连云港人流专业医院医新闻

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 连云港人流专业医院
Emoji are being adopted at a faster rate than any other #39;language#39; - and eight in 10 of us now use the colourful symbols to communicate.与其他任何“语言”相比,表情符号的采用速度要快得多,现在80%的人在使用多种多样的表情符号进行交流。To plot this popularity, a linguistics professor has conducted the first #39;Emoji IQ#39; study looking at how the pictures are used and by whom.为了明表情符号的流行度,一位语言学教授进行了一项名为“表情符号智商”的研究,旨在探寻是什么人,在如何使用这类表情图片,这类研究尚属首次。And she has created an online test to determine how well you know your #39;confused#39; face from your #39;angry#39; face to determine if you#39;re an emoji master.语言学教授创建了一个在线测试,看受测者是否能区分“困惑”的表情及“愤怒”的表情,以确定受测者是否是一位表情符号达人。The test contains 10 questions that ask users to identify the meaning of certain symbols, and how they would write sentences using emoji.测试包含10个问题,皆在让受试者识别某些表情符号的含义以及如何运用表情符号编写句子。At the end of the test they are given a percentage score - rather than an IQ score as the test#39;s name suggests - and the aim is to be an Emoji Master with a perfect score.每个受试者在测试结束时会得到一个百分比的分数,这个数字和测试题目所示的那种智商分数不一样,拿到高分的人会成为“表情符号达人”。According to the study, four in 10 people send messages made up entirely of emoji and 18 to 25-year-olds find it easier to express emotions using the symbols.根据这项研究,40%的受试者可以完全通过表情符号传递信息,研究还发现18—25岁的年轻人更容易使用这些符号表达感情。More than half of this group admitted emoji has improved their ability to interact with others.超过一半以上的受试者承认表情符号提高了他们与别人交往的能力。But for the over 40s the language is lost in translation.但是,对40岁以上的人来说,用表情符号表达信息有点困难。More than half (54 per cent) admitted to being confused about what the symbols mean, while a third claimed to have avoided using emoji in text, instant messaging and apps because they lacked the confidence to use them appropriately.一半以上的人(占54%)表示弄不清表情符号表示的意思,三分之一的人称他们不会在文本、短信及应用程序中使用这些表情符号,因为他们不确定是否会运用得当。TalkTalk Mobile teamed up with Vyv Evans, linguistics professor at Bangor University to launch the study and improve understanding of emoji with the #39;Emoji IQ#39; tutorial.TalkTalk Mobile公司与班戈大学的语言学教授Vyv Evans合作进行了这项“表情符号智商”测试的研究,帮助理解表情符号的意义。#39;Emoji is the fastest growing form of language ever based on its incredible adoption rate and speed of evolution,#39; said Professor Evans.Evans教授说道:“表情符号使用率高、发展速度快,成为了有史以来发展速度最快的语言形式。”#39;As a visual language emoji has aly far eclipsed hieroglyphics, its ancient Egyptian precursor which took centuries to develop.#39;“作为一种视觉语言,表情符号的发展速度已经远远超过了古埃及人的象形文字,后者的发展经历了几百年时间。” /201505/376751

Among the books, periodicals and letters found in Osama bin Laden’s hide-out in Pakistan was a copy of the former C.I.A. officer Michael Scheuer’s 2004 book, “Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror,” which describes the founder of Al Qaeda as “the most respected, loved, romantic, charismatic and perhaps able figure in the last 150 years of Islamic history.”奥萨马·本·拉登(Osama bin Laden)在巴基斯坦藏匿期间的书籍、期刊和信件中,有一本前中情局官员迈克尔·朔伊尔(Michael Scheuer)2004年的著作《帝国的傲慢:西方为何在反恐战争中失败》(Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror),书中把这位基地组织(Al Qaeda)的创始人描述为“近150年来的伊斯兰历史上最受尊敬与热爱,最浪漫,最有人格魅力,或许也是最有能力的人物”。Also in his library was a copy of Michel Chossudovsky’s conspiracy-minded book “America’s ‘War on Terrorism,’ ” which argued that the Sept. 11, 2001, attacks were simply a pretext for American incursions into the Middle East, and that Bin Laden was nothing but a boogeyman created by the ed States.他的藏书中还有一本米歇尔·科塞多夫斯基(Michel Chossudovsky)的《美国的“反恐战争”》(America’s ‘War on Terrorism)。这本书持阴谋论观点,认为2001年9月11日的恐怖袭击只是美国入侵中东的借口,本·拉登只是被美国凭空创造出来的恶魔。These books and others, along with dozens of journal articles and magazine clippings, were found when a Navy SEAL team raided Bin Laden’s compound in Abbottabad, Pakistan, in 2011. Declassified on Wednesday, they highlight the Qaeda leader’s fascination with the West. They also illustrate the efforts he made to understand America (the better to fight it) and his need to confirm his own beliefs about its rapacity and corruption (perhaps to justify his terrorist attacks).2011年,海豹突击队袭击了本·拉登在巴基斯坦阿伯塔巴德藏匿的院落,除了这两本书,他们还发现了其他书籍以及数十份期刊文章和杂志剪贴。上周三,这些资料得到解密,它们表明了本·拉登对西方世界的兴趣,也明他试图理解美国(并且更好地与之战斗),并且需要借着美国的腐败与贪婪来确认自身的信仰(或许也需要它们来将自己的恐怖主义袭击正当化)。It should not come as a surprise that the terrorist leader was concerned with his legacy and world image — after all, he was famously recorded watching of himself on television. Holed up in Abbottabad for perhaps as long as five years without an Internet connection, Bin Laden had plenty of time to about himself, Al Qaeda and his enemy, the ed States.这位恐怖主义的领袖关心自己的思想遗产和在世界上的形象,这显然并不出人意料,毕竟,他喜欢看电视上自己的录像,这是出了名的。本·拉登在阿伯塔巴德隐居了差不多有五年,不能上互联网,所以有充分的时间阅读关于自己、基地组织和美国敌人的书籍。Bin Laden learned English at an elite Western-style high school in Jidda, Saudi Arabia, where he was by most accounts a serious student, and his library suggests that he spent his last years in hiding as a student again — but a student of terrorism, fixated on American imperialism.本·拉登早年在沙特阿拉伯吉达市的一所西方式精英中学学习英语,大多数人回忆当年的他是个严肃认真的学生。