淄博广电医院泌尿系统在线咨询华活动

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The Ten States are Wu,the Southern Tang,the Former Shu,the Later Shu, Wuyue,Chu,Min,the Southern Han,the Later Liang and the Northern Han.十国指吴国、南唐、前蜀、后蜀、吴越、楚、闽、南汉、后梁和北汉。With the Nortern Han in the North and the other states were all in the Southern part of China.除北汉在北方外,其余各国在中国南部。The development of the states in the South contributed a lot to the progress of South China.各国在中国南方的发展对南方的开发起到了重大作用。These states were established about the time when the Later Liang was founded.The founders of these states formerly had all been garrison commanders during the later period of the Tang Dynasty.南方的十国建立于后梁晚期,创建者都是晚唐时期的节度使。The State of Wu and the Later Tang : The State of Wu was founded by Yang Xingmi, who was a garrison commander in Huainan. He won his fame and power when suppressing the uprising of the peasants and fighting with other warlords.吴国和南唐:吴的开创者杨行密,在镇压农民起义和军阀混战中被唐朝提升为淮南节度使。In 902,,he was granted as King of Wu by the Emperor Zhaozhong of the Tang with Yangzhou as capital.公元902年,唐昭宗封他为吴王,建都扬州。After that Yangpu was made to be Emperor of Wu by Xu Wen, his chancellor, with the State title Wu.到杨溥在位时,丞相徐温等立杨溥为天子,国号吴。However, at this moment, Yang’s family owned no real power in the court and Xu Wen’s son,Xu Zhigao dethrone Yangpu , became the emperor and set up the Tang with Jinling as capital. Then he changed his name to Li Bian later, known as the Southern Tang, which was destroyed by the Northern Song when the last emperor Li Yu was in the reign.但此时,杨氏大权早已旁落。公元937年,徐温的养子徐知诰废杨溥自立,国号唐,建都金陵,改姓名为李,史称“南唐”。到后主李煜时,南唐为北宋所灭。The State of Former and Later Shu:The State of Former Shu was founded by Wang Jian who was a garrison commander in Bizhou (now Daojiang, Sichuan) of Tang. From 894, he occupied Xichuan, Dongchuan and Hanzhong in succession and announced to be the emperor in Chengdu with the name of Shu.前、后蜀:唐壁州(四川导江)刺史王建,从公元894年开始,先后兼并西川、东川和汉中之地。This was the Former Shu in history.后梁建立,他在成都称帝,国号蜀,史称“前蜀”。When Wang Yan, son of Wang Jian came to the throne, people suffered from his exorbitant taxes and severe punishment.其子王衍继位,以奢侈荒淫、刻剥百姓著称。In 925, Zhuang-zong of the Later Tang sent troops to destroy Shu and transferred Meng Zhixiang to be the associated garrison in commander.925年,后唐庄宗派兵灭前蜀,用孟知祥(李克用侄女婿)为剑南西川节度副大使。In 926, Meng Zhixiang entered Chengdu ,reformed the political system and lighted the taxes. He also seized Dongchuan from the Former Shu.公元926年,孟知祥入成都,整顿吏治,减少苛税,攻占东川。In 934, Meng Zhixiang proclaimed to be emperor of Shu, with Chengdu as capital, which was recorded as the Later Shu in history.公元934年,他在成都称帝,国号蜀,史称“后蜀”。After Meng Zhixiang died, his son, Mengchang, the new emperor took Fengzhou and extended his territory as wide as that of the Former Shu.当年孟知祥死,子孟昶继位,又攻取凤州,疆域与前蜀相同。However, he committed the same ill-ruling as Wang Yan exploited and suppressed his officials and citizens ferociously.但孟昶和王衍一样,残酷剥削压榨高官、百姓,奢侈成性。And in 965, the Later Shu was ended by the Northern Song.965年为北宋所灭。The State of Wuyue:The State of Wuyue was established by Qian Liu who was the garrison commander of Zhenhai in 893.吴越:吴越的创建者钱镠,在公元893年被唐昭宗任命为镇海节度使。He won his position in charge of Zhen-hai and Zhendong while fighting with warlord Dong Chang in Yuezhou.不久, 因讨越州军阀董昌有功,升任镇海、镇东两军节度使。In 907, Qian Liu was granted as the King of Wuyue with Hangzhou as capital.公元907年,后梁封他为吴越王,建都于杭州,拥有两浙之地。His kingdom embraced Zhejiang, and there were scarcely wars agitated in this period which retained the time for economic and agricultural development.这一地区战争很少,生产发达,经济繁荣。