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2018年02月26日 01:39:15来源:人民求医

This man is putting pepper up his nose. Why? So he can sneeze. He is a volunteer in a study being conducted by scientists in Singapore who want to establish how the influenza virus is transmitted through the air. Cater their experiments are the specialized mirror and a high-speed camera which together can record density variations in gases. Virologist, Dr. Julien Teng says the experiments could lead to new information to help doctors deal more effectively with viral outbreaks like the swine flu pandemic of .一名男子正在把辣椒放进鼻子里。这是为什么?这样他就能打喷嚏了。原来他是新加坡科学家所进行实验中的一名志愿者,这些科学家的研究目标是了解流感病毒在空气中是如何传播的。这项实验还配备有特殊化镜子和高倍速相机。这种相机能记录病毒密度在空气中的变化。病毒学家Julien Teng士表示,这项研究所得出的最新数据将能够帮助医生更有效地应对09年猪流感这类的病毒爆发。;During SARS and H5N1 and H1N1 pandemic, there is a lot of concerns about coughings, sneezing and whether we should wear masks, different types of masks extra,extra. But we realize that there is no basic knowledge, no basic information about how normal exhale flows actually have the potential to transmit infection. I mean the infections we are talking about are the air-borne infections.;在非典,H5N1,H1N1病毒流行期间,人们很在意咳嗽打喷嚏的声音,是否要带面罩,戴什么种类的面罩等问题。但我们发现人们没有基本知识,他们并不知道,实际上呼气就有传染疾病的可能。我是说通过空气途经传染的疾病。According to the centers for disease control, influenza is primarily transmitted from person to person through sneezing or coughing, but little is known about how far a virus can travel through the air or whether it can be transmitted by other means, by laughing or crying perhaps, or simply breathing. Dr. Teng is looking for solid scientific data.疾病控制中心告诉我们,流感通过人际间的喷嚏和咳嗽传播的可能性更大,但病毒在空气中能够传播的范围和病毒是否能够通过其他形式例如大笑,哭泣或是呼吸传播还不得而知。Teng士正在进行科学验。What we try to get is a general idea of, OK, a cough will travel so far from most people but not be on the certain point from most people. OK, and that cough will have a certain amount of air from most people, so obviously we are not 100% correct. But if you can think about it and its very hard to cough with no air coming out of your mouth. Because you can determine limits and boundaries of your data interpretation. And thats the same for all science. You know there are many cases where you can find exceptions but science doesnt stop because of that.我们试图了解大多数人咳嗽病毒传播的距离,但只是大多数人而不会是所有人。了解大多数人咳嗽后空气中的病毒密度,少数特例除外,因此我们的数据不会是百分之百适用于所有人。另外,如果你想一想就会知道,咳嗽肯定要有空气从口腔中流出。在解释数据的时候,需要考虑到这些限制条件。所有的科学实验都是如此。你知道有很多特殊情况但这并不能够阻挡科学的进步。The study wont stop untill June, 2012. Dr. Teng hopes that by then he will have enough data to answer so many important questions. How much distance should seperate patients in a hospital? Who and how many passengers on an aircraft should be quarantined? How better can face masks be used? For Dr. Julien Teng, its likely to take a great deal more coughing and sneezing to find out.这项研究会持续到2012年6月。Teng士希望那时他将有足够的数据来回答这些重要的问题。医院中的病人应该隔离多远距离?病患待过的飞机上有多少乘客应该隔离检查?如何更好地用面罩来预防疾病?这些问题对于Julien Teng士来说可能需要更多的咳嗽和喷嚏数据才能得出。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201210/203089。

  • A song by Caetano Veloso expressed the anger of the time and became a Tropicalia anthem. 一首由哥塔诺·维罗索创作的歌曲表达出愤怒,之后它成为了这个组织的会歌。Prohibiting is prohibited. 然而禁止就是被禁止。A slogan taken from the students upheavals in France. 来自学生的一个口号在法国引起轩然。The footage of him singing the song at 1968 TV global song festival has been destroyed, but song recording still exists for Veloso attacking the audience for their musical conservatism. 录像中他在1968年电视全球首歌节唱的这首歌已被销毁,但因为维罗索他们的音乐的保守主义攻击观众使得歌曲记录仍然存在。In December 1968, the confrontation between soldiers and protesters entered to the new phase. 1968年12月,士兵和抗议者之间的冲突进入到了新的阶段。注:听力文本来源于普特201303/230237。
  • In his first orchestral work, Tchaikovsky had demonstrated skill and some originality in his handling of the orchestra.在他的第一首管弦乐作品中,柴可夫斯基展示出在驾驭乐团上的技能和一些创意。But more significantly he had shown an ability to capture the motivating forces of the drama.但更重要的是他已经展现出可以捕捉戏剧最打动人心的地方的能力。But none of this was seen at the time.但这一切都没有被发现。The piece incurred the intense displeasure of his teacher, Anton Rubinstein, for going far beyond what was expected from a second-year student and Rubinstein insisted that a performance was quite impossible.这部分引起了他的老师安东·鲁宾斯坦的强烈不满,因为这远远超出一个二年级学生的预期而且鲁宾斯坦坚持这样的演出是不可能的。The work was never published or even played during Tchaivoskys lifetime.这部作品从未出版或甚至在柴科夫斯基的一生中也从未演奏。With its virtues unrecognized and its daring condemned, the Storm, was an inauspicious start for a young man who had come late to music and whose talent had aly been described as quite unexceptional.有着未被认知的优点和未被谴责的大胆,风暴这部作品对于一个很晚才涉足音乐界并且已经被描述为非常普通的年轻人是一个不祥的开始。But worse was to follow.但更糟的事又接踵而至。For his graduation exercise, Tchaikovsky was given the task concerting Schillers Ode to Joy.对于他的毕业作业,柴可夫斯基被要求表演席勒的《欢乐颂》。Time was limited, and the subject did not touch his imagination.时间有限,而且主题和他的想象力无关。注:听力文本来源于普特 201209/201609。
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