这份书单表明,在人生最后几年里,藏匿中的本·拉登又重新成了一个学生——不过学的是专门针对美帝国主义的恐怖主义。The declassified list released by the Office of the Director of National Intelligence includes art books (“Arabic Calligraphy Workshop”) and health books (“Grappler’s Guide to Sports Nutrition”) described as “documents probably used by other compound residents.” Bin Laden’s books, however, appear pretty much work-related — little or no recreational ing, it seems, for the Qaeda leader.这份解密资料由国家情报总监办公室公布,书单内还包括《阿拉伯语书法研究》(Arabic Calligraphy Workshop)等艺术书籍和《摔跤运动员营养指南》(Grappler’s Guide to Sports Nutrition)等健康书籍,官员们说,“这些东西可能是院落里其他居住者们使用的”。不过本·拉登自己读的书显然都是和工作相关的,几乎没有什么消遣性的阅读材料。Some of the books are mainstream history or journalism: “Obama’s Wars” by Bob Woodward, “The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers” by Paul Kennedy, “The ed States and Vietnam 1787-1941” by Robert Hopkins Miller. Others are conspiracy-mongering tomes like “Bloodlines of the Illuminati” by Fritz Springmeier, “The Taking of America, 1-2-3” by Richard Sprague, and “Secrets of the Federal Reserve” by Eustace Mullins, a Holocaust denier.有些书是主流历史或新闻著作,如鲍勃·奥德伍德(Bob Woodward)的《奥巴马的战争》(Obama’s Wars)、保罗·肯尼迪(Paul Kennedy)的《大国的兴衰》(The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers),以及罗伯特·霍普金斯·米勒(Robert Hopkins Miller)的《美国与越南,1787-1941》(The ed States and Vietnam 1787-1941)。还有一些兜售阴谋论的巨著,比如菲里兹·斯普林梅尔(Fritz Springmeier)的《光明会的血统》(Bloodlines of the Illuminati)、《统治美国,1-2-3》(The Taking of America, 1-2-3),以及否认犹太大屠杀的尤斯塔斯·马林斯(Eustace Mullins)所著的《美联署的秘密》(Secrets of the Federal Reserve)。There are two works by Bin Laden’s early mentor, Abdullah Azzam (“The Defense of Muslim Lands” and “Join the Caravan”), about jihad.有两本书来自本·拉登早期的导师阿卜杜拉·阿扎姆(Abdullah Azzam):《保卫穆斯林王国》(The Defense of Muslim Lands)和《加入队伍》(Join the Caravan),都是关于伊斯兰圣战的。There is also a sizable cache of documents relating to France, such as “Wage Inequality in France” and “France on Radioactive Waste Management, 2008.” And there are books by the left-wing writers Greg Palast (“The Best Democracy Money Can Buy”) and Noam Chomsky (“Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance”) that Bin Laden probably thought ratified some of his own views about American imperial ambitions and corporate corruption.此外还有大量关于法国的资料,诸如《法国的薪资不平等》(Wage Inequality in France)和《法国的放射性废料管理,2008》(France on Radioactive Waste Management, 2008)。还有些左翼作家的书籍,如格雷格·帕拉斯特(Greg Palast)的《金钱能买到的最好的民主》(The Best Democracy Money Can Buy)和诺姆·乔姆斯基(Noam Chomsky)的《霸权还是生存:美国对全球统治的追求》(Hegemony or Survival: America’s Quest for Global Dominance),本·拉登或许觉得它们能够印他对美帝国主义野心与大公司腐败的一些看法。While stuck in Abbottabad, Bin Laden seems to have been studying publicly available ed States government documents and articles and radical publications. He also Foreign Policy magazine articles and RAND Corporation studies on counterinsurgency, trying to keep a handle on the war on terrorism he had set off.被困在阿伯塔巴德期间,本·拉登似乎仍在研究任何可以到手的美国政府公开的文件、文章与基本出版物。他还读《对外政策》(Foreign Policy)杂志上的文章,以及兰德公司(RAND Corporation)对镇压叛乱的研究,努力跟上由他肇始的恐怖主义战争的形势。His bookshelf is a weird hodgepodge. It’s hard to know how complete a list it is, and whether he requested certain books from aides, or if aides sent him works they thought he might like or that might influence his thinking.他的书架堪称古怪的大杂烩。公布出来的书单有多完整,目前不得而知;人们也无从知道这些书是他特意要求助手去买的,又或者是助手为他挑选了这些书;更无法知道这些书他是否喜欢,抑或对他产生了多少影响。The declassified letters and correspondence reflect Bin Laden’s managerial concerns — Al Qaeda had become a kind of giant corporation. His self-prescribed syllabus included works on global issues, like climate change, and ran a spectrum from historical works to crackpot conspiracy tracts.解密的笔记与通信反映出本·拉登在管理方面的忧虑——基地组织已经成为某种巨大的公司组织。本·拉登亲自为他们制定的课程包括对气候变化等全球问题的研究,从历史研究到离奇的阴谋论文件无所不有。The eclectic nature of the list speaks to both Bin Laden’s reach as Al Qaeda’s leader and his limitations as an international fugitive; his ambitions to think globally and his na#239;ve susceptibility to theorists who talk conspiracy to explain the perfidies of the West; his fascination with America; and his determination to find new ways to attack it by trying to understand the dynamics of its political and economic systems.这份书单的折中主义本质反映出本·拉登作为基地组织领袖的关注范围,以及他作为国际逃亡者的局限性;他有着以全球化视野看待问题的野心,然而对那些以阴谋论来解释西方背信弃义的理论家们又有着天真的轻信;他迷恋美国;同时又努力去了解它政治与经济系统的运行,以图寻找新的方式去攻击它。As Steve Coll wrote in his compelling biography of the Bin Laden family, “The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century”: “Osama was not a stranger to the West,” having grown up in one of Saudi Arabia’s wealthiest families and traveled abroad, “but by age 15, he had aly erected a wall against their allures. He felt implicated by the West, and by its presence in his own family, and yet, as he would demonstrate in the years ahead, he lacked a sophisticated or subtle understanding of Western society and history. He used his passport, but he never really left home.”史蒂夫·科尔(Steve Coll)的《本·拉登:美国世纪中的阿拉伯家族》(The Bin Ladens: An Arabian Family in the American Century)是他为本·拉登家族撰写的一部引人入胜的传记,书中写道:“奥萨马对西方世界并不陌生”,他成长在沙特阿拉伯最富裕的家庭之一,曾经周游世界,“但是到了15岁那年,他已在心底筑起高墙,把西方世界的诱惑拒之门外。他觉得自己与西方世界,乃至它对自己家族的影响密切相关,但在未来的岁月里,他的行为明他对西方社会和历史的理解并不成熟深入。他使用护照到处旅行,但他其实从未真正离开家乡。” /201505/377680