Their regime lasted five generations to Qian Chu and was finally ruined by the Northern Song Dynasty.钱氏政权五传至钱镠,于978年降于北宋。The State of Chu:The State of Chu was founded by Ma Yin.楚:唐末,马殷割据湖南。In 907, he was acknowledged as King of Chu by the Later Liang and Tanzhou (Changsha, Hunan now) was the capital. There was a chaos among his sons in the court for the posiDynasty.公元907年,后梁封他为楚王,都于潭州(长沙)。公元927年,马殷死,诸子争立,政局混乱,公元963年为北宋所灭。The State of Min:The State of Min was set up by Wang Shenzhi who followed his elder brother Wang Chao to Fuzhou (Fujian province now). In 897, Wang Shenzhi succeeded his brothers position as the garrison commander and was later granted as King of Min taking charging of Quanzhou and Tingzhou. Other successors of the Min were all tyrannies therefore caused constant confusion within the state and received downfall from the Southern Tang.闽:公元893年,王审知随其兄王潮据福州(今福建),公元897年,继王潮为威武军节度使。公元909年,后梁封他为闽王,据有泉、汀等地。王审知死后,继位的都是暴君,内乱不休,公元945年被南唐攻灭。The State of Southern Han : In 905, Liu Yin was a garrison commander of Jinghai in the Tang Dynasty.南汉:公元905年,刘隐为唐静海军节度使。In 907, he was granted as King of Dapeng and his brother, Liu Ying after succeed him, extended his territory and proclaimed to be emperor of Yue in 917 with Guangzhou as capital. In the following year, he renamed his regime Han, which was the Southern Han in Chinese history.公元907年,后梁封他为大彭郡王。隐弟刘葵继位后,扩大了势力范围,于公元917年称帝,国号越,建都广州,次年改国号为汉,史称“南汉”。The rulers of the Southern Han were extravagant and cruel therefore caused an intense class contradictory. In 971, the Southern Han was also taken over by the Northern Song.南汉君主都极其奢侈,统治十分残暴,境内阶级矛盾非常尖锐,公元971年为北宋所灭。The State of Later Liang : In 907, Gao Jixing, was a garrison commander in Jingnan during the period of the Later Liang.后梁:公元907年,后梁任命高季兴为荆南节度使。In 924, he was granted King Nanping with Jiangling as cspital, owning only Jingzhou, which was the smallest state.924年,后唐庄宗封他为南平王,都于江陵,仅有荆州一地,是十国中最弱小的一国。In 963,it was taken over by the Northern Song.公元963年亡于北宋。The State of Northern Han : The State of Northern Han by Liu Chong appeared somewhat later than the others, it was established towards the end of the Later Tang, during the period of the Later Jin, and the Later Zhou.北汉:北汉为后汉高祖之弟刘崇所建,是建国最晚的一个,成立后唐末期、后晋和后周之间。In 951, located in the east of the Yellow River, Liu Chong declared to be emperor with Taiyuan as capital and still took Han as its name. It was the Northern Han in Chinese history.公元951年,刘崇据河东之地,在太原称帝,仍以汉为国号,史称“北汉”。The Northern Han was based on weak economy on which its people suffered from the heavy taxes for military expenditure and payment to Qidan in the north. To earn a living was terribly hard in the Northern Han and there were acute social struggles within.北汉“土瘠民贫,内供军国,外奉契丹,赋繁役重,民不聊生”,社会矛盾十分尖锐。In 979 the Northern Song took over it.公元979年被北宋所灭。Along with the improvement of handicrafts, the economy of the south was booming.随着手工业的发展,南方的商业也相当活跃。Hangzhou, the capital of Wuyue, grew into a prosperous metropolis in the southeaster of China enjoying the faming of the richest and thriftiest city that could be compared to the heaven.吴越都城杭州,已成为东南繁荣 的大都市富兼华夷”,“百事繁庶”,有“地上天宫”之称。Chengdu was also well-developed and famous for its silks, herb medicine and jewels concerning the amount of goods exchange.成都市场也相当繁荣,有蚕市、药市、珠宝市,市场交易量很大。Besides, there were many trades by sea.valley after the periods of growth in the five Dynasties.此外,当时的海上贸易也相当活跃。According to the demographic toll at the dawn of the Northern Song that there were 2. 3 million people was added to the Song’s original 1 milliom after removing all the small states in the south.经过五代时期的发展,全国的经济重心已从黄河流域逐渐转移到长江流域。据北宋初年统计,北方人口只有100多万户,后来陆续平定南方诸国,又得230多万户。This indicated that the population of the south was double that of the north which meant the progressive surplus of the north in economy and a gradually prominent position in imperial China.可见南方人口已经超过北方二倍。这说明南方经济的发展日益超过北方, 越来越在全国占据重要的地位。 /201602/421849

