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2018年02月26日 01:36:06来源:华东资讯

A pop-up pumpkin patch is set up for Halloween in Times Square a in New York, the ed States, Oct. 29, 2015. Visitors can pick from tons of free pumpkins and enjoy live pumpkin carvings. Association of pumpkins with harvest time and pumpkin pie at American Thanksgiving reinforce its iconic role.时代广场最近竟然变成了南瓜地!10月29日,为了庆祝即将到来的万圣节,纽约时代广场摆满了南瓜,供游人雕刻、拍照。每年10月31日是西方国家传统节日万圣节,南瓜在万圣节中扮演着重要的角色。Pumpkin Festival 2015 held in Laconia, New Hampshireis officially registered with Guinness as a World Record Attempt. Registration is required to vie for the Guinness World Record for the most lit jack-o’-lanterns in one place—a record recaptured from Boston by Keene in 2013 (30,581).今年在美国新罕布什尔州举办的南瓜节上点燃了约4万盏南瓜灯,尝试打破2006年由美国波士顿创下的30,581盏南瓜灯的吉尼斯世界纪录。 /201510/406869。

  • Han Dynasty汉朝Emperor Gaozu of the Han汉高祖Emperor Gaozu, also known under the name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Western Han Dynasty (206 B.C. ---- 24 A.D.).汉高祖刘邦是西汉(公元前206年至公元24年)的开国皇帝。He was born into a peasant family in Pei (present Pei County in Jiangsu Province), and was once one of the leaders of the peasant insurrections in the late Qin Dynasty (221—206 B.C.).他出生于沛县(今江苏省沛县)的一个农民家庭,在秦朝(公元前221年至公元前206年)晚期曾担任农民起义的领袖。Having suffered a lot under the despotic rule, Liu Bang rose against it at the end of the Qin Dynasty together with Xiang Yu.因为遭受了残暴统治的巨大痛苦,刘邦在秦末和项羽一起揭竿造反。The two of them became two important leaders of the peasant uprisings which were taking place at the time.他们二人成为了那时农民起义的主力军。In 206 B.C, Liu Bang started by breaking the capital city of Qin, Xianyang, thus putting an end to the notorious Qin Dynasty.公元前206年,刘邦在秦朝都城咸阳起义,结束了这个臭名昭著的秦王朝。He abandoned the harsh laws, reduced taxes and instituted three regulations in order to protect the interests of normal people.他取消了严厉的刑法,减少了苛捐杂税,建立了三项规定来保障人民的利益。These actions made him popular with the people.这些举动使他深得民心。However, Liu Bang’s actions and fame were the source of Xiang Yu’s envy.然而,刘邦的行为与名气招致了项羽的嫉妒。Xiang Yu had the intention of becoming an emperor with control over the entire country.项羽想要成为一统全国的皇帝。When Xiang Yu proclaimed himself the King of Chu, Liu Bang realized that he was inferior to Xiang Yu当项羽宣称自己是楚国的君主时,刘邦意识到自己的身份比项羽低微,and adopted the suggestions of Xiao He to move to Hanzhong (present Hanzhong in Shaanxi Province) with the title “King of Han” which was conferred by Xiang Yu.就听取了萧何的建议以项羽授予自己的“汉军君主”的名号转移到了汉中(今陕西省汉中)。In Hanzhong, Liu Bang focused his efforts on developing the agriculture and training an army, through which he reinforced his material accumulation and military power.在汉中,刘邦潜心发展农业和军队,通过此举,他加强了自己的物资积累和军事实力。Before long, Liu Bang left Hanzhong and stationed in the Central Shaanxi Plain, where he launched a war now known as the Chu-Han War, against Xiang Yu.没过多久,刘邦离开汉中,驻扎在了陕西平原中部。在那里,他与项羽展开了一场著名的战争——楚汉之争。The war lasted four years (206---- 202 B.C.) and ended with Liu Bang’s victory.这场战争持续了四年时间(公元前206年至公元前202年)并以刘邦的胜利结束。Having defeated Xiang Yu, Liu Bang established the Han Dynasty in 202 and made Chang’an (present city of Xian) his capital city.打败项羽后,刘邦于公元前202年建立汉朝,定都长安(今西安)。Liu Bang became historically known as Emperor Gaozu.他在历史上被称为汉高祖。During the time Liu Bang was in power, he continued to use the centralism created by Qin, replaced original vassals and granted lands to his relatives.刘邦执政期间沿用了秦朝的中央集权制,取消了原来的诸侯国,将土地无偿分封给他的亲戚。In economy, he reduced taxes and corvee and developed agriculture, but he restricted the commerce.经济上,他减免了苛捐杂税与劳逸并积极发展农业,但是限制了商业的发展。Emperor Gaozu’s efforts laid a solid foundation for the over four-hundred-year reign of the Han Dynasty.高祖的努力为汉朝之后四百多年的统治打下了牢固的基础。 /201510/397343。