It#39;s one of the most taboo subjects there is to discuss.这里讨论的是人人都忌讳的话题。But one scientist has hauled poo in the limelight - and now everyone#39;s talking about it.但是,一位科学家将有关便便的话题拉到了公众视野,现在人人都在谈论它。Giulia Enders, a German microbiologist, claims that people in Western countries are emptying their bowels in totally the wrong way - and instead of sitting on the loo, we should be squatting.德国微生物学家茱莉亚#8226;恩德斯称,西方国家的人们大便的方式完全错误---大便时不应坐着而应蹲着。Her book, Charming Bowels, which has topped the charts in her native country for several weeks, explores a number of gut health issues, from constipation to bacteria.她的《美丽的肠道(Charming Bowels)》一书在德国已经连续几周登顶畅销书榜首,书中探究了便秘和细菌等一系列肠道健康问题。The overall message is that the gastrointestinal tract is #39;the brain#39;s most important adviser#39;, affecting everything from mental to digestive health.整本书主要传递的信息是,胃肠道是“大脑最重要的顾问”,它影响人的精神和消化道的健康。But there are also practical gems, such as how to poo properly.除此之外,书中还探究了一些实用性的问题,比如,如何正确地大便。Sitting is in fact all wrong, and actually prolongs the process, explains Ms Enders, who is studying in Frankfurt for her medical doctorate in microbiology.“事实上,坐便是完全错误的方式,它实际上延长了大便的时间,”在法兰克福攻读微生物学士学位的恩格斯解释道。It may also explain why haemorrhoids (piles) and painful bowel diseases such as diverticulitis are more common in the West than in Asia, she adds.她补充说,这也就可以解释为何在西方国家患肠道疾病(比如,憩室炎)以及痔疮的人比亚洲国家多。She said: #39;1.2 billion people around the world who squat have almost no incidence of diverticulitis and fewer problems with piles.她说:“全球12亿蹲便的人中几乎没有人患憩室炎并且也很少有人长痔疮。#39;We in the West, on the other hand, squeeze our gut tissue until it comes out of our bottoms.#39;“然而,我们西方人坐着挤压肠道组织,直到大便排出。”Instead, the correct way is to squat.其实,蹲便反而是正确的方式。Although you can climb on your toilet seat and squat, the kink can also be ironed out by sitting with your feet on a little stool and leaning forward.你可以爬上你家的马桶圈上蹲着,不过也可以坐在马桶上,然后给脚下垫一个小凳子,同时保持身体前倾,用这种方式实现蹲便。Ms Enders adds there is a wealth of research that shows squatting is a more effective way to evacuate the bowels.恩德斯表示,有大量研究表明蹲便是一种更加有效的排便方式。This is because the closure mechanism of the gut is not designed to #39;open the hatch completely#39; when we#39;re sitting down or standing up: it#39;s like a kinked hose.之所以会这样,是因为在我们坐着或站着时,肠道的关闭机制不会“完全开放肠口”,就像一根打了结的软管。She explained: #39;When you sit or stand, there#39;s a muscle that goes around the end of the colon and it pulls, so there#39;s a curve.她解释道:“在你坐着或站着时,有股力量会游走在结肠的末端,并且产生拉力,最后在结肠末尾会形成一个弯。”#39;When we#39;re in a squatting position, and have a little stool in front of the toilet, then the angle is even and straight, so there#39;s less pressure needed.#39;“而在我们采取蹲姿,或在马桶前放一个小凳子,双脚踩在凳子上时,肠道的角度就会变平、变直,排便时所需的力就少了。”#39;Squatting is far more natural and puts less pressure on our bottoms.#39;蹲便是更加自然的姿势,而且对我们的排便器官造成的压力也更小。Some experts claim we all used to squat - until the middle of the 19th century - and the demise of squatting is to blame for soaring rates of bowel and digestive issues.一些专家说我们人类过去常常是蹲便的,直到19世纪中期才发生变化,肠道和消化问题的剧增都是因为蹲便的消亡。As US-based doctor Joseph Mercola writes on his webpage: #39;Infants instinctively squat to defecate, as does the majority of the world#39;s population.美国医生约瑟夫#8226;麦克拉在他的网页上写到:“婴儿本能地蹲着排便,世界上大多数人也是蹲便。”#39;But somehow the West was convinced that sitting is more civilized.#39;“但是,不知怎么回事,在西方,人们认为坐便更文明。” /201505/376391Swimmers are tidy and make the best lovers while cyclists vote Liberal Democrat: What your favourite sport says about you?喜欢游泳的人都爱整洁,是最佳爱侣,自行车爱好者可能会投票给自由民主党,你喜欢的运动能透露你的什么个性呢?Unless your name is Rebecca Adlington, Victoria Pendleton or Mo Farah, sport is probably nothing more than an enjoyable hobby.除非你是瑞贝卡·阿德林顿(英国游泳健将)、维多利亚·彭德尔顿(英国最出色的场地自行车女车手),或者法拉赫(英国长跑运动员),不然,运动对你来说只是一个有趣的爱好而已。Now a new study has revealed that your choice of sport says more about you than you could possibly have imagined.一项最新的研究显示,你选择的运动方式透露出来的个性特征比你想象的要多。According researchers, cyclists are more likely to be emotionally stable, runners the most extrovert and swimmers the happiest, while walkers are the least materialistic.研究人员认为,骑自行车的人通常情绪稳定,跑步的人最开朗,游泳的人最开心,而喜欢走路的人最不看重物质。The psychological study, which was carried out by experts Mindlab, also revealed that sport can also offer clues to a person#39;s attitude to charity, ing habits and even their voting intentions.思想实验室的专家们展开的这项心理研究同时表明,运动能够透露人们对慈善事业的态度、阅读习惯,甚至选举意向。Cyclists, for instance, are most likely to vote Liberal Democrat and tend to be laid back and calm, if keen on acquiring material possessions.比如,骑自行车的人通常会给自由民主党的人投票,对待获取物质财富比较淡泊。Meanwhile runners tend to be Labour-voting extroverts who love being the centre of attention and have a penchant for upbeat dance music.而跑步的人却更倾向于投工党的票,他们性格外向,喜欢成为焦点,并且酷爱正能量的舞曲。Those who swim tend to make the best lovers, are tidy and are also the most charitable, although according to Mindlab, 61 per cent of adults are fond of charity regardless of their choice of sport.