Sir David Attenborough, US President Barack Obama and Hollywood star Leonardo DiCaprio top people#39;s wishlists for their dream dinner guests, a poll suggests.根据一项民意调查显示,大卫·爱登堡爵士,美国总统巴拉克·奥巴马以及好莱坞著名影星莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥是公众普遍期待的共进晚餐的最佳人选。A survey ahead of WWF#39;s Earth Hour, when people and landmarks across the world turn the lights off for an hour to show they care about the future of the planet, found eminent conservationist Sir David was the most popular choice for a dinner party.由世界自然基金会发起的“地球一小时”活动不久前在全球范围内举行,世界各地的人们和建筑场所都纷纷响应号召,开启一个小时的“熄灯模式”,以此提高人们节能意识。在此活动举行之前,一项调查显示,著名环保主义者大卫·爱登堡爵士被评为群众最受欢迎的晚餐对象。The US President was the second most popular diner in the poll, which asked people to select 10 dream dinner guests from a list of 100 possible figures - both living and dead - ranging from Mother Teresa to Kim Kardashian.这次民意调查的主要内容是让民众从100位名人(已故的或在世的都可)中挑选最喜欢的十位当做和自己共进晚餐的对象。从特蕾莎修女到金·卡戴珊,群众选择范围甚广。其中,美国总统奥巴马在此次民意调查中排名第二,仅次于大卫·爱登堡爵士。Other popular dream dinner guests included David Bowie, Nelson Mandela, Adele, Prince Harry, Albert Einstein, William Shakespeare, Elvis Presley and John Lennon.除上述提到的三位之外,其他几位最受群众欢迎的名人还有大卫· 鲍伊,纳尔逊·曼德拉,阿黛尔,哈里王子,阿尔伯特·爱因斯坦,威廉·莎士比亚,埃维斯·普里斯利以及约翰·列侬。For those aged 16 to 25, Oscar-winning actor and committed environmentalist DiCaprio was the top choice, followed by Harry Potter star and equality campaigner Emma Watson.对于那些年龄在16到25岁的人群,奥斯卡最佳男演员得主、同时也是不折不扣的环保主义者的莱昂纳多·迪卡普里奥成为最佳人选。哈利波特系列电影的演员、同时也是倡导女权运动的艾玛·沃特森紧随其后。Young people were also keen to sit down to dinner with Beyonce, Jennifer Lawrence, Adele, Rihanna, Mr Obama, Daniel Radcliffe, Taylor Swift and Shakespeare.此外,许多年轻人也特别希望能够跟碧昂斯,詹妮弗·劳伦斯,阿黛尔,蕾哈娜,丹尼尔·雷德克里夫,总统奥巴马,泰勒·斯威夫特以及莎士比亚等名人共进晚餐。Along with many restaurants across the UK which are hosting candlelit dinners, 350 landmarks in 178 countries and territories will switch off their lights for the hour, including London#39;s Palace of Westminster and Big Ben, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, New York#39;s Empire State Building and the Sydney Opera House.英国很多家餐厅都为顾客安排了烛光晚餐。同时,来自178个国家和地区的350处标志性建筑都举行了“熄灯一小时”活动,包括英国伦敦的威斯敏斯特宫和大本钟,法国巴黎的埃菲尔铁塔,美国纽约的帝国大厦以及澳大利亚的悉尼歌剧院等。 /201603/433491

;In the long term, we will probably see equal or higher sales in China than in the ed States. That may take five or six years,; Elon Musk, CEO of electric automobile maker Tesla Motors, told Xinhua on Friday.10月23日,特斯拉电动汽车首席执行官埃隆·马斯克表示,“从长远来看,特斯拉在中国的销量将有望达到或赶超美国,这可能需要五六年的时间”。Sales in China in the first three quarters of 2015 reached 3,025 cars, with 791 sold in Q1, 882 in Q2 and 1,345 in Q3, respectively, Musk said at a press conference to unveil Tesla’s new Autopilot system in Beijing.2015年前三季度特斯拉在中国共售出3025辆,第一季度销量为791辆,第二季度销量882辆,第三季度1345辆。马斯克在北京新闻发布会揭开了特斯拉新自动驾驶系统。Musk said the figures are good on a percentage growth basis, and he is very optimistic about Tesla’s future in China. He said he wants to emphasize that Tesla is still a small company. ;We get the press of an elephant, but are the size of a mouse,; he said.马斯克表示,这些数据的百分比均呈上升态势,他十分看好特斯拉在中国的未来。他强调,特斯拉现在仍然是小公司,“媒体看来我们看起来像只大象,但从规模上讲我们还只是只老鼠”。