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淄博哪个医院能治疗阳痿

楼主:乐视分享 时间:2017年10月24日 14:00:35 点击:0 回复:0
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European Space Agency (ESA) cut potatoes into thin sticks and then deep fried them in extra-virgin olive oil, one side at a time, in a spinning centrifuge - creating conditions of up to nine times Earth#39;s gravity. They found that the higher gravity levels significantly upped the heat transfer between the hot oil and the potato, which shortened frying time and resulted in thick, crispy crusts.为研究不同重力条件下的油炸薯条味道,改善未来宇航员的太空食物,欧洲的研究人员花近百万英镑进行研究,最终得出结论:木星上炸薯条最好吃。被网友称为“史上最无聊研究”,研究费用由欧洲宇航局出资赞助。In fact, the scientists may have found ideal gravitational condition for making fries: The crust reached its max thickness when potatoes were fried at three times the Earth#39;s gravity.研究人员将土豆切成条,在橄榄油中油炸,同时用离心机创造不同的重力条件,以研究重力加速度对土豆条口感的影响。However, the fries#39; bottoms remained insulated from the oil by a layer of water vapor rushing out of its pores, which resulted in a soggy-bottomed fry. The study is set to be published in Food Research International.最终研究人员发现,在地心吸引力为地球3倍的地方炸薯条最好吃,而木星正好符合这一条件。 /201401/271988Cindy Wachenheim was someone people didn#39;t think they had to worry about. She was a levelheaded lawyer working for the State Supreme Court, a favorite aunt who got down on the floor to play with her nieces and nephews, and, finally, in her 40s, the mother she had long dreamed of becoming.辛迪·瓦肯海姆(Cindy Wachenheim)是一个人们觉得不用为她操心的人。她是个头脑冷静的律师,在州最高法院工作;也是个受欢迎的长辈,能和甥侄辈的孩子玩个不亦乐乎;在40多岁时,她终于实现了长期以来的梦想,成为一个母亲。But when her baby was a few months old, she became obsessed with the idea that she had caused him irrevocable brain damage. Nothing could shake her from that certainty, not even repeated assurances from doctors that he was normal.然而,在宝宝几个月大的时候,辛迪开始固执地认为,自己给孩子的大脑造成了不可挽回的损伤。任何事情,哪怕多位医生反复保她儿子一切正常,都无法动摇她对那一点的确信。;I love him so much, but it#39;s obviously a terrible kind of love,; she agonized in a 13-page handwritten note. ;It#39;s a love where I can#39;t bear knowing he is going to suffer physically and mentally/emotionally for much of his life.;“我很爱他,但这显然是一种可怕的爱,”她在手写的一封13页长的信中痛苦地写到,“这种爱,让我无法忍受知道他一生中的很多时候,都要饱受身体和精神/情感上的煎熬。”On March 13, 2013, Ms. Wachenheim, 44, strapped her 10-month-old son to her chest in a baby carrier and leapt to her death from the eighth-floor window of her Harlem apartment. ;I became so low,; she wrote in the 13-page outpouring shortly before she jumped, ;thinking that if I had unknowingly caused brain damage to my beautiful, precious baby, I didn#39;t want to live.;2013年3月13日,44岁的瓦肯海姆用背带把10个月大的儿子绑在胸前,从哈林区八楼的公寓窗户跳楼身亡。“我变得很低沉,”她在那封跳楼前不久一口气写成的长信中写道。“想到如果自己在无意中给我漂亮、珍爱的儿子造成了大脑损伤,我就不想活了。”Ms. Wachenheim#39;s story provides a wrenching case study of one woman#39;s experience with maternal mental illness in its most extreme and rare form. It also illuminates some of the surprising research findings that are redefining the scientific understanding of such disorders: that they often develop later than expected and include symptoms not just of depression, but of psychiatric illnesses.瓦肯海姆的故事是一个令人心痛的案例,以最极端、最罕见的形式呈现了一名女性患上产后精神疾病的经历。这个故事也阐明了一些出人意料的研究结果,这些研究结果正在重新定义对这类疾病的科学理解:它们的发展通常会比预期晚,不仅包括抑郁的症状,还包括精神疾病的症状。Now these mood disorders, long hidden in shame and fear, are coming out of the shadows. Many women have been afraid to admit to terrifying visions or deadened emotions, believing they should be flush with maternal joy or fearing their babies would be taken from them.如今,长期以来一直隐藏在羞耻和恐惧中的这些情绪紊乱,正在从阴影中走出来。很多女性一直害怕承认自己有可怕的念头,或是低落的情绪,认为自己应该陶醉在当母亲的喜悦中,或是害怕孩子会被夺走。But now, advocacy groups on maternal mental illness are springing up, and some mothers are blogging about their experiences with remarkable candor. A dozen states have passed laws encouraging screening, education and treatment. And celebrities, including Brooke Shields, Gwyneth Paltrow and Courteney Cox, have disclosed their postpartum depression.但现在,关注产妇精神疾病的倡导团体正在涌现,有些母亲十分坦率地在客中记述自己的经历。已经有12个州通过了鼓励筛查、教导和治疗的法律。波姬小丝(Brooke Shields)、格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)以及柯特尼·考克斯(Courteney Cox)等多位名人都透露自己曾患过产后抑郁症。Ms. Wachenheim#39;s sister, Deb, is among those breaking the silence.瓦肯海姆的黛布(Deb)便是打破沉默的人之一。;We did try to help her, but perhaps if we had been more knowledgeable about postpartum mood disorders, including the fact that postpartum depression is just one of an array of such mood disorders, we could have done something differently that would have maybe saved her life,; she wrote in an email.“我们的确尝试过帮她,但如果当时对产后情绪障碍有更多了解,比如产后抑郁症实际上只是诸多情绪障碍中的一种,我们或许就能以不同的方式做些事情,兴许就能挽救她的生命了,”她在电子邮件中写道。Cindy Wachenheim#39;s experience defied the long-held belief among doctors and experts that symptoms emerge within a few weeks after birth. She seemed fine until her son was about 4 months old, said family and friends. And as a healthy, active woman, Cindy had no risk factors that would signal a mother likely to become delusional and suicidal.医生和专家们长期以来认为,症状会在产后几星期内出现,但辛迪·瓦肯海姆的经历与这种观念相左。据辛迪的家人和朋友说,在儿子大约四个月之前,她看上去很正常。而且辛迪作为一个健康积极的女性,根本没有表现出这个母亲可能会产生妄想,甚至自杀的风险因素。;She loved life, she loved family, she was social,; said her sister-in-law, Karen Wachenheim.“她热爱生活,热爱家庭,也爱和人交往,”她的嫂子卡伦·瓦肯海姆(Karen Wachenheim)说。