游泳的人通常是最好的情侣,他们爱整洁,而且热衷慈善。不过思想实验室也指出,不论爱好何种运动,61%的成人都是爱好慈善事业的。Walkers, a category that includes those who enjoy rambling, orienteering and trekking, are least concerned about material possessions and like their own company.这些喜欢漫步的、野外定向运动的和徒步旅行的人,对物质财富都最不在意,喜欢独来独往。#39;It has long been known that exercise is not only good for your body, but also your mind,#39; comments neuropsychologist, Dr David Lewis.神经心理学家大卫·路易斯士说:“一直以来我们都知道运动不仅有助于身体健康,而且有利于心理健康。”#39;Past research has shown that exercising can act as a mood-enhancer, can be used to treat and possibly even prevent anxiety and generally has a positive effect on mental health.“过去的调查研究显示,运动有提振情绪的功能,不仅可以用来治疗甚至尽可能的预防焦虑,而且对于心理健康还有积极的效果。”#39;The results from this study show that no matter what kind of person you are, there is the right kind of exercise for everyone.#39;“从这项研究结果来看,无论你属于哪种类型的人,总会有一项运动适合你。” /201506/382670

Castle needs roommates城堡诚招室友If you#39;re remotely normal, sorry, but you can#39;t live in the ;Startup Castle;.如果你有点儿正常,那对不起了,你没法住在;创业城堡;里。Live-work-play spaces are common in Silicon Valley as many startups will live in the same building while they build their product.在硅谷,有很多捣鼓新产品的创业公司吃住都在同一栋楼里,所以住所、工作、;三位一体;的公寓非常普遍。But, the current roommates of the Startup Castle seem to be pretty discerning on who can live with them.但住在;创业城堡;里的室友似乎对于新人十分挑剔。The qualifications for new roommates basically exclude anyone who watches 4 hours of TV/movie/game entertainment per week, who loves social media, who attends protests, who dates online, who wears make-up or who has a complex diet that requires lots of refrigerator space.招募室友时,他们基本上排除了每周花4小时看电视/电影/玩游戏的人、热爱社交媒体的人、参加政治抗议的人、网恋的人、化妆的人和吃饭时;事儿多;、需要占据很多冰箱空间的人。To live here, you must exercise at least 15 hours in a normal week, commute by car less than 20% of the time, prefer organized systems and like petting dogs.要住在这儿,你需要每周运动至少15小时,坐车的时间不超过20%,喜欢有条理的系统,还要喜欢。 /201506/378105The Legoland hotel in Florida has finally opened and eveything really is awesome。美国佛罗里达的lego主题酒店终于开业了,这对lego迷来说,简直棒呆!It looks like it has been built with actual lego bricks and there is a dragon at the front of the hotel which blows steam out of its nose。用lego积木搭建的房子,还有一只龙在宾馆前面的,好像鼻子在吹气。There are 152 rooms divided into four different themes including Pirate, Kingdom, Adventure and Lego Friends。有152间客房分为四个不同的主题包括海盗王国,冒险,lego的朋友。Each room sleeps five people and is separated into adult and kids#39; sleeping areas filled with Lego bricks to play with during your stay。每个房间可以住五个人,分别用不同的积木为青少年以及儿童设计了不同的住处。All guests have access to a Master Builder Lego workshop and there are also treasure chests in the room unlocked only by completing the hotel#39;s scavenger hunt。所有的客人可以访问监工lego工厂,还有可以打开房间里的宝箱,完成酒店的寻宝游戏。It is like a giant playground。它就像一个巨大的游乐场。And yes, we know there is a Lego hotel at Legoland Windsor but being 20 minutes from Heathrow isn#39;t quite the same as lying by the pool in the Florida sun, is it?是的,我们知道,英国也有一个乐lego酒店,在温莎,从希思罗机场到那大约只要20分钟。但它跟美国的不太一样,因为你可以躺在佛罗里达的太阳池沐浴,不是吗?Oh, the pool also has Lego-style sunbeds and Lego floats too。哦,游泳池也有像日光浴浴床,还有一些lego的漂浮积木。 /201507/384728

MOUNTAIN VIEW, Calif. — For more than a half-century, a small group of astronomers has sought intelligent company among the stars. They’ve done so by turning large radio antennas skyward, hoping to eavesdrop on signals from an advanced society. It’s a program known as SETI, the Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence.加利福尼亚山景城——半个多世纪以来,一些天文学家一直在探寻星际中的智慧生命,探寻我们的同伴。他们为此架设朝向天空的大型无线电天线,以期捕获来自科技先进的世界的信号。人们称这一探索计划为“地外文明搜寻计划”(Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence,简称SETI)。But now some researchers propose that we should do more than simply don headphones and await E.T.’s call: We should make serious efforts to encourage a response from putative aliens by deliberately transmitting our own messages. It’s a simple idea, akin to tossing a bottle into the cosmic ocean. But recent arguments for what’s termed active SETI have loosed a storm of controversy, one that has even washed into the halls of academe.不过,现在有一些研究者建议,我们不能只是侧耳倾听,等待外星人的召唤,而要做更多、更积极的努力,主动传递出自己的信息,鼓励可能存在的外星人做出回应。这是个简单的想法,如同向浩瀚的宇宙扔一只瓶子。不过最近,被称作“主动探寻地外文明”的想法引发了诸多讨论,刮起了一场争议的风暴,甚至蔓延到了学术界。Why is this? Why has the sending of dispatches to worlds many trillions of miles distant suddenly become a hot-button issue? The simple answer is that there’s now a perception that advertising our existence could be a mortal threat to the planet.这是为什么呢?为什么向远在万亿英里之外的世界发送信息会骤然成为热点话题?很简单,因为现在有一种看法认为,广泛宣示人类的存在可能会对我们的星球造成致命威胁。The reasoning is this: While no one has yet offered decisive proof for life beyond Earth, in the past two years astronomers have learned that tens of billions of habitable planets suffuse our galaxy. Consequently, to believe that only Earth has spawned intelligence is to insist that our world is the site of a miracle. That point of view rarely appeals to scientists.原因在于:尽管尚未有人能给出存在地外生命的确凿据,但过去两年间,天文学家们了解到,我们的系遍布着数以百亿的宜居星球。