The company is in talks with officials at the national and provincial levels about potential joint ventures in China, according to Musk. In a previous interview with Xinhua, Musk said Tesla plans to localize production and engineering in China in three years. ;That timetable is still approximately correct. It’s my best guess,; he said on Friday when asked if there had been any change of plans.马斯克表示,目前公司正与国家级及省级官方举行会谈,探讨潜在的合作关系。在早前接受新华社的采访时,马斯克表示特斯拉计划三年内在中国实现本地化生产和工程设计。周五的新闻发布会上,当被问及计划是否会有变时,马斯克回应,“乐观估计,公司未来发展和这一计划基本一致”。Tesla has been increasing its retail outlets and supercharging networks in China, having aly installed 84 superchargers and 1,500 destination chargers after sales in the country reportedly fell below expectations last year.自去年报导特斯拉在中国的销售额未达到公司预期值,特斯拉便一直在中国增加其零售网点及超级充电网络系统,已建成84个超级充电站及1500个目的地充电站。Musk said Tesla is now in a ;pretty good place,; even as traditional car makers such as BMW and Audi unveiled their own electric vehicle concepts in China. ;We are trying to put localized production in China. In the years to come, you’ll see some fairly significant partnership announcements,; Musk added.马斯克表示,虽然诸如宝马、奥迪等传统汽车公司纷纷发布电动汽车的概念,但特斯拉在竞争中还是占据良好的位置。马斯克补充说,“我们计划在中国实现本地化生产,在不久的将来,你们就能看到一些重要的合作关系”。China’s automobile sales rebounded in September mainly due to growth in passenger car and new energy vehicle sales. Official data showed that electric and hybrid electric cars outperformed their peers in September, registering 210- and 220-percent year-on-year growth in output and sales, respectively.由于小轿车和新能源汽车的销量增加,中国的汽车销量在9月有所回升。官方数据显示,电动和混合动力汽车在9月份的销量表现优于其他汽车,年产量增长率达到210%,年销量增长率达220%。Industry analysts said his choice of Beijing as the launch site for Tesla’s Autopilot indicates Tesla’s determination to win over China, the world’s biggest auto market.业内人士分析,特斯拉选择北京作为其自动驾驶系列的首发地,表明特斯拉要赢得中国这一全球最大汽车市场的决心。However, Musk did not shy away from admitting that Tesla had ;made some mistakes; on its initial entry into China. The lesson learned is that no matter how anxious customers are to get the product, it shouldn’t be launched unless everything is y, he said. Tesla is limiting expansion into other markets as a result of the lessons learned in China, Musk said. ;We shouldn’t make that mistake in the future.;然而马斯克并不否认,在初入中国市场时,“犯了一些错误”。但我们从中吸取到教训:无论市场顾客对这一产品多么期待,都不能在产品还没完全准备好的时候投入市场。由于中国这一市场的经验教训,特斯拉现在并不急于拓展其他市场,马斯克表示,“在将来我们不能再犯这样的错误了”。Meanwhile, he is also optimistic about China’s economy, despite the recent slowdown. ;If you look at China’s fundamentals over the long term, they are extremely good,; Musk said, citing the country’s highly educated workforce and high percentage of engineering graduates.同时,他对中国的经济前景持乐观态度,尽管近期有所放缓。“要用长远的眼光看待中国的经济基本面,形势还是一片大好”,马斯克和有高等学历的员工和工程专业的学生交流时说到。Apart from Tesla, Musk is also the CEO of private rocket firm SpaceX and chairman of solar company Solarcity. He dismissed the possibility that all the companies under his helm would be restructured to follow Google’s recent reorganization under conglomerate Alphabet Inc.包括特斯拉,马斯克同时也是私人火箭太空探索技术公司(SpaceX)的首席执行官,以及太阳能公司的董事长。他否认了他掌舵的所有公司将进行重组的消息,因为谷歌最近重组成立了Alphabet公司。He said he enjoys getting involved in the ;front line execution; of the companies, but said Tesla will add new brain power to its team, which will ;make it easier; for him.马斯克表示他很享受参与到公司一线执行活动的过程,但特斯拉团队需要输入新的智慧,这能使他轻松不少。 /201510/4059831 Compared with conventional beef, grass-fed beef is higher in this health-promoting nutrient, which gives its fat a yellow color:1、与传统牛肉相比,草饲牛肉中某种有益健康的营养素含量更高,并让脂肪呈现黄色,这种营养素是:Vitamin A维生素AVitamin B维生素BVitamin C维生素CVitamin D维生素D2 Researchers found that having an “ambivalent” marriage, in which feelings of support from a partner waver, could jeopardize health. What percentage of couples they surveyed had ambivalent marriages?2、研究人员发现,如果你的婚姻属于“矛盾型”,你感觉配偶对自己的持时高时低,那么你的健康可能会因此受损。