  • HONG KONG — At the waterfront site destined for a vast new center for the arts here, the view across Victoria Harbor is one to marvel at — an urban jungle of high-rises that together make up the city’s famous skyline.香港——在用来兴建大型本地新艺术中心的海滨,维多利亚湾另一侧的景色令人惊叹,那高楼林立的都市丛林构成了这座城市著名的天际线。 The vista from the other side of the harbor could not be more different. Mostly barren land. A small construction zone. Some temporary buildings. And a sign announcing in big orange capital letters: “West Kowloon Cultural District.”海湾另一头的远景与此处迥异。大部分是荒凉的土地。这里是一小片建设区。有一些临时建筑。一块牌子上用橘红色的大写字母醒目地写着“西九文化区”。This is where a “museum of visual culture” called M+ (for “museum plus”) is scheduled to be built as a key part of the new complex, a mammoth government-sponsored project budgeted at .8 billion. By the end of 2019, according to the current timeline, many of the area’s components, including the 650,000-square-foot museum, will be y to open to the public.名为M+(意为“物馆及更多”)的“视觉文化物馆”将在这里兴建,它是这片新建筑群的一个重要组成。这个建筑群是政府赞助的大型项目,预算达28亿美元。根据目前的规划,到2019年底,这里的很多项目都将对公众开放,其中也包括了这座65万平方英尺的艺术馆。But as plans for M+ move forward, questions are mounting about whether the original vision — a wide-ranging art museum that would put Hong Kong on the global cultural map — can ever be fully realized.但是,随着和M+相关的计划逐步推进,很多问题也开始浮现出来:M+最初的计划是打造一个内容广泛的艺术馆,令香港跻身全球文化图景之中,这个目的究竟是否能够完全达成呢?In recent years, both M+ and the larger project have been troubled by delays and the departures of high-level staff members. More worrying now are concerns that M+ may not be able to maintain the curatorial independence and distance from politics necessary for a world-class museum to thrive. Many members of Hong Kong’s art community describe a growing feeling of “nervousness,” especially among Hong Kong government officials, about art and a fear of provoking Beijing.近年来,M+与它所属的这个大型项目都饱受延期困扰,不少高层员工纷纷离去。如今,更让人担心的是,M+可能无法保持策展的独立性,以及与政治的距离,二者都是打造世界级艺术馆所必不可少的。香港艺术界的许多人士都表示对艺术的“焦虑”情绪,以及对刺激北京的忧虑与日俱增,特别是在香港政府官员之中。In February, the first show of works from the museum’s aly extensive collection of Chinese contemporary art will open at a Hong Kong exhibition space after previous runs in Umea, Sweden, and Manchester, England. It will include a large-scale installation by the Beijing government’s artistic bête noire, Ai Weiwei, as well as a series of photographs by Liu Heung Shing of the 1989 pro-democracy demonstrations in Tiananmen Square. The show is being promoted as the first to recount the chronological development of Chinese contemporary art without rupture. But it will have a less challenging title than the one it bore abroad — “Right Is Wrong” — and a different catalog.二月,艺术馆将在香港一处展览空间内举办第一次展览,展品是从物馆目前丰富的中国当代艺术收藏中选出的展品,此前,这个展览先在瑞典于默奥与英国曼彻斯特举行。展品包括北京政府的眼中钉艾未未的大型装置艺术,以及刘香成关于1989年天安门广场民主示威的系列照片。展览宣传中说,它是第一个没有断层,按年代发展详细展示中国当代艺术的展览。但是这次展览将不会沿用海外展览富于挑战色的名字——“正确就是错误”(Right Is Wrong),展品目录也将有所不同。Unlike mainland China, Hong Kong has maintained Western-style protections for freedom of speech despite its return to Chinese rule in 1997. Still, worries about China’s growing influence on the territory have taken on greater urgency in the aftermath of the Umbrella Revolution last year, when thousands of protesters took to the streets to demand greater electoral freedom from the government in Beijing.和中国大陆不同,香港虽然于1997年回归中国,但一直维持着对西方式言论自由的保护。但是,人们担心中国对这一地区的影响在增加,特别是去年的雨伞革命,更是加深了这一忧虑,当时成千上万的抗议者走上街头,向北京政府要求更大的选举自由。“I have no concern that the building will not be delivered,” said Uli Sigg, a former Swiss diplomat who in 2012 donated a large part of his collection, widely regarded as one of the most important and comprehensive of contemporary Chinese art, to M+. (Selections from it make up the coming exhibition.)