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2017年10月23日 12:34:02来源:北青互动

Science and technology - Psychosomatic medicine科学技术Psychosomatic medicine身心医学Think yourself well要相信,你的身体很棒You can. But it helps to think well of yourself in the first place你可以拥有很好的体魄。但首先,你要自我感觉好,这会有帮助的。THE link between mind and body is terrain into which many medical researchers, fearing ridicule, dare not t.许多医学研究者都不敢探究躯体和心理的关系,因为他们害怕,踏进这一领域会受人嘲笑。But perhaps more should do so.但也许,研究这方面的人应该多一些才好。For centuries, doctors have recognised the placebo effect, in which the illusion of treatment, such as pills without an active ingredient, produces real medical benefits.几个世纪以来,医生已逐渐认可了安慰剂效应。因为患者会产生错觉,认为自己在接受治疗。比如,用无活性成分的药片也能产生实际疗效。More recently, respectable research has demonstrated that those who frequently experience positive emotions live longer and healthier lives.根据最近的可靠的研究表明,平时积极乐观的人会活得更长久、更健康。They have fewer heart attacks, for example, and fewer colds too.比如,他们心脏病发作的次数更少,也很少感冒。Why this happens, though, is only slowly becoming understood.然而,人们才开始慢慢了解这种情况发生的原因。What is needed is an experiment that points out specific and measurable ways in which such emotions alter an individuals biology.人们需要的是做一场实验,明确这样的情绪是通过怎样具体的、可测量的方式来改变人的生理状况。And a study published in Psychological Science, by Barbara Fredrickson and Bethany Kok at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, does precisely that.北卡罗来纳大学教堂山分校的芭芭拉·弗雷德里克松和贝瑟尼·可可就是按照这个思路做了一项研究,并在《心理科学》上发表了相关论文。Dr Fredrickson and Dr Kok concentrated their attentions on the vagus nerve. This nerve starts in the brain and runs, via numerous branches, to several thoracic and abdominal organs including the heart.弗雷德里克松士和可可士把注意力集中在迷走神经上。这对神经起于颅腔,通过无数分与胸腔、腹腔的几个脏器相连。Among its jobs is to send signals telling that organ to slow down during moments of calm and safety.它的其中一项工作就是为器官发送信号,让它们在躯体平静、安宁的状态下放缓节奏。How effectively the vagus nerve is working can be tracked by monitoring someones heart rate as he breathes in and out.他们通过监测一个人吸气、呼气时的心率,追踪记录迷走神经如何有效地工作。Healthy vagal function is reflected in a subtle increase in heart rate while breathing in and a subtle decrease while breathing out.如果吸气时心率略微增加,呼气时略微下降,则说明迷走神经工作正常。The difference yields an index of vagal tone, and the value of this index is known to be connected with health.两次心率之差构成迷走神经张力指数。人们都知道该指数与健康程度有关。Low values are, for example, linked to inflammation and heart attacks.例如,低指数就与炎症、心脏病发作几率有联系。What particularly interested Dr Fredrickson and Dr Kok was recent work that showed something else about the vagal-tone index: people with high tone are better than those with low at stopping bad feelings getting overblown.让弗雷德里克松士和可可士特别感兴趣的是最近的研究,因为它显示了迷走神经张力指数的另一个性质:与张力指数低的人相比,指数高的人能更好地防止不良情绪失控。They also show more positive emotions in general.研究也显示,指数高的人大体上情绪更乐观。This may provide the missing link between emotional well-being and physical health.这也许弥补了心理健康与生理健康之间缺失的环节。In particular, the two researchers found, during a preliminary study they carried out in 2010, that the vagal-tone values of those who experience positive emotions over a period of time go up.尤其值得注意的是,两位研究人员在2010年的初步探究中发现,人们如果体验一段时间的积极情绪,迷走神经张力指数会就增加。This left them wondering whether positive emotions and vagal tone drive one another in a virtuous spiral.这为他们留下了疑念,积极情绪与迷走神经张力是否处于一个良性循环之中,互相促进?They therefore conducted an experiment on 65 of the universitys staff, to try to find out.因此,他们对本校的65名员工展开实验,一探究竟。They measured all of their volunteers vagal tones at the beginning of the experiment and at its conclusion nine weeks later.他们在实验开始时测量了所有志愿者的迷走神经张力指数,九周后实验结束时又再次测量。In between, the volunteers were asked to go each evening to a website especially designed for the purpose, and rate their most powerful emotional experiences that day.在实验期间,他们要求志愿者每天晚上登录一家专门为此设计的网站,为当天所经历的各种最强烈情绪评定等级。Dr Fredrickson and Dr Kok asked their volunteers to consider nine positive emotions, such as hope, joy and love, and 11 negative ones, including anger, boredom and disgust.弗雷德里克松士和可可士为志愿者提供了九种可供考虑的积极情绪选项,如期待、开心、热爱,还有十一种消极情绪,包括愤怒、疲倦、厌恶。