在接受调查的夫妇中,“矛盾”婚姻的百分比有多高?23 percent23%45 percent45%59 percent59%77 percent77%3 A large analysis found that birth order had an effect on which of the following traits?3、一项大型分析发现,出生顺序对以下哪方面产生了影响?Extroversion外向程度Consientiousness责任心IQ智商All of the above以上所有4 Exercise, particularly during midlife, may slow cell aging by preventing the fraying of this part of the chromosome:4、锻炼,特别是中年时期加强锻炼,可能会减缓细胞老化,防止染色体的哪个部分损耗:Centromeres着丝粒Telomeres端粒Chromatids染色单体Arms染色体两臂5 This contraceptive method is associated with the lowest one-year pregnancy rate:5、采用哪种避方法,一年内的受率最低:IUD宫内节育器The “pill”口药Condoms避套Cervical caps and sponges宫颈帽和海绵6 The World Health Organization placed processed meats like hot dogs and bacon in its Group 1 category, with “sufficient evidence” that they could cause cancer. Other carcinogens in this category include:6、世界卫生组织将热和培根等加工肉制品列为1类物质,即有“充分据”显示它们可能会导致癌症。此类别中的其他致癌物质包括:Alcohol酒精Asbestos石棉Tobacco smoke烟草烟雾All of the above以上所有7 Obese children who cut their sugar intake showed lower blood pressure and improved cholesterol ings within:7、肥胖儿童减少糖分摄入多久之后,血压会降低,胆固醇水平会得到改善:10 days10天One month一个月Two months两个月Six months六个月8 Sleep apnea has been tied to excess levels of uric acid and may raise the risk of this painful condition:8、睡眠呼吸暂停和尿酸水平过高有关,而且还可能引发哪种疼痛的病症:Shingles带状疱疹Gout痛风Migraine偏头痛Sciatica坐骨神经痛 /201511/407794

Marriage is much more complicated than love – different backgrounds, lifestyles, habits and values can lead to quarrels and misunderstanding when a couple weds.婚姻比恋爱要复杂的多。情侣步入婚姻殿堂后,不同的背景、生活方式、习惯和价值观都可能导致争吵和误解。Recent news of a middle-class Shanghainese woman who broke up with her peasant boyfriend over Spring Festival went viral on Chinese social media. The 26-year-old local girl was dating a migrant worker from a poor village in Jiangxi Province, but after being invited back to his ancestral home for a traditional Chinese lunar new year holiday, she immediately dumped him once she saw the humble dinner prepared by his relatives. She even publicly shared her experience on the Internet, along with a photo of the food she was served. What are foreigners#39; take on the incident?最近,一则上海中等家庭女生,春节和农村男友分手的新闻在中国媒体上闹得沸沸扬扬。这个26岁的上海女生与从江西贫穷农村来上海工作的男生谈恋爱,男友邀请她去老家过年,但在看到男友家人准备的简朴年夜饭后,女生立刻决定分手。她还在网上公开了这段经历,附上了一张年夜饭的照片。那么外国朋友们对这件事都持什么样的看法呢?Howard Whiteson from the UK said it was wrong of the girl to suddenly leave. ;It lacks sensibility. She knew her boyfriend was from a village. So she should have accepted the food, then broken up at a better time,; he said.来自英国的霍华德·怀特森表示,女生突然离开的做法是不对的。“太无情了,她知道男友家是农村的,所以她应当接受那顿饭,然后找一个更合适的时机分手。”他说。;The girl#39;s reaction of leaving the table and immediately breaking up with her boyfriend is extreme and radical. Why didn#39;t she just share her feelings with her boyfriend instead of on her social media?; Cyril Saidah from France said.来自法国的西里尔·赛达表示:“这女生马上离席并立刻分手的反应太极端和激进了。她为什么不与男朋友交流,反而在社交媒体上发表感想?”;I think there would be a national outcry if it happened in my country, Ireland, especially how she posted it publicly to display his family#39;s poor situation. It reflects a big gap and little empathy between the rich and the poor in China,; said an Irish citizen in Shanghai.“我觉得如果这事发生在我的国家爱尔兰,一定会引起全国人民的强烈抗议,尤其是她公开表明男友家庭的贫困状况。这事反映了中国贫富之间巨大的差距和缺乏同情。”一位在上海的爱尔兰人说道。;I totally don#39;t agree with the reaction of the girl, because even if she didn#39;t want to continue dating this guy, she didn#39;t have to humiliate his parents,; said Olga Portnova from Kazakhstan.