“我不担心这座建筑不能交付,”前瑞士外交官乌利·希克(Uli Sigg)说,他的收藏被广泛认为是最重要、最全面的当代中国艺术收藏之一,2012年,他将其中的大部分捐献给了M+,部分精选将在即将到来的展览上展出。But, he noted, “Then there is also the question of what the mood will be in Hong Kong in a few years.”但是,他指出,“几年内香港的氛围也是问题。”Plans for the building, designed by the Swiss firm Herzog amp; de Meuron, have been completed; the contractor has been chosen; and the museum’s core team is in place. The museum has also been building a collection. According to its own estimates, it has spent million on acquisitions so far and received donated works valued at more than 5 million. But none of this has come easily.这栋建筑由瑞士事务所赫尔佐格与德梅隆(Herzog amp; de Meuron)设计;方案已经完成,承包商亦已选好;艺术馆的核心团队已经就位。馆方已经获得了一批藏品。根据馆方自己的估计,迄今它已经花费6200万美元购买藏品,并获得价值超过1.75亿美元的捐赠物品。但这一切都得之不易。“We have achieved everything we set out to do so far,” said Lars Nittve, 62, the executive director of M+ and previously the founding director of the Tate Modern and the Rooseum Center for Contemporary Art in Sweden. “But it’s probably taken four to five times more work to make it happen compared to my experience in the London and Scandinavian situations. Almost every day and night is spent arguing.”“迄今,我们要做的事都已经完成了,”M+的执行馆长,62岁的李立伟(Lars Nittve)说,他也是泰特现代艺术馆与瑞典马尔默当代艺术中心的创始馆长。“但是和我在伦敦与北欧的经验相比,这里要花费四五倍的工作。几乎每日每夜都在争执中度过。”Much of the reason for this wrangling with bureaucrats and government officials, Mr. Nittve and others said, is the lack of a developed museum culture in Hong Kong and, more generally, Asia. Only in recent years has mainland China had a sudden increase in contemporary art museums. Many, like the Himalayas Museum in Shanghai and the M Woods Museum in Beijing, were spearheaded by real estate developers and private collectors and are privately run.李立伟和其他人说,许多同官僚及政府官员产生的争执都源自于香港,乃至亚洲缺乏发达的艺术馆文化。直至近年来,中国大陆才突然涌现出大批当代艺术馆。像上海的喜马拉雅美术馆和北京的M Woods美术馆等许多艺术馆都是由房地产开发商和私人收藏家牵头,私人经营的。Although M+ is not directly under government control, the museum has scarcely been insulated from politics. Currently, it is financed wholly by public funds. Representatives from government departments have been appointed to the cultural district committee responsible for overseeing it, and its chairwoman is Carrie Lam, the Hong Kong chief secretary and the city’s second-ranking official.尽管M+并不直接属于政府管辖,但亦很难与政治绝缘。目前,它的资金完全依靠公共资金。政府部门代表委派文化区委员会负责监督,该委员会主席是香港政务司司长、本地二号高官林郑月娥。The involvement of the government, some say, has made the museum vulnerable to political pressures.有些人说,政府的介入令艺术馆更易受到政治压力。“The problem in Hong Kong is not censorship,” said Pi Li, the Sigg senior curator at M+. “The problem in Hong Kong is self-censorship. It’s self-censorship hidden in the procedures, so it’s difficult to distinguish.”“香港的问题并不是审查,”M+的西克展自身策展人皮力说。“香港的问题是自我审查。它的自我审查隐藏在各种程序之中,很难分辨。”Mr. Pi said that procedural delays cropped up over the summer during discussions about plans for the exhibition opening in February. It will be the first time that the Sigg collection will be shown in Hong Kong since Mr. Sigg donated or sold more than 1,500 works to the museum.皮力说,(去年)夏天就2月展览方案进行讨论期间,这种同程序有关的拖延开始浮现。希克将超过1500件藏品捐赠或出售给M+,这次展览将是希克的藏品首次在香港亮相。Because the exhibition had aly been on a European tour, Mr. Pi said, bringing it to Hong Kong should have been a straightforward proposition. Instead, he said, museum committee members took issue with not only the “Right Is Wrong” title but also some of the show’s educational aspects, which they said were insufficiently tailored to Hong Kong viewers.皮力说,这次展览已经在欧洲巡展过了,把它带来香港,本应是一个不复杂的事情。但是,他说,物馆委员会成员们不仅就“正确就是错误”这个名字提出异议,而且也就展览的某些教育层面发表意见,说它们不适合香港观众。“I think the officials here are still trying to half-guess how Beijing would feel when an exhibition is mounted, so they tend to be very, very cautious,” said Ada Wong, a community cultural advocate and a member of the museum committee.