In fact, Cindy, long interested in women#39;s issues and social justice, had, years earlier, identified postpartum depression in Karen. ;Cindy would call at least once a day to check on me,; Karen recalled. ;She said, #39;Maybe you have postpartum; I think it#39;s past the baby blues.#39; ; At Cindy#39;s urging, Karen got therapy and medication, recovering quickly.实际上,一直关注女性问题和社会公正的辛迪,多年前在卡伦身上发现了产后抑郁症。“辛迪每天至少会打一次电话,确认我没事,”卡伦回忆说。“她说,#39;你可能是患上了产后抑郁症,我觉得不只是生宝宝后情绪不好。#39; ”在辛迪的督促下,卡伦接受了治疗并了药,很快便康复了。A Son Who Was #39;My Heart#39;“心肝宝贝”儿子Cindy grew up in Colonie, N.Y., outside Albany, where she was her high school#39;s valedictorian. She attended the State University of New York at Buffalo and Columbia Law School. She valued public service and took a job doing research and writing for judges on the State Supreme Court in Manhattan.辛迪在纽约州奥尔巴尼郊区的科隆尼长大,曾因成绩优异在高中时作为毕业生代表发言,并在纽约州立大学布法罗分校(State University of New York at Buffalo)和哥伦比亚大学法学院(Columbia Law School)就读。她重视公共务,曾在位于曼哈顿的州最高法院工作,为法官做研究并撰写文件。When her mother became ill with leukemia, and later her father with lung cancer, Cindy would travel upstate to go to their medical appointments with them. When her siblings or their children had medical checkups, Cindy jotted the dates in notebooks, and called the night before to remind them to fill her in.当母亲患上白血病,后来父亲又患上肺癌时,辛迪会去纽约州的北部,陪同父母就诊。当兄弟或是他们的孩子体检时,辛迪会在笔记本上记下日期,并在前一天晚上打电话,提醒他们要把最新情况告诉她。;I think she even kept all those books too, in a shoe box,; said her brother, Ron. ;People collect stamps; she collected that stuff.;“我想她甚至保存着所有这些本子,放在一个鞋盒里的,”哥哥罗恩(Ron)说。“别人集邮,她收集的却是这些东西。”She married at 40, and she and her husband underwent fertility treatment. She miscarried twice. But family and friends said that while mourning those losses and dealing with fertility hormones, she remained hopeful, noting that doctors said it was a good sign she had been able to become pregnant.辛迪结婚时40岁,夫妇俩都接受过生育治疗。她小产过两次,但家人和朋友表示,尽管经历了流产之痛,还要调节生育激素,但她仍很乐观,还说医生表示,她还能怀就是个好兆头。;She just thought that she#39;s going to keep trying and take each step as it came,; said a longtime friend, Julie Knapp.“她只是觉得要不断尝试,每次机会到来时都要抓住,”多年好友朱莉·纳普(Julie Knapp)说。Experts say little evidence links fertility treatment to postpartum mental illness; indeed, becoming pregnant may bring more joy than stress. Still, Wendy N. Davis, the executive director of Postpartum Support International, said some women experience cumulative stress from ;fertility treatments, many losses, and the very, very high expectation she will enjoy this new baby.;专家称,鲜有据表明产后精神疾病与生育治疗有关;的确,怀可能会带来更多的喜悦,而非压力。然而,产后持国际组织(Postpartum Support International)的执行董事温迪·N·戴维斯(Wendy N. Davis)表示,某些女性会因“生育治疗、多次流产,以及十分十分期望自己会喜欢新生的宝宝”而导致压力累积。Eventually, Cindy was able to conceive and have an uneventful pregnancy, her only out-of-the-ordinary response being a tendency to be hyperaware of whether the fetus was kicking.终于,辛迪成功怀了,而且怀期间一切平安。唯一不寻常的反应似乎是,她常常极其在意胎儿有没有在踢她。Cindy gave birth normally and adored her son, often calling him ;my heart.;辛迪顺利生产,并且非常喜欢自己的儿子,常常称他为“我的心肝宝贝”。;Not unlike a lot of high-achieving women, she was somewhat of a perfectionist, and she also wanted to be the perfect mother,; Deb said. Still, she was pretty easygoing in the first months of her son#39;s life, even when she had to introduce formula early because she produced too little breast milk, Deb said.黛布说,“和很多优秀女性一样,她有些完美主义,而且想当一个完美的母亲。”但黛布表示,在生下儿子的最初几个月里,她还是很放松的,即便在因为母乳不足,而不得不早早地给孩子喝配方奶粉时也一样。But when her son was 4 months old, Cindy emailed Deb that he was making ;strange/jerky movements w/his right arm,; almost ;flapping like a wing.;但在儿子四个月大时,辛迪给黛布发电子邮件说儿子正在“用右手做些抽筋似的奇怪动作”,就像“在扇翅膀”。The pediatrician said it was nothing to worry about, but Cindy scoured the Internet for diagnoses. She fixated on an instance a few weeks earlier, in August when, while washing clothes, she briefly left the baby on a play mat on the floor. He fell while pushing up, hitting his head.儿科医生说完全不用担心,但辛迪却在网上四处搜寻资料自行诊断。她对数周前发生的一件事耿耿于怀。那是在8月,在洗衣时,她暂时把孩子放在了游戏垫上。宝宝在往起爬时跌倒了,碰到了头。She believed this minor episode had caused him severe neurological problems: seizures, autism, concussion. She blamed herself for leaving the room, for placing the play mat on the hardwood floor. Other incidents alarmed her, and she decided he was more irritable, smiling less.她认为这次小小的意外给他的神经系统造成了严重的问题:癫痫、自闭症和脑震荡。她怪自己离开了房间,怪自己把游戏垫放在了硬木地板上。其它一些事情也使她感到不安。她确信孩子变得更烦燥了,也笑得少了。She visited two pediatric neurologists. Then she saw an expert in cerebral palsy because her son did not always exhibit the Landau reflex, a Superman-like pose babies make when held aloft, stomach-down.辛迪去见了两位儿童神经科医生,后来还去看了一位大脑性麻痹领域的专家,因为儿子并不总是能做出兰多反射(Landau Reflex)——被腹部朝下抱起时,婴儿通常会做出这个像超人一样的姿势。In October 2012, when her son was 5 months old, she emailed a doctor she had seen that day: ;When you said babies can#39;t injure their brains from even several floor-level head hits on a wooden floor, did that include hits even if they are turning and hit back or side of head on the floor?;2012年10月,儿子5个月大,她给当天见过的一名医生发电子邮件询问:“你说,宝宝哪怕是头在木地板上磕了好几下也不会伤到大脑,这种情况包括他们在转身时后脑勺或脑袋两侧撞到地板上吗?”The doctor replied: ;That#39;s right. Little bumps on the head at floor level that a baby may cause themselves in the course of normal spontaneous movements would not cause any injury. Babies are really very hardy (thank goodness)!;医生回复:“是的。宝宝在地板上自发进行正常活动时,可能会导致头部受到轻微碰撞,但这不会造成任何损伤。宝宝真的很结实(谢天谢地)!”Cindy sent the doctor a of her son, noting that ;he almost always moves the right hand when holding a toy, reaching to grab something, etc.;辛迪又把儿子的一段视频发给了那名医生,称“他在拿玩具、伸手抓东西或做其他事情时,几乎总是用右手”。