因此,让人相信只有地球产生了智慧生命就等于坚持认为我们生活的世界全然是一块奇迹之地。科学家不喜欢这种假设。The aliens could very well be out there. And that realization has spurred a call by some for broadcasts intended to elicit a communication from at least the nearest other star systems. But we know nothing of the aliens’ possible motives or behavior. Therefore, it’s conceivable that betraying our existence might prompt aggressive action from space.地球以外很可能存在外星人。这种认识引起一些人呼吁发出广播信号,意在引发至少与最近星系的交流。不过,我们对外星人的动机和行为一无所知。因此可以想像,泄露人类的存在可能会激起来自太空的侵略行动。Broadcasting is likened to “shouting in the jungle” — not a good idea when you don’t know what’s out there. The British physicist Stephen Hawking alluded to this danger by noting that on Earth, when less advanced societies drew the attention of those more advanced, the consequences for the former were seldom agreeable.向地外发送广播信号就像“在丛林中大声叫喊”,如果你不知道周围存在着什么,那么这样做可能很不明智。英国物理学家史蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)便暗示过这种危险——他指出,在地球上,如果较落后社会引起了较先进社会的注意,那对前者来说很少是件好事。It’s a worry we never used to have. Victorian-era scientists toyed with plans to use lanterns and burning pools of oil to contact postulated Martians. In the 1970s, NASA bolted greeting cards onto spacecraft that will leave our solar system and wander the vast reaches between the stars. The Pioneer and Voyager probes carry plaques and records with information about what humans look like and where Earth is, as well as a small sampling of our culture.过去,我们从来没有这种担心。维多利亚时代的科学家设想过用点亮灯盏和大量燃油的方式与设若存在的火星人取得联系。到了20世纪70年代,美国国家航空航天局将问候贺卡栓牢在航天器上,并随航天器离开太阳系、在恒星之间的广阔空间漫游。“先驱者”号和“旅行者”号探测器则携带镀金铝板和镀金铜质唱片,承载着人类长什么模样和地球位于何方的信息,还包括一个人类文化的小样本。Those messages move at the speed of rockets. But in 1974, a three-minute encoded pictogram was transmitted using the large radio antenna at Arecibo, Puerto Rico. It moves at the speed of light, 20,000 times faster. More recent radio transmissions include a Beatles song beamed by NASA to the North Star, a Doritos advertisement launched to a planetary system in the Big Dipper, and a series of broadcasts sent to nearby stars using an antenna in Crimea.上述这些信息的传递速度与火箭相同。不过1974年,波多黎各的阿雷西天文台(Arecibo)用大型无线电天线发送了一个3分钟的编码图片符号,运行速度已达光速,比之前的信息快2万倍。更近期发送的无线电信息有:美国宇航局向北极星传送的一甲壳虫乐队的歌,向北斗星座一个行星系发送的一段“立体脆”食品广告,以及通过在克里米亚的一部天线向近地恒星发送的一系列无线电信号。When most people believed that aliens were no more than easy black hats for Hollywood, the idiosyncratic nature of these messages could be easily dismissed. But if cosmic company is a legitimate possibility, shouldn’t we offer up something more edifying than pop music and snack food? A deliberate transmission should represent all of humanity — not short-circuit the important question of who will speak for Earth.在大多数人认为外星人不过是好莱坞的噱头的时代,人们很容易对这些怪怪的选择不以为然。但如果真的有可能存在外星生命,我们难道不应当发送比流行音乐和小吃零食更有助益的信息吗?深思熟虑后发送的信息应当能代表全体人类——而不能回避谁可以代表地球这一重要问题。Consequently, recent conferences on the merits of active SETI have sought the advice of social scientists. Among their worries is whether to be up front about humanity’s seamy side: Should we tell the extraterrestrials about war and injustice?所以,最近就“主动探寻地外文明”的好处方面,有讨论会开始向社会科学家寻求意见。诸多担忧中有一条,是否要诚实展现人类丑陋的一面。我们需要告诉地外文明我们有战争和不公正现象吗?Personally, I think this concern is overwrought. Any society that can pick up our radio messages will be at a level of development at least centuries beyond our own. They would be no more incensed by our bad behavior than historians who learned that Babylonians attacked one another with spears. It seems na#239;ve to imagine that, by shielding aliens from the less flattering aspects of humanity, we would somehow lessen any incentive to do us harm. If there’s a danger, mincing words is unlikely to eliminate it.就个人而言,我认为这种担忧过虑了。能接收到地球无线电信息的社会必定处在比我们先进至少几世纪的发展水平。他们对人类的不良行为产生的愤怒不会比历史学家发现巴比伦人自相残杀更严重。认为只要对他们掩盖我们不光的一面,就可以降低他们加害我们的动机,这种想法似乎太天真。如果确有危险存在,我们不太可能通过文过饰非把这种危险消除。A better approach is to note that the nearest intelligent extraterrestrials are likely to be at least dozens of light-years away. Even assuming that active SETI provokes a reply, it won’t be breezy conversation. Simple back-and-forth exchanges would take decades. This suggests that we should abandon the “greeting card” format of previous signaling schemes, and offer the aliens Big Data.一种更好的做法,是先认识到离我们最近的地外智慧生命可能至少也隔着几十光年的距离。即使主动SETI的行为引起了一个回应,那也不会是顺畅的聊天。简单的一问一答也要几十年。这意味着,我们要放弃以前那种“问候卡”式的信号发送模式,向外星人发送大数据。For example, we could transmit the contents of the Internet. Such a large corpus — with its text, pictures, s and sounds — would allow clever extraterrestrials to decipher much about our society, and even formulate questions that could be answered with the material in hand. Sending the web on its way would take months if a radio transmitter were used. A powerful laser, conveying bits much like an optical fiber, could launch these data in a few days.比如,我们可以发送互联网内容。文本、图片、视频和音频汇编的大型数据库可以让聪明的外星人破解更多有关人类社会的信息,甚至思考出一些用手头资料能够解答的问题。采用无线电广播发射机传送网络信息需要几个月时间;而用强激光传送这些数据只需几天,很像用光导纤维传输。