“我觉得,推出某个展览时,官员们仍然在试图猜测北京的感受,所以他们会非常、非常谨慎,”社区文化宣传者与艺术馆委员会成员之一艾达·王(Ada Wong,音译)说。All the works in the show were retained. But in Hong Kong, it will be called simply “M+ Sigg Collection: Four Decades of Chinese Contemporary Art.” Mr. Pi and other curators emphasized that if there were any censorship of content, in the Sigg collection show or in future exhibitions, they would quit.展览中的所有作品都得以保留,但是在香港,它的名字将被称为“M+希克展:中国当代艺术40年”(M+ Sigg Collection: Four Decades of Chinese Contemporary Art)。皮力和其他策展人强调,如果希克展或未来的任何展览的内容遭受审查,他们就退出。“We came to Hong Kong because here, unlike in mainland China, you have freedom of speech,” said Mr. Pi. “But it’s not like freedom of speech in the ed States. You don’t have it all the time. Here you must continually test it, maintain it and protect it.”“我们来到香港是因为,这里不像中国大陆,你拥有言论自由,”皮力说。“但是这里的言论自由和美国的又不一样,不是随时都有。在这里,你得一直测试它、维持它、保护它。”Still, the most immediate challenge facing M+ is clear. In September, Mr. Nittve said he would be stepping down as executive director in January, when his contract will expire.不过,目前M+面临的最迫切的挑战也很清晰。9月,李立伟说,自己的合同将于2016年1月到期,届时他将不再担任执行馆长。Mr. Nittve has been with M+ since 2011. But after delays in the schedule for the museum’s completion, he said, he felt unable to commit to an additional four years. 李立伟是从2011年开始加入M+的。但是自从艺术馆竣工日期延迟后,他说,他觉得自己没有能力再完成一个四年任期了。Though he will continue as an adviser for the project, the search for a successor is underway. Among the many attributes required, most of those involved seem to agree that one quality will be especially important: a willingness to deal with politics.尽管他还将出任这一项目的顾问,目前他的继任者正在寻找当中。在所需的许多条件之中,最重要的一项似乎是认同一种非常重要的品质:愿意同政治打交道。“Politics are real here,” Mr. Nittve said. “It has real consequences, and you have to take it very seriously.”“在这里,政治是真实的,”李立伟说。“它会产生真实的后果,你得非常严肃地看待它。”He added: “In Europe, it’s like this or like that. But actually, nothing fundamental really changes. Here they can.”他补充说:“在欧洲,政治可能是这样也可能是那样。但事实上,最基础的东西不会改变。但在这里是会改变的。” /201601/420007。
  • Although most young Argentinians aren’t even thinking about marriage these days, they seem quite fond of wedding ceremonies. So they’ve come up with a bizarre party trend of fake weddings, where groups of 20- and 30-somethings get together to attend wedding-themed parties complete with fake bride and groom.虽然大多数阿根廷年轻人根本没考虑过谈婚论嫁,可他们似乎都还很喜欢参加婚礼。所以他们开启了“假结婚”的奇异潮流,一堆20或者30多岁的年轻人齐聚一堂,参加婚礼主题的聚会,不过新郎和新娘都不是真的。The idea was the brainchild of 26-year-old publicist Martin Acerbi, who, a couple of years ago, organised a fake wedding with four of his friends in La Plata, about 32 miles away from Buenos Aires. “It all started two years ago with a group of friends: we realised we hadn’t been to a wedding in a long time because hardly anybody is getting married anymore,” Acerbi says.26岁的公关马丁·阿克比想出了这一主意,几年前,他与他的四位朋友在距离阿根廷布宜诺斯艾利斯51.5公里远的拉普拉塔组织了一场假婚礼。他回忆道:“一切始于两年前我和一群朋友的经历:由于现在很少有人结婚,我们意识到我们很久没有参加过婚礼了。”To his surprise, the event was a huge success which got him thinking about a new business. The friends went on to found ‘Falsa Boda’, a fake wedding organising company, in November 2013. They rent out real wedding locations, hire caterers, florists, and DJs, and make everything look like a real wedding. Except, there is no ‘happily ever after’.令他惊讶的是,他们组织的假婚礼获得了空前的成功,这使得阿克比想到了新商机。这几位志同道合的好友于2013年11月成立了一家组织假婚礼的公司Falsa Boda。他们租赁了真正的婚礼举办地点,雇佣了宴席承办者、花匠和DJ,让一切看上去与真正的婚礼一模一样。唯一的差别在于,婚礼过后没有“从此之后的幸福生活”。The bride and groom are hired too, as is a secret boyfriend or spurned lover who arrives unexpectedly to disrupt the ceremony. There’s a fair bit of drama when the bride or groom abandons the wedding and elopes with the third actor. There’s a different storyline for each event, and sometimes the ‘bride’ even throws her bouquet to the female guests.