The doctor responded: ;All of his movements look like normal, age-appropriate movements to me.;医生回复:“在我看来,你儿子的所有举动都很正常,都和他的年龄相符。”Her siblings assured her that their children had made similar movements, but she was implacable. Without telling her sister, Deb called the pediatrician, who said she was also concerned about Cindy. Deb said Cindy#39;s husband worried too, although ;part of him said: #39;Maybe she#39;s right. She is smart and was with the baby all the time.#39; ;辛迪的兄弟安慰她说,他们的孩子也曾有过类似的动作,但这还是无法缓解辛迪的忧虑。黛布瞒着,偷偷给那名儿科医生打了电话。医生表示她也对辛迪有所担心。黛布说,夫也有忧虑,不过“他同时认为:#39;或许她是对的。她很聪明,而且时刻都和孩子在一起。#39;”Still, both Cindy#39;s husband and siblings urged her to seek therapy.但辛迪的丈夫和兄弟还是敦促她接受治疗。;I just really want you to see someone,; Deb emailed Cindy. ;You cannot continue like this, for your sake and for his sake.;“我真的想让你去看看医生,”黛布给辛迪发邮件。“为了你自己,也为了你儿子,不能再这样下去了。”Cindy agreed, but insisted that she had no postpartum mental illness. She told her family she was simply depressed because of the harm she had done to the baby.辛迪同意了,但坚称自己没患产后精神疾病。她告诉家人,只是因为给宝宝造成了伤害而觉得郁闷。;You can hardly imagine how it feels to strongly believe he has brain damage and that I caused it,; she emailed Deb. ;It must be one of the top one or two nightmares for any parent. iloveyou, cindy.;“你几乎想象不到这种感觉是什么样子,我强烈地觉得他有大脑损伤,而且是我造成的,”她给黛布发邮件说。“对任何父母来说,这肯定都是数一数二的恶梦。爱你的辛迪。”Consumed With Worry忧心忡忡Experts say such breaks from reality are likely symptoms of postpartum psychosis, which affects only one or two in 1,000 mothers. About 4 percent of those hurt their children; about 5 percent kill themselves. Flagrant cases usually emerge soon after birth; women may hear voices or feel compelled to inflict harm, like Andrea Yates, who drowned her five children in a bathtub in 2001, or Dena Schlosser, who in 2004 cut off her infant#39;s arms. Both women were ultimately found not guilty by reason of insanity.专家表示,这类与现实的脱节,很可能是产后精神病的症状。产后精神病的发病率只有千分之一到千分之二。在那些患病的母亲中,约有4%的人会伤害自己的孩子;大约5%的人会自杀。骇人听闻的案例通常出现在母亲生下孩子后不久;产妇可能会出现幻听,或者有去制造伤害的冲动,比如2001年将自己的五个孩子淹死在浴缸里的安德烈娅·耶茨(Andrea Yates),以及2004年砍掉婴儿双臂的德娜·施洛瑟(Dena Schlosser)。这两位母亲最终都因精神失常被判无罪。;More subtle forms of psychosis are going to be picked up later,; said Dr. Katherine Wisner, a professor of psychiatry and obstetrics at Northwestern University. These women ;tend to have prolonged delusional thinking: #39;there#39;s something really wrong with my baby.#39; ;西北大学(Northwestern University)的精神病学和产科学教授凯瑟琳·威斯纳(Katherine Wisner)说:“不那么典型的产后精神病会较晚出现症状。”这些女性“往往会出现长期错觉:#39;我的孩子真的有问题#39;”。Most other maternal mood disorders do not involve such unshakably unrealistic convictions; most women know something is wrong, and although they fear they will harm their children, they rarely do.大部分其他产后情绪障碍都不会出现这类不切实际到不可动摇的坚定想法;大部分女性知道出了问题,而且尽管害怕自己会伤害到孩子,但她们很少真的那么做。At Thanksgiving in 2012, Cindy#39;s family gathered at her brother Ron#39;s home outside Albany, and Cindy, normally outgoing, seemed consumed with her son#39;s supposed problems. She told Deb she had thought about suicide, saying ;How can you go on knowing that you#39;ve ruined your baby#39;s life and it was your fault?; Deb was stunned. She and Cindy#39;s husband discussed the situation, hopeful that therapy would help.2012年的感恩节,辛迪的家人在哥哥罗恩(Ron)位于奥尔巴尼郊区的家中聚会。通常颇为外向的辛迪,似乎一心想着她所谓的儿子的问题。她告诉黛布她想过自杀,说“知道因为自己的错误而亲手毁了孩子的一生,你还能活下去吗?”黛布大吃一惊。她和辛迪的丈夫讨论了这一情况,希望治疗会有所帮助。Later that visit, the baby rolled off a low bed. It was one of several times that Cindy panicked and took him to the emergency room, where doctors pronounced him fine.那次聚会后,宝宝从一张矮床上滚了下来。辛迪惊慌失措地把孩子送到急诊室,但医生却说宝宝一切安好。这样的情况发生过好几次。The next month, Cindy began seeing a psychiatrist, who prescribed Zoloft, an antidepressant. She briefly visited other counselors for talk therapy. Friends offered support and company.接下来的那个月里,辛迪开始看精神科医生。那名医师给她开了左洛复(Zoloft),一种抗忧郁的药物。她还短暂地去其他几名咨询师那里接受过谈话治疗。朋友给了她持与陪伴。One January weekend at Ron#39;s house, she seemed more engaged, smiling more. When Deb asked, she acknowledged still having thoughts of suicide, but said her psychiatrist had told her it was not too worrisome ;as long as they#39;re not getting more frequent,; Deb recalled.1月的一个周末,在哥哥罗恩家,辛迪似乎精神更集中了,笑容也多了。黛布回忆,当她问起时,辛迪坦言依然会有自杀的想法,但她说,精神科医生告诉她不用太担心,“只要这些想法没有变得更频繁。”Family and friends wonder now if she was feigning feeling better. ;Now I think maybe she was backing off so everyone wouldn#39;t think she was crazy,; Karen said.家人和朋友现在揣测,她当时是不是假装感觉好些了?“我现在觉得,她那时候是退了一步,这样大家就不会觉得她疯了,”卡伦说。Experts said postpartum psychosis symptoms can fluctuate. Sometimes women are ;lucid and not delusional,; said Dr. Davis of Postpartum Support International. ;Then they slip back into delusions more easily than with other types of psychosis.;专家表示,产后精神病的症状可能会出现波动。国际产后持组织的戴维斯士说,病人有时候“头脑清晰,不会产生错觉。然后,她们会比患其他精神病的人更容易陷入错觉中去”。The mixed signals from Cindy continued into March. She discussed returning to work and finding day care. On a visit to her mother-in-law on Long Island, she called Deb while strolling by the ocean and sounded good. But the next day, Sunday, the baby fell while pulling up on a chair in his grandmother#39;s kitchen. Cindy considered it another disastrous ;head hit.;辛迪表现出来的复杂情况持续到了3月。她说起回去工作,并找家日间托儿所。去长岛探望婆婆期间,她一边在海边散步,一边给黛布打电话,当时听上去挺好的。但第二天是星期日,在奶奶的厨房里,孩子碰到椅子上摔倒了。辛迪把这看作是另一场灾难性的“撞头事件”。