Sending messages — even big ones — is technically feasible. However, there’s still the highly controversial matter of whether to broadcast at all. Who decides? One could simply let the public weigh in, but doing so wouldn’t address the security issue. Even if a majority is comfortable with a transmission, how does that mitigate the possible danger?向地外传送信息乃至大量信息,从技术角度来讲是可行的。不过,要不要向地外发送信息还是一个争议极大的问题。谁来做这个决定?我们完全可以让公众参与决策,但这并不能解决安全问题。即便多数人愿意发送信息,那就能消除潜在危险了吗?The inability to gauge this peril prompts some critics to argue that, given the possibly existential threat posed by active SETI, we should choose the side of caution. We should simply forbid powerful transmissions to the skies. Indeed, a small consortium of academics in California has drafted a petition urging this.由于无法测量这种危险,一些批评者提出,考虑到主动寻找地外文明可能造成的威胁,我们宁可慎重,应当禁止向外太空进行大功率传输。事实上,加州一小部分学者已经就此起草了请愿书,呼吁这么做。It’s a wary approach. It’s also poor insurance. Any extraterrestrials with technology advanced enough to threaten us will surely have antennas larger than our own, instruments that can pick up the television and radio signals broadcast willy-nilly since World War II. We are aly shouting into the jungle, albeit with less volume than a deliberate signal. But the dangerous creatures may have good hearing.这种做法虽谨慎,却也不是万无一失。技术发达程度足以威胁我们的地外文明必定拥有比我们更大的天线等强大设备,能够接收二战以来人类发送的杂乱的电视信号和无线电信号。我们已经在对着丛林大喊了,只不过音量没有主动发送的信号那么大。但危险生物的耳朵也可能很尖。Additionally, if we forbid high-powered transmitters aimed at the sky, we shut out such obvious future technologies as better radars for aviation and tracking dangerous asteroids. Do we really want to hamstring our descendants this way?此外,如果禁止高功率设备向天空发射信号,我们显然就阻断了未来技术的发展,研制不出在航空飞行及追踪危险小行星领域性能更加优越的雷达。我们真的要就此束缚后世儿孙的发展吗?A decision to engage in active SETI has not been made. The benefit — learning our place in the cosmos — is only hypothetical, and so is the danger. But I, for one, would hesitate to let a paranoia based on nothing more than conjecture shackle the activities of our children and our children’s children. The universe beckons, and we can do better than to declare that future generations should endlessly tremble at the sight of the stars.是否应当开展主动SETI还没有定论。这么做的好处——了解我们在宇宙中的位置——只是一种假设,但其风险也是假设。但就个人而言,我会犹豫是否让一种只有猜想做基础的疑神疑鬼心理束缚住我们的孩子、孩子的孩子的行动。宇宙在召唤,我们应该能做得更好,而不是让未来一代人看到星星就陷入无尽的恐惧战栗中。 /201504/370005To get a brief reprieve from the pressures of working in the White House, Kristina Schake, a former aide to the first lady, Michelle Obama, took a class about her favorite painter, Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio.为了从白宫工作的压力中获得短暂的缓解,第一夫人米歇尔·奥巴马(Michelle Obama)的前助理克里斯蒂娜·舍克(Kristina Schake)选读了一门课程,是关于她最喜欢的画家米开朗基罗·梅里西·达·卡拉瓦乔(Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio)的。She noticed that the Italian painter often showed Christ with bare feet, portraying his subject as a common man.她注意到,这位意大利画家经常让基督赤着脚,把他描绘成普通人。It was a lesson that informed Ms. Schake’s job in the East Wing when, as Mrs. Obama’s communications chief, she encouraged the first lady to take an undercover shopping trip to a Target in suburban Alexandria, Va., to showcase her dance moves on “Late Night With Jimmy Fallon” and to make a cameo at the Oscars.这门课给她在白宫东翼的工作带来了启发。当时她担任奥巴马夫人的联络主管,她鼓励第一夫人悄悄去弗吉尼亚州亚历山德里亚郊区的塔吉特百货(Target)购物;在《吉米晚间秀》(Late Night With Jimmy Fallon)上展示自己的舞步;在奥斯卡颁奖礼上担任嘉宾。Positioning a public figure is not exactly the work of a Baroque master, and a trip to Target does not a work of-art make. Nevertheless, the lesson from Caravaggio was clear in Ms. Schake’s approach.为公众人物定位可不是卡拉瓦乔这位巴洛克大师的工作,去塔吉特百货购物也不是艺术行为。不过,从卡拉瓦乔身上学到的东西对舍克行事方式的影响很明显。Having helped shape Mrs. Obama’s public image into that of an accessible everywoman, Ms. Schake is about to face what may be her toughest challenge yet: working to get another first lady, Hillary Rodham Clinton, elected president.舍克把奥巴马夫人的公众形象塑造为平易近人的普通女人。现在,她可能面临着生平最艰巨的挑战:努力帮助另一位第一夫人——希拉里·罗德姆·克林顿(Hillary Rodham Clinton)——当选总统。Mrs. Clinton, who is expected to announce her candidacy this month, has brought Ms. Schake, 45, to her 2016 communications team to try to tackle an issue that dogged the 2008 Clinton campaign.克林顿夫人可能会在本月正式宣布参加总统竞选(她已在12日宣布第二次竞选总统——编注)。她把45岁的舍克拉进自己的2016年竞选联络团队,以解决困扰她2008年竞选的一个问题。Back then, Mrs. Clinton’s advisers argued she should emphasize strength and experience, rather than her softer side, a strategic decision that Ann Lewis, a senior adviser in that race, has called the “biggest missed opportunity” in the failed 2008 primary contest against Barack Obama.当时,克林顿夫人的顾问们认为,她应该强调自己的力量和经验,而不是温和的一面。那次竞选的高级顾问安妮·刘易斯(Ann Lewis)称,那个战略决策是导致克林顿夫人在2008年预选中输给贝拉克·奥巴马(Barack Obama)的“最大因素”。Now, after two decades in the public eye, Mrs. Clinton must try to show voters a self-effacing, warm and funny side that her friends say reflects who she really is. In short, she must counteract an impression that she is just “likeable enough,” as Mr. Obama famously quipped in 2008.如今,在受公众瞩目20年之后,克林顿夫人必须努力向投票人展现自己谦逊、温暖、风趣的一面,她的朋友们说这才是她的真性情。简而言之,她必须消除只是“够讨人喜欢了”的印象——这话是奥巴马2008年对她的著名讽刺。As the campaign’s presumptive deputy communications director, Ms. Schake will be behind the effort to transport the Hillary Brand beyond paid campaign television ads, policy discussions and the requisite sit-down with a nightly news anchor.