新娘和新郎也是雇佣来的,假婚礼上还会有秘密男友或者感觉备受冷落的情人前来闹场。有时新娘或者新郎会抛弃婚礼与第三名演员私奔。每场假婚礼最后都会有不同的故事结局,有时新娘会将捧花扔给女性客人。“These wedding professionals have become our strategic allies, we organise it like it’s the real thing, except the marriage itself is fake,” Acerbi said. “Our guests get all the fun of a wedding party with none of the commitment, or the problem of finding someone who is actually getting married.”阿克比说:“这些婚礼专家已经成为了我们的战略同盟,我们将它当做一场真正的婚礼来举办,只有婚姻本身是假的。我们的客人可以充分享受这场没有承诺的婚礼的乐趣,就算看中新郎新娘也没有关系,因为他们不是真的结婚。”Each fake wedding event can accommodate 600 to 700 guests, who all pay about to attend. According to Acerbi, the events are mostly targeted at women, who end up buying the majority of the tickets. “The romanticism around weddings is clearly still alive, at least in that respect,” he explained.每场假婚礼能容纳600-700名客人,每位客人需付50美元入场费。据阿克比透露,假婚礼的主要目标是女性,她们购买了大部分入场券。他解释说:“虽然婚姻本身是假的,但婚礼的浪漫氛围并未减少。”32-year-old marketing manager Pablo Boniface, who recently attended a fake wedding, said: “The girls were euphoric, as if a cousin of theirs was really getting married, but it was just an actress. When the bride arrived, everyone went crazy, pulling out their phones and snapping pictures like she was a Hollywood star.” He agreed that the fake weddings were a big hit because hardly anyone his age ever talks about getting married. “I’m single and so are all of my friends of both sexes. Marriage is something we don’t even think about. It’s a formality that has nothing to do with love.”32岁的市场经理帕布洛·伯尼菲斯最近参加了一场假婚礼,他说:“姑娘们的情绪都很高涨,感觉就像她们的亲戚真的在结婚一样,但其实婚礼上只有演员。新娘入场之后,每个人都很疯狂,拿出他们的手机拍摄照片,感觉她就像一名好莱坞明星。”他承认假婚礼特别受欢迎,因为他的同龄人很少会考虑结婚。“我还是单身,我身边的男女朋友们也一样。婚姻是我们不会考虑的东西。这是一场与爱无关的仪式。”There’s plenty of data to prove Boniface right. 22,000 couples tied the knot in Buenos Aires in 1990, but that number nosedived to almost half that – 11,642 – by 2013. According to government statistics, the people who do get married are much older. So people these days don’t have many opportunities to attend wedding parties, which is why Acerbi’s fake weddings are so popular.不少数据显示1990年布宜诺斯艾利斯有2.2万人结婚,而这一数字到了2013年暴跌至11642人。据政府统计,真正结婚的人年纪都比较大。如今阿根廷的年轻人没什么机会参加婚礼,阿克比的假婚礼才会如此受欢迎。“They are going to see something they don’t do in real life any more,” explained sociologist Victoria Mazzeo. “The fact is that very few young people get married anymore.”社会学家维多利亚·马泽尔表示:“他们会见识到现实生活中看不到的东西。事实上,现在很少有年轻人结婚了。”And as Boniface pointed out, it’s apparently easier to meet someone at fake weddings than at real ones!正如伯尼菲斯指出,很明显去假婚礼结交朋友远比去真婚礼方便。 /201510/404684。
  • In 2009, an influential panel of medical experts ignited a nationwide uproar by suggesting that women needed fewer mammograms than had long been recommended. Instead of starting at age 40 and being screened every year, women with average risk of breast cancer could safely begin at 50 and be tested every other year, the group said, citing extensive data to support its advice. It also said that after 74, there was not enough evidence to determine whether routine mammography was worthwhile.2009年,一权威医学专家小组提出,女性并不像此前长期以来建议的那样需要接受那么多乳腺X线影像检查。这个观点引发举国哗然。该小组表示,乳腺癌风险为普通级别的女性无需从40岁起每年筛查,等到50岁以后开始每隔一年进行检查也一样安全。该小组还引用了大量的数据来持自己的上述建议,并表示,目前尚无充足的据确定对74岁以上女性进行常规乳腺摄影筛查是否还有价值。Outrage ensued, from advocates for screening who said the advice would lead to delayed diagnoses and deaths.原筛查方案的拥护者随即表达了自己的愤怒之情,称这些新建议将会延误诊断并导致更多的死亡。On Monday, the same panel issued an update of its guidelines — and it is sticking to its guns. The basic advice, which applies to women with an average risk of breast cancer, was unchanged.1月11日,该小组更新了自己的指南,但并未让步,他们没有对适用于普通乳腺癌风险的妇女的基本建议作出更改。