On Tuesday, Cindy uncharacteristically canceled her psychiatrist#39;s appointment, citing rain. On Wednesday, as she sometimes did, Cindy asked her husband to come home from work. When he arrived, she said their son#39;s morning had been rough, but that she was feeling better. After a few hours, he returned to work.接下来的周二,辛迪以下雨为由,反常地取消了和精神科医生的预约。周三,与之前偶尔出现的情况一样,辛迪把丈夫从公司叫回了家。丈夫到家后,她说儿子一上午都过得不顺,不过她感觉正在好转。几个小时后,丈夫回去上班了。That afternoon, with her baby snug to her chest, she jumped.当天下午,辛迪把孩子捆在自己胸前,跳下了楼。;I am so unbearably sorry, which I know does nothing to undo the evil I have done,; her farewell note began. ;I wanted to be a mother so badly and I hoped to be a wonderful one, and instead I have become the worst of the worst.;“我特别特别愧疚,我知道这无法弥补我犯下的恶行,”辛迪在遗书开头写道。“我非常想当母亲,想成为一位优秀的母亲,然而,我却成了差到不能再差的一个母亲。”Searching for anything to blame herself for, she described minor, harmless moments: tucking a light blanket over his face for warmth, letting him suck a leaf, briefly putting a dime in his mouth and immediately removing it. ;These things I did were horrible,; she wrote.在找一切理由责怪自己时,她说到了一些没造成什么伤害的小事:为了保暖把薄毯子盖到了宝宝脸上、任由他吮吸一片树叶、短暂地把十分钱硬币放到宝宝嘴里又马上拿走。“我做的这一切太可怕了,”她在信里写道。She was sure her son would never walk, and said she believed his most recent fall caused a concussion. ;I#39;m so so sorry, but I can#39;t bear for him to suffer more and more.;她确信儿子永远都不会走路,还说她认为最近那次摔倒造成了脑震荡。“真的非常非常对不起,但我无法忍受他越来越遭罪。”She said she knew others would see her suicide as a result of ;postpartum depression/psychosis.; But, she said: ;I know I am right that I mistakenly harmed him. I#39;m not claiming a voice told me to do this.;她还说自己知道,其他人会把她的自杀归咎于“产后抑郁症/精神病”,但她说:“我无意中伤害到了儿子,我知道自己是有理由这么想的。并不是说有个声音让我这么做。”She even chastised herself for crumbling emotionally, saying she made her son a less happy baby.她甚至苛责自己情绪不稳定,说她让儿子没那么快乐。;I don#39;t know if there is a hell,; she wrote, ;but I hope so.;“我不知道是否有地狱,”她写道,“但我希望有。”Cindy Wachenheim would never know that in her last act, her body cushioned the fall for her son and saved his life. Weeks later, the healthy little boy took his first steps.辛迪·瓦肯海姆永远不会知道,她生命的最后一刻,自己的身体为儿子从高处摔下来时提供了缓冲,救了他一命。几个星期后,这个健康的小男孩迈出了人生的第一步。 /201411/339901Origins of Inebriation Revealed揭示醉酒的起源This cuneiform text dates back to the 6th year ofprince Lugalanda who ruled about 2370 B.C. in southern Mesopotamia.It is an administrative document concerning deliveries of three sorts of beer to different recipients 这种楔形文字的历史可以追溯到公元前2370年左右,王子卢加尔安达在美索不达米亚南部统治的第六年。它是一种行政文书,将三种啤酒传递到不同的人手中。In prehistoric Eurasia,drugs and alcohol were originally reserved for ritual ceremonies, and weren#39;tused merely to satisfy hedonistic motives, a new study suggests. What#39;s more,given the sacred role of the substances, their use was likely highly regulatedand only available to elite citizens.一项新的研究表明,在史前的欧亚大陆时期,毒品和酒精的最初用于宗教仪式,而不是仅用来满足人们享乐。更重要的是,考虑到这些物质神圣的角色,它们的使用几乎是受到高度控制的,仅供给于杰出公民。Many Eurasian cultures are known to have anancient history with psychoactive substances, as evidenced by early writtendocuments. The Greek historian Herodotus, for example, once described theScythians#39; (Iranian equestrian tribes) post-funeral purification ceremonyinvolving hemp, which dates back to the fifth century B.C.据早期的书面文件明,许多欧亚文化是已公认拥有一种精神活性物质的古代历史。例如,希腊历史学家希罗多德曾经描述斯基泰(伊朗马术部落)葬礼的净化仪式中涉及大麻,而这可追溯到公元前第五世纪。But written records aren#39;t the onlyindication of early drug and alcohol use.但是文字记录并不是早期使用药物和酒精的唯一痕迹。;It is generally thought thatmind-altering substances, or at least drugs, are a modern-day issue, but if welook at the archaeological record of prehistoric Europe, there are many datasupporting their consumption,; said study author Elisa Guerra-Doce, aprehistory expert at the University of Valladolid in Spain. ;Apart fromthe presence of macrofossil remains of plants with these [mind-altering]properties, there are artistic depictions of opium poppies, for instance, andsome designs in megalithic tombs may have been inspired by altered states ofconsciousness.;“人们普遍认为,改变意识的物质,或者说是药物,是一个现代议题,但如果我们看看欧洲史前考古记录,这儿有很多数据可以明他们的假设,”该研究的作者西班牙巴利亚多利德大学史前史专家艾丽莎·格拉-多西说道,“除了存在改变意识的植物化石,还有对罂粟的艺术描绘,例如,巨石墓里的一些设计可能会激发人们改变意识形态。”Despite numerous indications,archaeologists have largely overlooked the use of mind-altering substances inEurasian prehistory. So Guerra-Doce decided to sort through the scarce andscattered information in the scientific literature, in hopes of gaining abetter understanding of the history and context of ancient drug and alcoholuse.尽管有许多迹象表明,考古学家已经在很大程度上忽略了欧亚史前使用改变思想的物质。所以格拉-多西决定整理科学文献中稀少且分散的信息,以更好地理解历史和古老药物酒精使用的文本信息。She reviewed four lines of evidence:macrofossil remains of psychoactive plants, residues from fermented alcoholicdrinks, psychoactive alkaloids (chemical compounds) on artifacts and skeletalremains, and artistic depictions of psychoactive plants and drinking scenes.她回顾了四条据:含有精神活性植物的大化石,发酵的酒精饮料残留物,文物和遗骨的活性生物碱(化合物)以及精神活性植物和饮用场景的艺术描写。Widesp use广泛使用In prehistoric sites throughout Europe, archaeologists have found the remains of numerouspsychoactive plant and fungi species, including opium poppy, deadly nightshade,hallucinogenic mushrooms and ergot fungus. However, it#39;s not always possible todetermine how people used the substances, if they did at all.在整个欧洲的史前遗址上,考古学家已经发现许多精神活性植物和真菌物种的遗址,包括鸦片罂粟,颠茄,致幻蘑菇和麦角菌。然而,如果人们都使用这种物质,决定人们使用这些物质的可能性并不大。