舍克非常可能成为希拉里竞选团队的副联络主管,她将在付费电视竞选广告、政策讨论以及与晚间新闻主播的必要交谈之外,寻找其他途径帮助传播希拉里品牌。The daughter of a stay-at-home mother and a commercial airline pilot from Sonoma, Calif., Ms. Schake is best known for finding ways to communicate with Americans outside the coastal elite — a perspective Mrs. Clinton, who lives in Chappaqua, N.Y., and regularly commands a speaking fee of more than 0,000, will need.舍克的母亲是家庭主妇,父亲是加利福尼亚州索诺马一家商业航空公司的飞行员。她最擅长的是寻找与东海岸精英之外的美国人沟通的方法。这一点将是克林顿夫人所需要的——她住在纽约州的查帕科,发表演讲的常规费用是20多万美元。That won’t necessarily mean she will mimic Mrs. Obama’s “Driving the Station Wagon” dance on late-night TV, but Mrs. Clinton could, for example, talk to the Food Network about dinners with girlfriends or discuss her yoga routines on a health and wellness blog.克林顿夫人不一定要像奥巴马夫人那样,在深夜电视节目中跳“开旅行车”舞,但她可以在美食频道谈论与女友们外出就餐的情况,或者在健康客上讨论自己的日常瑜伽锻炼。The proliferation of new ways to reach voters through multiple devices means “it’s not the same formula in politics that it was even just four years ago or eight years ago,” said Stephanie Cutter, a Democratic strategist and a deputy campaign manager for the Obama reelection campaign. “It’s about understanding people who are just living their lives and figuring out ways to fit a candidate into that, rather than vice versa.”民主党策略家、奥巴马第二次参加总统竞选时的副竞选主管斯蒂芬妮·卡特(Stephanie Cutter)说,接触选民的新方式在不断增多,这意味着“如今的政治模式与四年前或八年前不同了”,“现在的模式是理解那些有自己生活的选民,想办法让候选人融入选民的生活,而不是相反”。Ms. Schake, who declined to be interviewed for this article, first learned what resonates with a mass American audience from the man best known for “All in the Family” and “When Harry Met Sally.” In 1998 the actor and director Rob Reiner and his wife, Michele Singer Reiner, hired her to help with their push to pass a ballot initiative that would add a 50-cent tax to each pack of cigarettes sold in California to fund early childhood education.舍克(她拒绝为本文接受采访)最初是从演员兼导演罗布·赖纳(Rob Reiner)那里学会如何与广大美国观众产生共鸣的。赖纳最出名的作品是《全家福》(All in the Family)和《当哈利遇见莎莉》(When Harry Met Sally)。1998年,赖纳和妻子米歇尔·辛格·赖纳(Michele Singer Reiner)聘请舍克帮忙推动通过一项公民表决提案——给加州出售的每包香烟增加50美分的税,以资助早期儿童教育。Mr. Reiner said Ms. Schake consistently reminded him not to veer from the predetermined script, which had an almost cinematic simplicity. “Every step of the way it was ‘the good guys are fighting the bad guys,’ ” Mr. Reiner said in an interview. “It was, ‘Do you want to support big tobacco or do you want to support little children?’ ”赖纳说,舍克不断提醒他,不要偏离预定的行动计划,它几乎和电影情节一样简单。“那个计划的每一步都是在表现‘好人在与坏人作斗争’,”赖纳接受采访时说,“就好像在说,‘你是想持大型烟草公司还是帮助小孩?’”The initiative passed despite the roughly million the tobacco lobby spent to defeat it.尽管烟草公司花了约4000万美元进行游说,这项提案还是通过了。Mr. Reiner introduced Ms. Schake to Chad Griffin, a former aide in the Clinton White House who is now the president of the Human Rights Campaign. Mr. Griffin and Ms. Schake became best friends and together started Griffin-Schake, a Los Angeles-based public affairs shop. They handled media relations for Maria Shriver when she was the first lady of California.赖纳把舍克介绍给查德·格里芬(Chad Griffin)。格里芬曾担任克林顿的白宫副官,现在是“人权运动”组织(Human Rights Campaign)的主席。格里芬和舍克成了好朋友,一起开创了洛杉矶公共事务公司格里芬-舍克(Griffin-Schake)。他们曾负责处理加州第一夫人玛丽亚·施赖弗(Maria Shriver)的媒体关系。Ms. Schake was one of the first people Mr. Griffin came out to, on the rooftop of the Standard Hotel in downtown Los Angeles. “She worked to get the story out of me and she got what she wanted,” Mr. Griffin said.舍克是最早知道格里芬同性恋身份的人之一,那是在洛杉矶市中心的标准酒店(Standard Hotel)屋顶上。“她努力想从我这里知道真相,她如愿以偿了,”格里芬说。The battle for gay rights soon became the two friends’ focus when they became central players in the legal case against Proposition 8, the ballot initiative that barred same-sex couples from marrying. Ms. Schake prepared the plaintiffs for the crush of publicity, while also showing a mainstream audience that they were just ordinary committed couples.很快,争取同性恋权利成为这两个好朋友的关注重点。他们成为反对8号提案(Proposition 8)的法律诉讼的主要参与者。这项公民表决提案禁止同性恋伴侣结婚。舍克帮原告们做好心理准备,应对公众的压力,同时向主流观众表明,他们只是普通的忠诚情侣。A month before the Supreme Court dismissed the California measure, Ms. Schake persuaded Kris Perry and Sandy Stier of Berkeley, Calif., who had been together more than a decade, to pose for a feature in People magazine.在最高法院驳回这项加州提案前一个月,舍克劝一对共同生活十多年的加州伯克利同性恋伴侣克丽丝·佩里(Kris Perry)和桑迪·施蒂尔(Sandy Stier)为《人物》(People)杂志的一篇特写拍照。“I was really self-conscious about being the only really physically gay-looking one” of the plaintiffs, Ms. Perry said in an interview. She told Ms. Schake she thought she should change her hair or wear different clothes. “She just put her hand on my shoulder and said, ‘No, that is not going to happen,’ ” Ms. Perry said.佩里在接受采访时说,“我是原告中唯一一个外表看起来像同性恋的人,我对此感到非常难为情。”她告诉舍克,她觉得自己应该改变发型或装。“她把手放在我肩上说,‘不,你不用改变,’” 佩里说。In 2010, Ms. Schake stepped back from the gay marriage fight to work for Mrs. Obama, a position for which Ms. Shriver recommended her.2010年,舍克从争取同性恋婚姻的活动中退出,开始为奥巴马夫人工作,这个职位是施赖弗推荐的。