The recommendations are not immediately expected to affect insurance coverage. In December, Congress passed a bill requiring private insurers to pay for screening mammograms for women 40 and over every one to two years without copays, coinsurance or deductibles, through 2017.预计这些建议不会立即影响到医疗保险的覆盖范围。去年12月,美国国会通过了一项法案,要求私营保险公司为年满40岁的妇女付其每一到两年进行一次乳腺X线影像检查的费用,且不产生共付医疗费(copay,指超过了医保报销额度而需要患者自己付的那部分医药费——译注)、共同保险(coinsurance)和自付额度。该法案的有效期到2017年为止。But advocacy groups said they were worried about what will happen after 2017. “It would be great if screening could be covered forever,” said Carli Feinstein, chief of staff for Bright Pink, a national group focused on prevention and early detection of breast and ovarian cancer.但倡导组织表示,他们担心2017年之后会怎样。专注乳腺癌和卵巢癌早期检测和预防的全国性组织Bright Pink的办公室主任卡利·范斯坦(Carli Feinstei)说:“如果筛查能永远涵盖在医保范围内就太好了。”The Susan G. Komen for the Cure foundation also expressed concerns about insurance payment, and issued a statement saying that a lack of coverage would hit “high risk and underserved” women hardest, particularly black women, who are more prone than whites to aggressive types of breast cancer.苏珊·科曼乳腺癌防治基金会(Susan G. Komen For the Cure Foundation)也对医保报销问题表示忧虑,并发表声明称,如果不将乳腺癌筛查纳入保险范围之内,那么“本身风险就高且得不到足够医护务”的妇女,尤其是黑人妇女将受害最深,因为她们比白人妇女更容易患侵袭性乳腺癌。The panel issuing the guidelines is the ed States Preventive Services Task Force, an independent board of doctors and other experts appointed by the Department of Health and Human Services to evaluate screening tests, counseling and medications intended to prevent disease or detect it early. Panel members are volunteers, and consider only the scientific evidence in their evaluations, not cost or insurance coverage.发布上述新指南的小组名为美国预防务工作组(ed States Preventive Services Task Force),这是一个由美国卫生和公众务部(Department of Health and Human Service)指派的医生和其他专家所组成的独立委员会,其主要任务是评估那些旨在预防或及早发现疾病的筛查检测、咨询和药物。小组成员均为志愿者,其评估也只考虑到了科学据,并没有涉及费用或保险覆盖面等问题。The mammography guidelines, along with four editorials and seven supporting articles, were published on Monday in the Annals of Internal Medicine.该乳腺摄影筛查指南,以及四篇文章和七篇配套的持性文章1月11日发表在《内科医学年鉴》(Annals of Internal Medicine)上。The task force emphasized that it was not advising against screening for women under 50 or over 74, or against screening every year as opposed to every other year. Rather, it says that women should choose for themselves — but that its guidelines offer the best overall balance of benefits and risks.该工作组强调,这些建议并不代表他们反对50岁以下或74岁以上的妇女进行筛查或每年筛查。更确切的说,他们认为女性应该自己选择——只是他们的指南提供了利益与风险的最佳综合平衡而已。The task force also examined data for two subjects not included in its 2009 report, and concluded that there was not enough evidence to recommend for or against either of them. One was additional testing, such as M.R.I. or ultrasound, for women with “dense” breast tissue, which makes it difficult to detect tumors with mammography. The other was screening with a newer test called 3-D mammography or digital breast tomosynthesis.该工作组还审查了其2009年报告中未囊括的两个主题:一是对乳房组织呈“致密”状态的妇女进行MRI或超声等额外检查(因为此时使用乳腺摄影筛查也难以发现肿瘤);二是使用最新的三维乳腺摄影或数字化乳腺断层摄影来进行筛查。但他们的结论是:尚无足够的据持或反对其中任何一条。Breast cancer is the second-leading cause of cancer death in women in the ed States, after lung cancer. In 2015, there were about 232,000 new cases of breast cancer, and 40,000 deaths. The highest incidence is in women aged 55 to 64.乳腺癌是造成美国妇女因癌症死亡的第二大原因,仅次于肺癌。2015年,美国约有23.2万例乳腺癌新发病例,4万例死亡。55岁至64岁的妇女发病率最高。Dr. Constance Lehman, a professor of radiology at Harvard Medical School and director of breast imaging at Massachusetts General Hospital, who is not on the task force, said she was pleased to see that although its advice had not changed, the group had placed more of an emphasis than before on the importance of women’s having the freedom to decide how often to be screened and when to start.