For instance, at a Neanderthal burial caveat Shanidar, in northern Iraqdating to around 60,000 B.C., researchers discovered the remains of manymedical plant species, suggesting the grave belonged to a shaman. But otherscientists argue that a gerbil-like rodent called the Persian jird may havebrought the plants into the cave after the Neanderthal there had died.例如,追溯到公元前60000年前,在伊拉克北部的一个尼安德特人沙尼达尔墓穴中,研究人员发现,许多药用植物的遗骸,而这坟墓属于一个萨满的。但是其他科学家认为,一种长爪沙鼠类的啮齿类动物,名叫波斯沙鼠可能在尼安德特人死了后,将植物带进洞穴。Yet many archaeobotanical finds providestrong evidence for the prehistoric use of mind-altering substances. Inparticular, at an archaeological site near Bucharest, Romania,scientists found charred Cannabis seeds from plants in some tombs. The mainpsychoactive compound of marijuana is tetrahydrocannabinol(THC), which is mostabundant in the female plants (Cannabis plants are typically either male orfemale, with male plants producing pollen that pollinates the seed-producingflowers of the female plant).;The presence of burnt seeds in these tombsproves that the prehistoric societies of eastern Europe were aware of this, andconsequently, they burnt female plants,; Guerra-Doce told Live Science.然而许多大型植物剂被发现并提供了强有力的据,明在史前时期人们使用过改变意识的物质。特别是,在罗马尼亚布加勒斯特附近的一个考古遗址上,科学家们在一些坟墓里发现了烧焦的大麻种子植物。大麻的主要活性化合物是四氢大麻酚(THC),这是最丰富的雌性植物(大麻植物通常是雄性或雌性,与雄性植物产生花粉,授粉的种子生产雌性花植物),“在这些墓葬中存在的烧焦种子明了东欧的史前社会已经意识到这一点,因此,他们燃烧雌性植物,”格拉-多西对生活科学说道。Alcoholic residues suggest many prehistoricEurasians drank fruit wines, mead, beer (from barley and wheat) and fermenteddrinks made from dairy products.酒精残留物暗示了许多史前欧亚的水果酒,蜂蜜酒,啤酒(大麦和小麦)和发酵饮料都产自于乳制品。The discovery of alcoholic fermentationappears to date back to about 7000 B.C. in China. By 5000 B.C., people in theZagros Mountains of northwestern Iran drank wine instilled with pineresin (for its preservative or medicinal properties). And at a site insoutheastern Armeniadating to 4000 B.C., scientists unearthed a fully equipped winery — they thinkthe wine was made for mortuary practices, considering there were 20 burialgraves, which contained drinking cups, next to the winemaking facility.在中国酒精发酵的发现原理可追溯到大约公元前7000年前。公元前5000年,在伊朗西北部的扎格罗斯山脉的人们在喝酒时逐渐滴入松树树脂(以达到防腐剂或药用性能的效果)。追溯到公元前4000年,在亚美尼亚东南部的一地区,科学家发现一个设备齐全的酒厂——他们认为酒是用来墓葬的,因为酿酒厂有20座葬墓群,坟墓里都有酒杯。Importantly, though some pottery fragmentscontaining residues of beer and wine come from settlements, most actually comefrom burial sites. ;Many tombs have provided traces of alcoholic drinksand drugs,; Guerra-Doce said. ;I think these substances were used toaid in communication with the spirit world.;重要的是,尽管一些瓷器碎片含有殖民地啤酒和葡萄酒的残留物,然而,大多数的残留物来自墓地。“许多坟墓留有酒精饮料和药物的遗迹,”格拉-多西说,”我认为这些物质是用来帮助精神世界交流的。”Some artistic representations also hint atceremonial drug and alcohol use in prehistory. One of the most revealing itemsmay be a 30-inch-tall (76 centimeters) terracotta figurineknown as the;Poppy Goddess.; The figurine, found in an almost 3000-year-old cultchamber in Crete, depicts a bare-breastedwoman with upraised arms and a head bearing three movable hairpins shaped likepoppy capsules. Certain features of the capsules suggest how opium may havebeen extracted, and the figurine displays a serene facial expression, whichsome experts interpret as depicting a trancelike state gained from inhalingopium fumes.一些艺术再现也暗示了史前时期药物和酒精用于礼仪场合。一个最明显的项目可能是一个30英寸(76厘米)高的陶瓦小雕像,被誉为“罂粟女神。”这个小塑像发现于克里特岛(希腊)的祭祀场所,已有大约3000年得历史,描绘了一个坦胸露乳的女人,她高举双手,头上插了三根像罂粟壳似的可移动簪子。胶囊的某些功能暗示了鸦片可能已经被提取,而雕像显示了一个安详的表情,一些专家解释为这是鸦片烟吸入后的恍惚状态。Only for the elite?只面向精英?Guerra-Doce#39;s analysis further suggeststhat psychoactive substances may have been reserved for the elite. ;Themain evidence to support that idea is the archaeological contexts where theyhave been found: tombs of high-status individuals and restricted ceremonialplaces,; she said.格拉-多西的分析进一步表明,精神活性物质可能是给精英保留的。” 持这个想法的主要据来是考古信息,他们已经发现:高官的坟墓和限制仪式的地方,”她说。For example, at a Bronze Age cemetery insoutheastern Spain,archaeologists have found psychoactive alkaloids of opiates in tombs of theupper class. Similarly, a luxurious tomb in another area of Spain containedevidence of the hallucinogenic alkaloid hyoscyamine, which comes from thenightshade family of plants.例如,在西班牙东南部的一个青铜时代墓地,考古学家在上层阶级的坟墓里发现的阿片类药物活性生物碱。同样,在另一个地区的西班牙豪华墓地中发现了致幻生物碱莨菪碱的据,而这些碱属于茄科植物。Alcohol also seems to have been mainly forthe upper class. One of the most impressive examples comes from the so-calledHochdorf Chieftain#39;s Grave in Germany— a Celtic burial chamber for a 40-year-old man that dates to around 530 B.C.In the princely tomb, researchers found an enormous bronze cauldron from Greece thatcontained 350 liters (92 gallons) of mead.酒精也似乎是主要为上层阶级务的。其中最引人注目的例子是来自所谓的侯赫多尔夫的酋长的坟墓---追溯到公元前530年左右,一个40岁凯尔特男子的墓室。在王侯墓前,研究人员发现了一个巨大的希腊青铜鼎,其含有350公升(92加仑)的酒。;I think that prior to a large-scaleproduction, [alcoholic drinks] were reserved for special events, and theyplayed a similar role as drug plants,; Guerra-Doce said.After large-scaleproduction became possible, alcohol likely became available to many people (notjust elites), and its use shifted from ritualistic to hedonistic in nature, sheadded.“我认为,大规模生产之前,[酒被保留用于特殊事件,植物药也发挥了类似的作用,”格拉-多西说。在大规模生产成为可能时,酒精可能提供给许多人(不只是精英),其用途在性质上说是从仪式到享乐主义,她补充说道。Drug plants, on the other hand, were nevercultivated on a large scale. And though they were also eventually consumed forhedonistic purposes, this use is difficult to observe in the archaeological record,Guerra-Doce said. ;Interestingly, the common names of some of these plantsrefer to madness, to evil spirits, to harmful effects, so I think a taboo wasimposed in order to avoid their use for hedonistic purposes,; shesaid.