She promoted Mrs. Obama’s “Let’s Move!” initiative to fight childhood obesity, sping the first lady’s message with appearances on “The Ellen DeGeneres Show” and “Top Chef,” and in her famous “Mom Dancing” routine with Mr. Fallon, which generated 22 million views on YouTube.她宣传奥巴马夫人对抗儿童肥胖的“让我们动起来”(Let’s Move!)倡议,让奥巴马夫人在《艾伦秀》(The Ellen DeGeneres Show)和《顶级大厨》(Top Chef)上亮相。奥巴马夫人与法伦跳的“妈妈舞”著名视频在YouTube上被观看了2200万次。“She was in California, so she didn’t have an ingrained Washington way of doing things, which I think let her take a fresh look at things,” said Susan Sher, the former chief of staff to Mrs. Obama who hired Ms. Schake.“当时她在加州,所以没有根深蒂固的华盛顿行事方式,我觉得这让她能用新视角看待事情,”当时聘用舍克的奥巴马夫人前幕僚长苏珊·谢尔(Susan Sher)说。Can Kristina Schake help Hillary Clinton come across as more than ‘likable enough’?After a position in the West Wing fell through, Ms. Schake joined L’Oréal USA as the cosmetics company’s chief communications officer. Dan Pfeiffer, a former senior adviser to Mr. Obama, said he thought Ms. Schake had “retired from politics” before the Clinton campaign called.克里斯蒂娜·舍克能帮助希拉里·克林顿把形象提升到不只是“够讨人喜欢”的地步吗?舍克落选白宫西翼的某个职位之后,加入了欧莱雅美国公司(L’Oréal USA),担任这家化妆品公司的首席联络官。奥巴马的前高级顾问丹·法伊弗(Dan Pfeiffer)说,他认为,在克林顿夫人的竞选团队给舍克致电前,她已经“退出政治舞台”了。“She is happiest when she’s working on things like the marriage campaign,” said her older sister, Kori Schake, a prominent Republican who held a senior position on President George W. Bush’s National Security Council. “She was very much drawn to the historic opportunity to help Secretary Clinton.”“她在为争取同性恋结婚权利等活动忙碌时最开心,”她科丽·舍克(Kori Schake)说。科丽·舍克是著名的共和党人,曾在乔治·W·布什(George W. Bush)总统的国家安全委员会(National Security Council)担任高级职位。“她对帮助前国务卿克林顿的这一历史机会非常感兴趣。”The bipartisan Schake sisters stick together despite their political differences. Kristina Schake used to intervene whenever their parents’ liberal friends in Northern California tried to debate the Iraq War. “She’d say, ‘We’re so happy Kori is home for the holidays, please don’t make her do her job,’ ” Kori said.尽管舍克分属两党,但是关系依然亲密。过去,每当她们父母的北加州自由主义朋友们讨论伊拉克战争时,克里斯蒂娜·舍克都会打断他们。“她会说,‘科丽能在节日里回家我们很高兴,请不要再让她工作了,’”科丽说。A relatively new New Yorker, Kristina Schake lives with her longtime boyfriend, an Albanian journalist she met in Rome. She frequently attends exhibitions of photography and art, and walks the streets listening to Bowery Boys podcasts about the history of the subway system. She will likely work out of the Clinton campaign’s headquarters in Brooklyn.克里斯蒂娜·舍克对纽约还比较陌生。她和相伴多年的男友住在一起。她男友是一位阿尔巴尼亚记者,他们是在罗马相识的。她经常参观摄影展和艺术展,走在街上会收听鲍厄里男孩(Bowery Boys)在podcast里关于纽约地铁系统历史的广播。她很可能会在位于布鲁克林的克林顿夫人竞选总部工作。It remains to be seen whether veteran Clinton aides will empower newcomers like Ms. Schake and whether Mrs. Clinton will be open to trying new things that could prove risky. Ms. Schake will work under her friend Jennifer Palmieri, a former White House communications director who also worked in the Clinton Administration. Other veteran Clinton aides, including Mandy Grunwald, will also advise, particularly about Mrs. Clinton’s backstory.克林顿夫人的资深助理们是否会授权给舍克等新来者,克林顿夫人是否愿意尝试可能有风险的新事物,一切仍需拭目以待。舍克将在她的朋友珍妮弗·帕尔米耶里(Jennifer Palmieri)手下工作,帕尔米耶里是前白宫联络主管,也曾为克林顿政府工作。克林顿夫人的其他资深助理——包括曼迪· 格伦沃尔德(Mandy Grunwald)——也将提供建议,特别是关于克林顿夫人的背景故事。A person familiar with Clinton camp discussions who could not go on the record before the campaign’s official start said Mrs. Clinton does not need a “life coach,” and that Ms. Schake’s value will be to figure out new ways to sp the former Secretary of State’s central message of lifting the middle class.一位熟悉克林顿夫人阵营讨论的人士说,克林顿夫人不需要“生活教练”,舍克的价值将在于寻找传播这位前国务卿的主要理念——提升中产阶级——的新方法。在竞选正式开始前,这位人士不便透露身份。To that end, Ms. Schake, whom Anita Dunn, a former White House communications director, described as “an island of tranquillity and calm when everything is going crazy,” often sits in on early strategy and policy meetings, in addition to typical powwows about communications and press coverage.因此,舍克除了参加典型的关于通讯和新闻报道的会议之外,还经常列席早期战略和政策会议。前白宫通讯主管安妮塔·邓恩(Anita Dunn)说,舍克“在一切都变得疯狂时依然保持安宁平静”。No matter how effective Mrs. Clinton’s message, voters tend to have an intangible hankering when it comes to presidential candidates. “You have to feel a person’s warmth and humanness, because you’re going to see them in your living room for four years,” said Mr. Reiner, a longtime Clinton supporter.不管克林顿夫人的理念多么打动人,投票人似乎对总统候选人有一种无形的渴望。“你必须能感觉到候选人的温暖和人情味,因为未来四年你将经常在客厅的电视里看到他们,”赖纳说。他是克林顿夫人的长期持者。That’s easier said than done in the throes of a campaign when even genuine acts can seem like political posturing. In 2008, critics accused Mrs. Clinton of pandering when she cried in a diner in New Hampshire and downed a shot of whiskey in Indiana.这说起来容易,做起来难。在竞选的痛苦挣扎中,甚至连真实的举动也可能被看做政治姿态。2008年,克林顿夫人在新罕布什尔州的一个小饭馆里大哭,在印第安纳州一口气喝下一杯威士忌,这些被批评家们指责为故作姿态。“When you see Hillary Clinton alone, she’s a good old girl,” Mr. Reiner said, echoing the familiar lament that voters just don’t know the real Hillary. “She likes to have a beer and laugh.”“你单独与希拉里·克林顿见面时,会发现她是个友善的大,”赖纳说。这与我们经常听到的惋惜相似:选民只是不了解真实的希拉里。“她喜欢喝啤酒,喜欢大笑。” /201504/369962

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