康斯坦丝·莱曼(Constance Lehman)士是哈佛医学院(Harvard Medical School)的放射学教授,也是美国麻省总医院(Massachusetts General Hospital)的乳腺影像科主任,但并非该工作组的成员。她表示,虽然工作组的建议最后并没有更改,但看到该小组比以往更加重视妇女选择何时开始筛查及筛查频率的自由,令她十分欣慰。The guidelines state that from ages 40 to 74, screening will reduce the odds of dying from breast cancer, with women 40 to 49 benefiting the least and those 60 to 69 benefiting the most. The task force said it concluded “with moderate certainty” that the benefit was moderate in women 50 to 74 and small in women 40 to 49.指南指出,在40岁到74岁的妇女中进行筛查都可以降低乳腺癌死亡率,40岁至49岁的妇女得益最少,而60岁至69岁的妇女受益最大。该工作组表示,他们有“中度把握”得出结论:50岁至74岁的妇女受益中等,而40岁至49岁的妇女受益较小。For every 10,000 women screened repeatedly over 10 years, four lives are saved in women 40 to 49; eight in women 50 to 59; 21 in women 60 to 69; and 13 in women 70 to 74, the task force found.工作组发现,对于每1万名在10年期间多次接受筛查的妇女,40岁至49岁年龄段中有4人避免了因乳腺癌死亡,在50岁至59岁年龄段中有8人,在60岁至69岁年龄段中有21人,在70岁至74岁年龄段中有13人。“The science supports mammography as an important tool in the fight against breast cancer,” said Dr. Michael LeFevre, a former chairman of the task force and a professor of medicine at the University of Missouri. He noted that breast cancer deaths have decreased since mammography came into widesp use in the 1980s, though some of the decline, he said, was also due to better treatments. “We believe the benefits increase with age. But there are harms, and particularly in their 40s, women have to make a decision for themselves.”工作组的前任主席,密苏里大学(University of Missouri)的医学教授迈克尔·勒菲弗(Michael LeFevre)士说:“科学持以乳腺摄影筛查作为与乳腺癌作斗争的重要工具。”他指出,自从20世纪80年代乳腺摄影筛查的广泛使用以来,乳腺癌的死亡人数有所减少(尽管其中也有一部分应该归功于更好的治疗方法)。“我们认为,收益随着年龄的增长而增加。只是筛查也有危害,尤其是对40多岁的女性,因此女性必须为自己拿主意。”One potential harm is false positives, in which a suspicious mammogram finding leads to more tests, sometimes even biopsies, but turns out to be harmless. The guidelines relied in part on a study of records from 405,191 women who had digital mammograms from 2003 to 2011, which found that false positives were common, especially in younger women. Among those 40 to 49 who had regular screening, for every 1,000 women tested, 121.2 had a false positive.其中一个潜在的危害是假阳性,从乳腺摄影筛查结果来看疑似发现了病灶,结果做了更多的检测,甚至组织活检,最后却发现是一场虚惊。该指南依据的一项研究显示,在2003年至2011年间接受数字化乳腺摄影筛查的40.5191万名妇女中,假阳性十分常见,在较年轻的女性中尤其如此。在定期接受筛查的40岁至49岁妇女中,每1000人中就有121.2例假阳性。Another study, in 2011, found that 61 percent of women who had yearly mammograms starting at age 40 had at least one false positive by the time they were 50. Being tested every other year instead of every year cut the rate of false positives significantly, to about 42 percent.2011年的另一项研究发现,在从40岁开始每年接受筛查的妇女中,有61%在50岁前至少遇到过一次假阳性结果。与每年筛查相比,每隔一年接受筛查时的假阳性率显著降低,约为42%。Another potential risk is overdiagnosis, meaning that some of the tiny cancers found in mammograms might never progress or threaten the patient’s life. But because there is now no way to be sure which cancers will turn dangerous, they are treated anyway. Researchers agree that overdiagnosis occurs, but they do not know how often.另一个潜在风险是过度诊断,意即,在乳腺摄影筛查中发现的某些微小的癌症病灶可能永远不至于进展到会威胁患者的生命。但是,因为目前无法确知哪些癌症病灶将来会带来危险,因此就对它们一视同仁地进行了治疗。研究人员也认同过度诊断确有发生,但他们也不清楚其发生率如何。Dr. Therese Bevers, medical director of the Cancer Prevention Center at the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, said she thought the task force overemphasized the importance of drawbacks like false positives.休斯敦的得州大学安德森癌症中心(University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center)癌症防治中心(Cancer Prevention Center)的医务主任特蕾泽·贝弗斯(Therese Bevers)士表示,她认为工作组过分强调了假阳性等不利因素的重要性。