另一方面,植物药并没有一个大规模栽培。虽然他们也最终是达到享乐主义的目的,但是这是很难在考古记录中发现的,格拉-多西说。“有趣的是,这些植物中的一些的共同名字指的是疯狂行为,魔鬼精神,有害影响,所以我认为一个禁忌是用来避免达到享乐目的的,”她说。 /201407/310803If there#39;s any truth in the old saw that London#39;s streets are paved with gold, it#39;s probably because they#39;ve been gilded by cash stripped from the pockets of tourists.据美国有线电视新闻(CNN)报道,古谚语中说伦敦路上铺满黄金,如果这句话有点真实性的话,那就是游客兜里的钱镀上的。It won#39;t surprise anyone who#39;s seen their budget evaporate seconds after exiting their over-priced hotel, but the English metropolis has been named the world#39;s priciest city break destination.从伦敦的价格过于昂贵的酒店一出来,你会发现自己的预算一溜烟就没了。因而如果这个英国大都市被命名为世界上最昂贵的城市旅行目的地,大家都不会感到惊讶。Review site TripAdvisor compared prices in 48 leading tourist destinations to conclude that London has overtaken Oslo as the world capital of the inadvertent splurge.网站“到到网”在对48个主要旅游目的地的物价进行比对后表示,伦敦已经超越奥斯陆成为世界上挥霍无度的中心。According to the site#39;s annual TripIndex Cities study, seven of the world#39;s 10 most expensive destinations are in Europe.该网站一年一度的《旅游指数城市研究》显示,在世界上十大最昂贵目的地中,有七个在欧洲。Asia fields the majority of the list#39;s most affordable cities for a holiday.列表中最经济的旅游目的城市多在亚洲。The list says an evening out and overnight stay in a four-star hotel in London will relieve visitors of 3 -- more than three times the cost of the same break in Hanoi, which is named as best value.列表显示,在伦敦的4星级酒店住一晚,就要花费523美元(约合人民币3128元),是同等条件下住在河内花销的3倍多。河内被认为是性价比最高的城市。Travelers to Paris should be warned against working up too much of thirst while pounding its boulevards -- the city is identified as the priciest place for pre-dinner cocktails.到巴黎旅行的游客要注意在沿着林荫大道走的时候,别让自己太渴。餐前鸡尾酒在巴黎的价格是世界最贵。Two dry martinis there set drinkers back an average .两杯干马提尼酒就能花费游客52美元。Even then the cocktails will probably be watered down by the salty tears of whoever#39;s footing the bill.即使这样,鸡尾酒还可能搀着泪。TripAdvisor#39;s research reveals Stockholm is the costliest place for an evening meal.到到网的研究表明斯德哥尔的晚饭最昂贵。For the same money in Hanoi visitors can can pay for a four-star hotel, cab fare, cocktails, dinner for two and still have enough change to call Sweden and gloat.在河内,花这样一顿晚饭的钱,游客都可以住在4星级酒店,乘上计程车,喝着鸡尾酒,吃上两顿晚饭,甚至还能省下足够的钱打电话去瑞典,嘲笑在那旅游的朋友们。New York tops the list for expensive hotels for the second year running, with a night in a four-star hotel costing an average of 5 -- four times the price of the same deal in Bangkok.纽约连续第二年被评为世界上酒店最昂贵的城市,在这里住一晚4星级酒店就要花费平均365美元——是同等条件下,在曼谷花费的4倍。While Oslo may have lost out to London in the overall list, the Norwegian city still rules when it comes to taxi fares.There, a three-kilometer (1.9 mile) journey will set customers back .即使奥斯陆在总榜单上输给了伦敦,但是挪威的城市仍旧是计程车花费最昂贵的地方。在那里,计程车走3公里,就要花费57美元。In Jakarta, the cheapest city, the same journey can be made for less than .在物价最低的城市雅加达,同样的路程只花费不到3美元。Here#39;s TripAdvisor#39;s top 10 of most expensive cities: London, Paris, New York, Stockholm, Oslo, Zurich, Copenhagen, Helsinki, Toronto, Sydney.以下就是到到网评选的十个最昂贵的城市:伦敦、巴黎、纽约、斯德哥尔、奥斯陆、苏黎世、哥本哈根、赫尔辛基、多伦多和悉尼。Here are the site#39;s best value destinations: Hanoi, Jakarta, Sharm el Sheikh, Bangkok, Sofia, Cape Town, Mumbai, Kuala Lumpur, Prague, Budapest.以下就是该网站评选的性价比最高的目的地:河内、雅加达、沙姆沙伊赫、曼谷、索菲亚、开普敦、孟买、吉隆坡、布拉格和布达佩斯。 /201406/306786

Last Friday in a Beijing theater, Li Baofeng and 10 of her colleagues from the Feng Yun Theatrical Company bowed to a small but enthusiastic audience after their performance of Sizhou Xi, a 200-year-old form of Chinese opera. It was the second time Ms. Li, 81, had performed in Beijing. The first time was 57 years earlier, for Mao Zedong at Zhongnanhai, the seat of the Chinese leadership.上周五在北京的一座剧场,81岁的李宝凤和她在凤韵泗州戏剧团的10名演员,为人数不多但热情颇高的观众呈现了一台传统泗州戏演出。这是李宝凤第二次在北京唱戏;第一次还是57年前,在中南海为毛泽东表演。That level of government blessing is now long gone for Sizhou Xi, in a fast-changing China where the proliferation of new forms of entertainment has sidelined many traditional arts. With the appearance in Beijing, Ms. Li hoped to win at least some recognition for Sizhou Xi and the small number of professionals who are still performing it.时至今日,那样高规格的政府持早已不再。中国正在急速改变,新的文化形式层出不穷,冲击着传统艺术。李宝凤这一次带戏班进京,就是希望再次获得哪怕是一定程度的认可,为泗州戏,也为仍在唱戏的那一小批演员。Once popular in parts of Anhui, Shandong and Henan provinces, in central to northern China, Sizhou Xi features singing, dancing and acrobatics. Stories in the traditional repertoire range from historical epics about heroes to tales of common people, presented in local dialects.有约200年历史的泗州戏曾经在安徽、山东、河南一带流传,表演融合唱、念、做、打,用当地方言演绎英雄史诗或寻常百姓故事。In the 1950s, the new Communist government paid actors like Ms. Li to work in state-run troupes. But after the Cultural Revolution began in 1966, Ms. Li, like many other artists with roots in the Republican period, was charged with counterrevolutionary crimes and sent to labor on a farm. Her younger colleagues were allowed to continue performing, but only in works glorifying the Communist revolution, whose productions were dictated by Jiang Qing, Mao’s wife.20世纪50年代,新成立不久的共产党政府把像李宝凤这样的旧艺人们组织起来,成立国营剧团。到了文化大革命时期,李宝凤又和许多旧艺人一样,被打倒、下放劳动。年轻演员继续在剧团演出,但只能唱江青主导的革命样板戏。