“我完全不同意这个女生的做法,即便她不想和男生继续谈恋爱了,也没必要羞辱他的父母。”来自哈萨克斯坦的奥尔加波特诺娃说。Some expats the Global Times spoke with are married to a Chinese spouse and have firsthand experiences when it comes to cultural differences. The Global Times also asked these same foreigners to expound on their impression of Chinese dating and marriage.谈到文化差异,环球时报采访了一些与中国人结婚的海外移民,他们有着最直接的体验。环球时报还邀请这些外国朋友谈谈他们对中国恋爱和婚姻的印象。;Compared to the West, people in China mostly marry for money rather than feelings. Most of the time it#39;s only because of their parents#39; influence. But this is like how France was 60 years ago, so eventually China will also change,; said Oscar.“与西方相比,中国人大部分为了钱而不是感情而结婚。大部分情况下,这仅仅是由于他们父母的影响。但这就像60年前的法国,所以中国最终也会改变。”奥斯卡说。;Making assumptions and having strong opinions can hurt opportunities for change. The girl should look at what the boy can become instead of where he came from and what he was in the past. Just because everybody uses AC power now does not mean they will in the future,; said Derek Cowburn from the US.“妄自猜测以及表达强烈意见可能会破坏改变的机会。这个女生应该看到男友的未来,而不是他来自哪里和他的过去。现在每个人都用交流电,但这并不代表他们在将来也会用。”来自美国的德里克库布伦说。;From my understanding, many times the choice in China is based on financial and education criteria before true love. But I believe everybody should be humble and respectful toward each other. Class differences should not be a deal breaker if the couple really loves each other,; said Saidah.“按照我的理解,中国很多婚姻都是基于经济和教育水平,而不是真爱。但我认为每个人应当对他人保持谦逊和尊重。如果这对情侣真的彼此相爱,家庭条件不同并不应当成为感情的阻碍。”赛达说。In the case of the Shanghai woman, it was obviously important for her to find a significant other who has a matching family background, but for the foreigners interviewed, this does not seem to be so important.对于这则新闻中的上海女生来说,很显然她认为找到一个家庭背景相当的另一半很重要,但对接受采访的外国人来说,这个条件似乎并没有那么重要。;I think it#39;s fine for people of different classes to date and marry. There are many examples of this in the West. If love is strong then class shouldn#39;t matter. But it can also eventually create conflict,; said Whiteson.“我认为不同阶层的人们相恋结婚挺好的。在西方国家这种例子很多。如果感情到位,阶层无所谓,但最终还是可能产生冲突。”怀特森说。;There is no reason people from different family backgrounds and classes should not date or marry. Most societies are not like the Indian caste system, in which there is no mixing allowed,; said Saidah. ;In French we even have a saying that goes #39;opposites attract.#39; Meeting and mixing with different people is very rewarding and helps us become more open-minded,; he said.“来自不同家庭背景和不同阶层的人不应当约会和结婚-这根本没道理。大多数社会并不像印度种姓制度那样,不允许不同种姓的人结婚。”赛达说。“在法国我们甚至有#39;不同阶层相互吸引#39;的说法。与不同的人种相识并结婚非常有益,使我们变得更加开明。”他说。 /201602/427124

Organic meat and milk differ markedly from their conventionally produced counterparts in measures of certain nutrients, a review of scientific studies reported on Tuesday.周二(2月9日),一项科学研究综述报告,有机肉类和牛奶在某些营养成分上与通过常规方式生产的同类产品间存在明显差异。In particular, levels of omega-3 fatty acids, beneficial for lowering the risk of heart disease, were 50 percent higher in the organic versions.尤其是,有机产品中有益于降低心脏病风险的ω-3脂肪酸的水平比普通产品高出50%。“The fatty acid composition is definitely better,” said Carlo Leifert, a professor of ecological agriculture at Newcastle University in England and the leader of an international team of scientists who performed the review.该综述由一国际科学家小组完成,其负责人,英格兰纽卡斯尔大学(Newcastle University)的生态农业教授卡洛·莱费特(Carlo Leifert)说:“(有机产品的)脂肪酸组成绝对更佳。”The European Commission, the executive body of the European Union, and the Sheepdrove Trust, a British charity that supports organic farming research, paid for the analysis, which cost about 0,000.该项分析耗资约60万美元,这些费用由欧盟(European Union)的执行机构欧盟委员会(European Commission)和持有机农业研究的英国慈善机构Sheepdrove Trust承担。