Dr. Clifford A. Hudis, the chief of breast cancer medicine at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, also expressed concern: “The harm of a missed curable cancer is something profound. The harm of an unnecessary biopsy seems somewhat less to me.”纪念斯隆-凯特琳癌症中心(Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center)的乳腺癌药物主管克利福德·A·休迪斯(Clifford A. Hudis)士也表示担忧:“如果错过了本来可以治愈的癌症,将会贻害深远。在我看来,与此相比,接受不必要的活检造成的危害不值一提。”Leading medical groups offer different advice about screening that leaves women and their doctors to puzzle it out for themselves. The National Comprehensive Cancer Network, an alliance of prominent cancer centers, recommends mammograms every year starting at age 40. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommends them every year or two from ages 40 to 49, and every year after that.权威医疗团体提出的建议各不相同,令妇女们及其医生在决策时不知所措。美国顶尖癌症中心的联盟——美国国家综合癌症网络(National Comprehensive Cancer Network)建议从40岁开始,每年进行乳腺摄影筛查。美国妇产科医师学会(American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists)的建议是,在40岁到49岁之间每一年或两年筛查一次,其后每年一次。In October, one of the most influential groups, the American Cancer Society, dialed back its advice. Although for many years the society recommended mammograms once a year starting at age 40, it now advises that screening start at 45, continue yearly through 54 and then shift to every other year.去年10月,美国最有影响力的团体之一,美国癌症协会(American Cancer Society)撤回了自己原先的建议。虽然多年来该协会一直建议从40岁开始每年进行乳腺摄影筛查,但他们现在建议从45岁到54岁之间每年筛查,其后改为每隔一年筛查一次。Recognizing the confusion, the cancer society, the cancer network and other groups will attend a private meeting in Washington on Jan. 28 and 29 to try to produce a single set of guidelines.癌症协会、癌症网络和其他团体纷纷意识到了这种乱象,他们将于1月28日和29日在华盛顿举行私人会议,尝试制定一套统一的指南。Representatives from the preventive services task force will attend, but the task force cannot sign onto consensus statements. It can change its advice only by issuing new guidelines, Dr. LeFevre said.预防务工作组的代表亦将参会,但工作组不能在一致的声明上署名。勒菲弗士表示,他们只能通过发布新的指南来更改其建议。 /201601/424053。
  • The Mid-Autumn Festival中秋节On the 15th day of the 8th month of the lunar calendar, the moon is round and the Chinese people mark their Moon (or Mid-autumn) Festival.每年农历八月十五日,圆月当空,是中国传统的中秋佳节。The round shape to a Chinese means family reunion.“圆”对于中国人来说意味着团圆。Therefore the Moon Festival is a holiday for members of a family to get together wherever it is possible.因此,中秋节也是一个合家团圆的节曰。On that day sons and daughters will bring their family members back to their parents’ house for a reunion.这一天,子女会回到父母身边。Sometimes people who have aly settled overseas will come back to visit their parents on that day.甚至远在他乡的游子,也会不远万里回到故乡看望自己的亲人。As every Chinese holiday is accompanied by some sort of special food, on the Moon Festival, people eat moon cakes, a kind of cookie with fillings of sugar, fat, sesame, walnut, the yoke of preserved eggs, ham or other material.中秋节的传统食品是月饼(一种以糖、油、芝麻、核桃仁、咸蛋黄、 火腿等为馅料的糕点)。In Chinese fairy tales, there live on the moon the fairy Chang E, a wood cutter named Wu Gang and a jade rabbit which is Chang E’s pet.在中国神话故事中,月宫中住着嫦娥、玉兔以及砍树人吴刚。In the old days, people paid respect to the fairy Chang E and her pet the jade rabbit.古时候的中秋节,人们会在月下摆设香案,向善良的嫦娥祈求吉祥平安。The custom of paying homage to the fairy and rabbit is gone, but the moon cakes are showing improvement every year.现如今,向嫦娥、玉兔致意的习俗已经淡漠了,但是每年的月饼都在改进。There are hundreds of varieties of moon cakes on sale a month before the arrival of the Moon Festival this year.在距离中秋节还有一个月时,各种各样的月饼就开始销售了。Some moon cakes are of very high quality and very delicious.不乏一些美味可口的高质量月饼。An overseas tourist is advised not to miss it if he or she happens to be in China during the Moon Festival.中秋节期间来中国的海外宾朋可千万不要错过品尝。 /201509/395337。
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