The next setback came in the 1990s, with the withdrawal of state support. Although the end of the Cultural Revolution and the start of Deng Xiaoping’s policy of economic reforms had lifted political constraints and allowed a revival of many folk traditions in the 1980s, changing popular tastes and diminishing state involvement in less commercially viable art forms began taking their toll. Although the government has continued to finance theatrical groups that enjoy larger followings, such as forms of Beijing Opera, practitioners of more local forms are now largely on their own, dependent on dwindling audiences.第二次打击来自90年代,国家的持消失了。虽然文革结束,80年代邓小平的经济改革政策放松了政治上的禁锢,民间传统得到复苏,但大众的口味却在变化,政府对缺乏经济价值的艺术形式削减了持,传统文化又遇挫折。政府仍然持较大的剧种,比如京剧,但地方小剧种的从业者基本只能靠着逐渐缩小的观众群体自立更生了。To save her ancient art, Ms. Li and her colleagues took decidedly modern measures this year. To raise the money for the troupe’s journey from Bengbu, a town in the central province of Anhui, to Beijing, they turned to smartphones.这一次,为筹集从安徽蚌埠到北京演出的费用,李宝凤等人动用了现代技术手段——他们选择了智能手机。In September, He Gongyi, a Beijing-based nongovernmental organization dedicated to reviving traditional culture, helped Ms. Li set up a fund-raising campaign on WeChat, a popular messaging app run by Tencent. The wallet service of WeChat links directly to the user’s bank account, allowing a donation to be made with a few taps on the touch screen of a phone.9月的时候,致力于重建乡土文化的北京草根公益组织帮助凤韵剧团发起了一个微信端的募捐活动。微信的电子钱包应用与用户的账户关联,利用这种技术持,只要在手机触屏上动动手指,即可完成捐款。Within four days, they reached their target of 30,000 renminbi, or about ,000, with donations from 998 people, said Ku Zheng, He Gongyi’s chief executive.和公益总干事库征说,他们在四天中筹到了目标金额3万元。998人解囊相助。Philanthropy in China has only recently begun tapping mobile payments, but the approach is fast gaining in popularity.公益事业开始借助移动付技术,在中国是相对晚近的事,但已经十分红火。Tencent opened its WeChat service to donors in October 2013. Now more than half of the 3.88 million people giving to charities via Tencent are doing so on their phones, said Wu Ting, Tencent’s senior program manager for its charity platforms. People also tend to give more when they make the donation on a mobile device, about three times the amount given on a computer, she said.腾讯公司于2013年10月启动微信公益平台,腾讯公益的高级项目经理吴婷说,现在通过腾讯公益向慈善项目捐款的388万多人中,超过一半是在手机上完成捐款的。人们在手机上也往往倾向于捐得更多,她说,大约是在PC端的三倍。The typical donor is a young man between 15 and 29, giving small amounts well below 100 renminbi, Ms. Wu said. But the number of potential donors is huge. Tencent said it had 438 million active WeChat users as of August, making it possible to raise substantial amounts in a short time.吴婷说,腾讯公益平台上的捐款人多数是男性,年龄在15到29岁之间,捐赠金额都为小额,远低于100元。但庞大的用户群是互联网公益的关键。腾讯8月份宣称有4.38亿活跃用户,因此网络募捐可以短时间内筹集大笔资金。“In one case, 540,000 renminbi was raised in three days to help save a premature baby in Hubei Province,” Ms. Wu said.“有一个案例,用户三天筹集了54万元,为了抢救湖北一个早产儿,”吴婷说。In total, more than 228 million renminbi has been donated through Tencent’s online charity platform since it was introduced in 2007. Alipay, affiliated with the online retailer Alibaba, says it has processed more than 212 million renminbi in donations on its charity platform since 2010.自从2007年腾讯公益平台上线以来,募捐金额已超2.28亿元。阿里巴巴集团的附属企业付宝的公益平台,2010年以来募集了超过2.12亿元。“I cannot thank you enough for helping us make this happen,” Ms. Li said to her audience last Friday after her troupe’s production of “Pin Nu Lei,” or “Tears of the Poor Girl,” the story of a fisherman’s daughter, whose abuse at the hands of her snobbish mother-in-law and overbearing sister-in-law drives her to suicide.“我万分感谢大家帮我实现梦想,让我站在这个舞台上,”周五的演出结束后,李宝凤对观众说。她的学生和同事演出了传统剧目《贫女泪》,讲的是一个渔家女被势利眼的婆婆和凶悍妯娌虐待而自杀的故事。The life of a Sizhou Xi performer in 2014 is very different than it was in 1957, when Ms. Li’s troupe was on a local government payroll and honored with an audience including Mao, said Lu Xianwei, Ms. Li’s grandson and a social media manager for an Internet company in Beijing who managed the fund-raising for Feng Yun.李宝凤的孙子吕咸蔚说,今天泗州戏演员的处境已经远非1957年可比。那年,李宝凤在国营剧团,而且还能在北京得到毛泽东等领导人的接见。吕咸蔚在北京一家网站做新媒体运营,他帮助策划了这次手机募捐和进京演出。“After the government disbanded the state-run troupe,” Mr. Lu said, “my grandma founded this troupe with some of those actors, who had lost their jobs but wanted to keep on performing.”“国营剧团解散以后,我的祖母成立了这个民营剧团,和那些还想唱戏的下岗演员一起,”吕咸蔚说。Families in rural Anhui Province still hire the performers for weddings, funerals or ancestor worship ceremonies. But the art form is struggling amid competition from modern entertainment. “Younger people don’t want to watch Sizhou Xi or make it a career,” Mr. Lu said.今天在安徽农村,人们遇到婚丧嫁娶和祭祖之类的大事,仍然会请戏班。但旧戏在现代形式的竞争中处境艰难。“现在年轻人都不怎么看泗州戏了,也不愿意干这一行,”吕咸蔚说。Feng Yun has taken to the road in search of private patrons, but there aren’t many, Mr. Lu said. Even when the group does secure donations, as it did for the Beijing appearance, fund-raising might not be a long-term solution if popular interest is fading.凤韵剧团通过民间演出维持,但愿意请戏班的人少了,他说。而且,虽然这一次进京演出做到了自筹资金,也不是长久之计。“I hope the government will do more for us.” he said.吕咸蔚说:“我还是希望政府能够重视。”Government support can make a difference. In 2012, when Feng Yun participated in a government-paid cultural program to tour villages in Anhui, it staged 70 performances, Mr. Lu said. Last year, without government backing, Feng Yun was able to put on only a dozen performances.政府的持的确至关重要。据吕咸蔚说,2012年凤韵剧团搭上了当地政府三下乡的项目,有机会演了70场;去年没能争取到政府项目,他们只演了十几场而已。