New York think-tank, offers a detailed picture of the female talent pipeline in Britain, based on a survey of about 2,500 graduate employees, mostly of large companies. It notes that although women in Britain account for 57% of new recruits to white-collar jobs, they make up just 17% of executive directors and a mere 4% of chief executives of the FTSEs 100 biggest companies. 这也解释了这样一个现象,在很多的国家,白领女性的数量跟男性持平,但是女性进入高管还是一个字,难。一份新的报告,《后台效应:英国》,制作者为纽约智囊团人才创新中心(CTI),详述描绘了英国女性人才的分布状况。这份报告的制作,是基于对2500个左右研究生雇员的调查,且她们基本上都来自大公司。它指出,虽然女性新雇员占白领比例57%,但是在富时指数的100个大公司里,执行理事也就17%,首席执行官只有可怜的4%。 It is not that the women lack ambition, says the report. No less than 79% of senior women in the sample said they aspired to a top job and 91% were keen to be promoted. Nor, say the authors, are they necessarily held back by family responsibilities: nearly two in five of those aged 40 or over had no children. Three in five of the over-40s did have children, and talented women who quit work to raise kids are not included in the sample. 不是说女性没有雄性壮志,报告讲。调查者中,多达79%的大龄女性表示希望成为高管,91%希望得到晋升。作者称,家庭责任并不一定会拖累她们:年龄在40或是以上的,接近五分之二,是没有孩子的,有五分之三的女性是有孩子的,这个确实不假。那些为了照顾孩子而放弃工作的才女们并不在这个范围之内。 Still, the surveys main finding is striking. Only 16% of the sample had sponsors, defined as people several levels above them who give them career advice, introduce them to contacts and help them get promotions. Having a sponsor dramatically improves a womans career prospects. 仍然,这个调查的主要发现还是会吓人一跳。调查者中,只有16%的人有后台,后台的意思指的是那些比她们的位子要高那么几级的人,在工作当中给予她们建议,给她们接触的机会,帮助她们晋升。有个后台,女性在职场上的路要好走非常多。 The British report is a follow-on from a similar study by the CTI on America, ;The Sponsor Effect;, published last year by the Harvard Business Review. The CTI is now working on India; Germany may come after that. It is also preparing a ;road map; to make it easier for women everywhere to find sponsors. 这份英国报告,其实是美国CTI的一份类似研究的后续。这份研究的名称为《后台效应》,去年在期刊《哈佛商业》上出版。CTI现在正在对印度进行研究;印度之后可能就是德国。CTI同时也在酝酿一幅;公路图;,目的就是为了让各地的女性更好地找到后台。 Sylvia Ann Hewlett, the CTIs boss, who co-wrote the report, says there are some differences between countries (for example, American male bosses are more reluctant than British ones to sponsor younger women, lest they be suspected of an affair, which could wreck their career). But the broad picture is similar everywhere: women underestimate the importance of sponsorship and fail to cultivate business relationships effectively. This may be true, but networking takes time, often after hours. Are women with children equally willing to put in that extra time? 西尔维亚?安?休利特,CTI老板,是此份报告的共同撰写者。她说,各个国家的情况真的还不大一样(比如,美国的男性老板,比起英国的男性老板,就不大愿意帮助年轻的女性,因为这会导致绯闻,对事业不利)。但是从更大范围来看,情况其实差不多:女性低估了后台的力量,并且没能够有效地培养商业关系。这可能是对的,但是关系网的维护还是需要时间的,尤其是下班时间。那么,女性会把跟孩子在一起的时间花在培养关系网上吗? Drawing attention to the problems of women in upper management makes a useful change from the usual lament about the lack of women on boards. The scarcity of both is a symptom of something bigger: a lot of employers neither know nor care how many senior women they have working for them. Studies show a correlation between more women in senior positions and superior company performance, though it is hard to know whether more sexual diversity improves performance or top-notch firms promote more women. 把注意力集中到高管女性的问题上,而不是像往常一样,哀叹董事会的女性怎么就这么少,要有用的多了。高管女性和董事会女性的稀缺只是问题的一个症状,更大的问题是:许多老板对这个有多少女性在为他工作上,不关心,也不在乎。研究显示,女性高管越多,公司的表现越好,这之间是有一定的关系的,虽然还不是很确定,到底是性别多样化促进绩效呢,还是一流的公司更多的提拔女性呢。 How much can sponsorship help? Ms Wittenberg-Cox is glum. She says there have been so many initiatives that many firms suffer from diversity fatigue, but none has dealt with ;the appalling reality of the pipeline;. The only remedy, she reckons, is a change of thinking at the top. 后台到底能有多大用?维滕贝格-考克斯女士不清楚。她说,有太多的公司因为性别单一而缺乏主动性,但是并没有什么人来解决这个;可怕的人才分布事实;。她觉得,唯一的解救方法,恐怕就是高层的变动。 201208/195124。

  

  

  

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