However, the question of whether these differences are likely to translate to better health in people who eat organic meat and drink organic milk is sharply disputed.然而,上述差异是否代表着吃有机肉类、喝有机牛奶的人更为健康呢?人们对此仍有尖锐的争议。“We don’t have that answer right now,” said Richard P. Bazinet, a professor of nutritional sciences at the University of Toronto who was not involved with the research. “Based on the composition, it looks like they should be better for us.”“这个问题的我们现在还不得而知,”多伦多大学(University of Toronto)的营养科学教授理查德·P·巴齐内(Richard P. Bazinet)说,他没有参与上述研究。“但就营养组成而言,它们(有机产品)似乎更为有益。”The two new scientific papers, published in The British Journal of Nutrition, are not the result of any new experiments, but instead employ a statistical technique called meta-analysis that attempts to pull robust conclusions out of many disparate studies.这两篇新的科学论文发表在《英国营养学杂志》(The British Journal of Nutrition)上,它们并没有介绍什么新的实验结果,而是采用了一种名为荟萃分析的统计技术,试图从众多不同的研究中得出强有力的结论。They are certain to further stir a combative debate over whether organic foods are healthier. Some scientists assert that organic and conventional foods are nutritionally indistinguishable, and others find significant benefits to organic. Many people who buy organic food say they do so not for a nutritional advantage, but because of environmental concerns and to avoid pesticides.它们势必会进一步激起人们就有机食品是否更为健康展开激烈的辩论。一些科学家宣称,有机食品和常规食品的营养价值并无区别,而其他人则发现有机产品显著较好。许多人称自己购买有机食品并非是为了更高的营养价值,而是出于对环境的忧虑,以及希望能避免农药问题。The higher levels of omega-3, a type of polyunsaturated fat, arise not from the attributes usually associated with organic food — that the animals are not given antibiotics, hormones or genetically modified feed — but rather from a requirement that animals raised organically spend time outside. Organic milk and beef come from cattle that graze on grass, while most conventional milk and beef come from cows subsisting on grain.ω-3脂肪酸是一种多不饱和脂肪。有机食品中ω-3脂肪酸水平较高,并不是有机食品本身的特点(即不给予动物抗生素、激素或转基因饲料)造成的,而是因为有机养殖的动物在室外活动的时间较长。有机牛奶和牛肉产自在草地上放牧的牛,而大多数普通牛奶和牛肉则产自吃谷物的牛。“It’s not something magical about organic,” said Charles M. Benbrook, an organic industry consultant who is an author of the studies. “It’s about what the animals are being fed.”“有机食品本身并没有什么神奇之处,”研究的作者之一,有机产业顾问查尔斯·M·本布鲁克(Charles M. Benbrook)说。“关键在于动物是用什么东西饲喂的。”Most of the same changes would be observed in conventionally raised animals that also grazed for the majority of their diet, the scientists said.“For once, this is a pretty simple story,” Dr. Benbrook said.科学家们表示,如果常规饲养的动物也以吃草为主,那么在它们身上也能发现很多相同的改变。“这样一来,问题就变得简单了,“本布鲁克士说。The review of comparisons of organic and conventional milk analyzed all 196 papers the scientists found. Because studies of meat are sparser, they could not look at just one type of meat like beef or pork. Instead, they did one analysis of the 67 papers they found for all types of meat. “Only if you throw them all in one pot can you do a meta-analysis,” Dr. Leifert said.科学家们在比较有机和常规牛奶的综述中分析了他们所能找到的所有196篇论文。由于对肉类的研究较少,他们发现只审查关于某一种肉,如牛肉或猪肉的研究不现实。反之,他们对关于各种肉的67篇论文统一进行了分析。“只有把它们放在一起才能进行荟萃分析,”莱费特士解释道。Two years ago, Dr. Leifert led a similar review for fruits and vegetables that found organic produce had higher levels of some antioxidants and less pesticide residue than conventionally grown crops.两年前,莱费特士领导了一项关于水果和蔬菜的类似综述,发现与用常规方法种植的作物相比,有机农产品中某些抗氧化剂的水平较高,农药残留较少。Nutrition experts broadly agree that omega-3 fatty acids in food offer numerous health benefits. When the ed States Department of Agriculture revised its dietary guidelines in 2010, it urged people to eat more seafood, which is rich in omega-3.