In 2006, the Chinese government added Sizhou Xi to its intangible cultural heritage list, alongside Beijing Opera and Hui Ju, another form of theater that originated in Anhui. But some say that the government has a moral obligation to do more, given the consequences of its own shifting policies and the resources it still controls. (The stage on which Feng Yun performed last week was made available free of charge by the Dongcheng District government in Beijing.)2006年泗州戏被列为国家非物质文化遗产。同年获此称号的还有京剧和徽剧。有观点认为,政府有道义上的责任,应该做得更多,特别是考虑到以往忽左忽右的文化政策,而且政府毕竟仍然掌握着巨大的资源。(这次凤韵剧团进京演出的舞台就是北京东城区文化馆免费提供的。)“Traditional theaters are in a mess today because of the culture policies of previous leaders,” said Fu Jin, a professor at the National Academy of Chinese Theater Arts in Beijing. “They financed theater professionals for decades without them having to learn about the market, and then they changed their mind and cut the cord. Of course, the government has a political and cultural responsibility to fix this.”“今天传统戏曲处境艰难也是因为之前政府的政策造成的,”中国戏曲学院教授傅谨说。“他们一直出资办国营剧团,演员不需要了解市场,然后他们忽然又改了政策,放手不管。因此今天的政府当然有政治责任和文化责任,不能不管。”But Mr. Fu sees signs of hope.但傅谨也指出一些希望的迹象。“The market may still be depressed, but this past decade has seen some changes,” he said. “More people, many of them the younger generation who will pay more than their fathers and grandfathers for theater, are becoming interested again, and a taste for authentic, centuries-old plays is coming back. There is something about art that makes it worth preserving even when the market says otherwise. The government should not be shortsighted.”“虽然今天的市场仍然不景气,但最近这10年的情况也是有变化的,”他说。“更多的人开始感兴趣了,而且很多是年轻人,他们比老一辈的观众更能接受较高的票价,而且在很多地方,对传统戏的兴趣超过了对新编戏的兴趣。即使市场暂时不能持一种艺术,艺术本身也还是值得保存下去。政府不应该短视。” /201411/340810

In order for human cells and organs to function properly, we need an adequate amount of water in our bodies. Since nearly all activities cause people to lose water, it#39;s essential to replenish our water levels. The standard rule for water replenishment is the 8x8 method: eight ounces of water, eight times a day. However, other dietary recommendations, such as those from the Institute of Medicine, recommend 13 cups a day for men and 9 cups a day for women. The exact amount of water that people should consume each day depends on factors such as body weight, level of activity and diet.我们需要充足的水分让身体细胞和器官正常运作。因为人类所有活动都会消耗水分,而补水就成了必要的一步。标准的补水方案是8x8:每日8次,每次8盎司。但是也存在其他的饮食建议,如医学研究所:男性每天应喝13杯水,女性每天应喝9杯水。其实,人体日常准确的补水量取决于个人体重,活动量和饮食。While hydration is absolutely essential to a healthily functioning body, too much water, especially over a short period of time can be dangerous and even fatal. If a person drinks more water than her kidneys can excrete, the overall electrolyte level in the blood will drop significantly and the excess water can enter and swell your brain cells, resulting in a potential seizure and/or coma.水虽然是身体健康运作不可或缺的因子,但过多的量,尤其是短时间内大量补充实则有害健康,甚至还会致命。如果人体吸收的水分超过其肾脏可排泄范围,血液中整体的电解质水平将会大幅度下降,一旦多余水分进入大脑,大脑细胞受到膨胀,就会导致潜在疾病发作或引发昏迷。One of the most serious results of too much water consumption is hyponatremia, a decrease in the blood#39;s sodium level. If more water enters the body than the kidneys can process, the mineral content of the blood decreases and the blood#39;s overall sodium levels drop. When sodium and electrolyte levels drop in the blood, water can escape the blood and enter the cells as the blood and the cells struggle for electrolyte equilibrium. While the swelling of cells because of water is never good, it#39;s particularly dangerous when it occurs in the brain (known as cerebral edema). Since the brain is housed within the skull, with little room to grow, brain cell swelling will lead to brain damage if severe enough. If a person continues to add water to his body, the swelling process will continue and the damage may be irreversible.低钠血症是过度补水带来最严重的结果,血液中的钠含量会降低。倘若体内吸收的水分超过了肾脏承受范围,血液中的矿物含量将会减少,而整体的钠含量也会骤降。钠离子和电解质含量一旦减少,血液和细胞就会抢争电解质,而水分也会同时脱离血液进入细胞。水肿的细胞对身体绝对无益,若是脑细胞出现水肿更是危险(称为脑水肿)。因为头骨紧密覆盖大脑,其中伸展空间极小,脑细胞若极度肿胀就会导致大脑受损。此时人体若继续补水,细胞也就会持续肿胀,对大脑造成不可逆的损害。In addition, a massive increase in water will add to the body#39;s overall blood volume and put tremendous strain on the heart and circulatory system. The most severe symptoms of water intoxication occur when hyponatremia leads to cerebral edema. Symptoms of cerebral edema mirror other brain conditions such as tumors and concussions. Common symptoms of cerebral edema start with a headache that increases in intensity followed by mental confusion and seizures. Vomiting and exhaustion are also possible. As the brain cells continue to swell, the risk of death from water intoxication increases.当低钠血症引发脑水肿时,就会出现最严重的情况。脑水肿可诱发其他大脑疾病,如脑肿瘤和脑震荡。常见的脑水肿始于剧烈的头痛,伴随着的症状还有精神混乱和癫痫症。也可能出现呕吐和乏力的状况。倘若脑细胞继续水肿,死亡的风险也将攀升。The easiest way to avoid water intoxication is not to make a conscious attempt to drink as much water as possible. Water drinking contests, whereby contestants try to drink gallons of water in short periods of time, are especially dangerous. Marathon runners and others who may lose large amounts of water are at risk if they try to rehydrate too quickly. For people who require above average amounts of water, it is best to ration that water and sip it rather gulp it. If you begin to suffer any of the symptoms of cerebral edema, immediately stop drinking water and seek professional assistance.杜绝潜意识里企图喝水的习惯是预防水中毒的最简方式。耗水量大的竞赛,即在短时间内需喝数加仑的水的竞赛,尤其危险。马拉松选手和其他在比赛中失水量大的选手,如果他们补水速度过快,就会产生风险。若有人对水的需求量高于平均值,最好是定额配给,小口啜,切忌一饮而尽。如果你开始出现脑水肿症状,立即停止饮水,寻求专业救护。 /201312/270212

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