营养专家普遍认同,食物中的ω-3脂肪酸具有多种健康效益。美国农业部(ed States Department of Agriculture)在2010年修订其膳食指南时,呼吁人们多多食用富含ω-3脂肪酸的海产品。Omega-3 is much more prevalent in grass than in grain, which is why organic livestock and milk also contain higher levels. “Lo and behold, we altered in some fundamental ways the nutrient intake of these animals and hence the nutrient composition of the products that we derive from those animals,” Dr. Benbrook said.草料中的ω-3脂肪酸含量比谷物中高,因此有机家畜及其乳制品中也含有较高水平的ω-3脂肪酸。“你瞧,我们改变了这些动物摄入营养的基本方式,这才影响了其衍生产品的营养成分,”本布鲁克士说。The new analysis found that levels of another polyunsaturated fat, omega-6, were slightly lower in organic meat and dairy. Omega-3 and omega-6 are essential for the functioning of the human body, which can make neither. But some have argued that a skewing toward omega-6 has become unhealthy.新的分析还发现,在有机肉类和乳制品中,另一种多不饱和脂肪酸:ω-6脂肪酸的水平略低。ω-3和ω-6脂肪酸对于人体的正常功能来说都必不可少,而且人体无法自己合成它们。但也有人认为,过多摄入ω-6脂肪酸并不利于健康。Centuries ago, people ate roughly equal amounts of the two fatty acids. Today, most Americans eat more than 10 times as much omega-6, which is prevalent in certain vegetable oils and thus also fried foods, as omega-3.几个世纪以前,人们摄入的这两种脂肪酸大致等量。今天,由于某些植物油中普遍含有ω-6脂肪酸(因此油炸食品也一样),大多数美国人摄入的ω-6脂肪酸约为ω-3的10倍以上。In an email, Dr. Walter C. Willett, the chairman of the nutrition department at the Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, said the differences between organic and conventional beef were trivial, and the amount of saturated fat in both were high.哈佛大学公共卫生学院(Harvard School of Public Health)的营养系主任沃尔特·C·威利特(Walter C. Willett)士在一封电子邮件中写道,有机和常规牛肉之间的差异微不足道,而且两者中的饱和脂肪含量均很高。“Far greater, and beneficial, differences in fatty acids are seen if poultry and fish replace red meat,” Dr. Willett said.“如果用禽肉和鱼肉来代替红肉,你会发现更大、更有益于健康的脂肪酸差异,”威利特士如是说。A shortcoming of the recommendation to eat more fish is that if everyone followed it, the rivers, oceans and lakes would be emptied of fish. Dr. Bazinet of the University of Toronto said perhaps encouraging people to switch to organic meats and milk would be “a way to kind of get at them with the foods they’re aly eating.”不过,多吃鱼这个建议本身也有其缺点:如果每个人都遵循这个建议,那么河流、海洋和湖泊中的鱼就要被吃光了。多伦多大学的巴齐内士表示,鼓励人们改吃有机肉类和牛奶或许“只是在教人摄入本来就在吃的食物”。Dr. Bazinet said observational studies suggested that adding 200 milligrams a day of omega-3s to an average diet should yield health benefits. Switching to organic beef would add about 50 milligrams. “Eating one grass-fed beef serving per day is not going to do it,” he said.巴齐内士说,观察研究表明,在普通膳食的基础上,每天增加摄入200毫克ω-3脂肪酸可带来健康效益。而改吃有机牛肉只能多摄取到约50毫克的ω-3脂肪酸。于是他总结道:“每天吃一份草饲牛肉达不到你(补充ω-3脂肪酸)的目的。”But if combined with a couple of glasses of organic milk, “it should make a difference,” Dr. Bazinet said. “That would be the hypothesis.”但是,如果再喝上一两杯有机牛奶的话,“应该就有用了,”巴齐内士说。“假设上是如此。”Scientists are now trying to examine the health question more directly.现在科学家们正试图以更直接的方式来探讨这些健康问题。Dr. Leifert cited several studies that indicated that infants of mothers who ate organic fruits and vegetables were less likely to contract some diseases. He is also conducting experiments to see if rats fed organic foods are healthier. So far, he said, it appears that crop pesticide residue does have measurable effects on the rats’ hormones.莱费特士列举了数项研究,它们都表明,食用有机水果和蔬菜的母亲所诞下的婴儿较不容易患某些疾病。他还在进行实验,以研究饲喂有机食品的大鼠是否更健康。他说,从迄今为止的结果来看,农作物上的农药残留确实对大鼠的激素水平造成了明显的影响。“We still don’t know whether it kills you, but we do know it has an effect on hormonal balances,” he said. “It’s something that makes you think a little bit.”“虽然尚不清楚它是否会致死,但我们的确发现,它会影响激素的平衡。”他说,“这一点颇值得深思。” /201602/428192

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