They were asked to rate, on a five-point scale, whether—and how strongly—they had felt each emotion.两位士要求他们以五分制一一打分:是否有这样的情绪、情绪有多强烈。One point meant not at all; five meant extremely.1分代表完全没有,5分代表非常强烈。In addition, half the participants, chosen at random, were invited to a series of workshops run by a licensed therapist, to learn a meditation technique intended to engender in the meditator a feeling of goodwill towards both himself and others.此外,他们还随机邀请了一半志愿者到一个注册治疗师开的一系列工作坊中,学习冥想的技巧,旨在让冥想者产生一种善待自己、善待他人的情绪。This group was encouraged to meditate daily, and to report the time they spent doing so.他们鼓励这组人每天冥想,并向他们报告冥想用的时间。Dr Fredrickson and Dr Kok discovered that vagal tone increased significantly in people who meditated, and hardly at all in those who did not.弗雷德里克松士和可可士发现,冥想的人的迷走神经张力显著增加,而那些不冥想的人几乎没有任何变化。Among meditators, those who started the experiment with the highest vagal-tone scores reported the biggest increases in positive emotions.在众多冥想者之中,那些实验一开始就拥有最高指数的人,积极情绪增加的幅度最大;Meditators who started with particularly low scores showed virtually no such boost.而一开始指数就很低的人,几乎没有这样的奇效。Taken as a whole, these findings suggest high vagal tone makes it easier to generate positive emotions and that this, in turn, drives vagal tone still higher.作为一个整体来看,这些发现意味着,这迷走神经张力指数越高,越容易产生积极情绪;反过来,积极情绪又能促进指数的提升。That is both literally and metaphorically a positive feedback loop.无论是从直观还是隐含的角度看,这都是一个正反馈循环。Which is good news for the emotionally positive, but bad for the emotionally negative, for it implies that those who most need a psychosomatic boost are incapable of generating one.对于情绪乐观的人来说,这是个好消息;但对于消极的人来说,情况正好相反,因为它意味着,那些最需要振作精神的人却往往无法产生积极情绪。A further experiment by Dr Kok suggests, however, that the grumpy need not give up all hope.然而可可士的进一步研究表明,脾气不好的人也尚存希望。A simpler procedure than meditation, namely reflecting at night on the days social connections, did seem to cause some improvement to their vagal tone.有一种比冥想简单的方法,即每天晚上对白天的社交活动进行反思,似乎能在一定程度上提高迷走神经张力指数。This might allow even those with a negative outlook on life to bootstrap their way to a mental state from which they could then advance to the more powerful technique of meditation.就算是对生活不抱希望的人,也可能通过这种方式自我解脱,达到另一种精神状态,然后他们可以进一步使用效果更好的冥想技巧。Whether, besides improving general health, the mechanism Dr Fredrickson and Dr Kok have discovered helps explain the placebo effect remains to be investigated.除了提高综合健康水平,弗雷德里克松士和可可士发现的机制是否有助于解释安慰剂效应,还有待进一步研究。But it might, because part of that effect seems to be the good feeling engendered by the fact of being treated.但这的确有可能,因为安慰剂效应就包括实验中因治疗产生的良好情绪。More generally, doctors in the ancient world had a saying: a healthy mind in a healthy body.更为普遍的是,古代的医生就有个说法:身体好,精气儿足。This sort of work suggests that though this proverb is true, a better one might be, a healthy mind for a healthy body.而这个实验则启发人们,尽管谚语说得有理,但精气儿足,身体好可能才更准确。 /201310/260643。

  • Books and Arts; Book Review;Stories from Pakistan;Old mans tales;文艺;书评;巴基斯坦的故事;老人的故事;The Wandering Falcon. By Jamil Ahmad.流浪的鹰。贾米尔·艾哈迈德著。In 1893 Sir Henry Mortimer Durand drew a line in the sand, marking a border between Afghanistan and north-west British India, now Pakistan. In doing so, he carelessly carved up the Pushtun homeland. That line runs like a th through “The Wandering Falcon”, Jamil Ahmad’s finely crafted first novel of stories set amid the Pushtun and Baluchi tribes that make up Pakistan’s wild west.1893年,英国亨利·莫蒂默·杜兰爵士在沙漠上划下了一条边界线,以此来分隔阿富汗和英属印度西北部(如今的巴基斯坦)之间的边界。在划边界的过程中,他草率的把普什图的家园分隔开了,在《流浪的猎鹰》书中,这条边界是贯穿全文的主线。这本书经过了贾米尔·艾哈迈德精雕细琢,是第一部以普什图和俾路部落为背景的小说,这两个部落撑起了巴基斯坦荒凉的西部。Starting in the 1950s from “the tangle of crumbling, weather-beaten and broken hills, where the borders of Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan meet”, Mr Ahmad works his way north-east over the course of two decades. He pauses along the way to describe life in the semi-autonomous tribal areas—the migratory patterns of the nomadic Kharots, the “quiet, tormented lives” of the Gujjars, the ancient feud between the Wazirs and the Mahsuds—using as a guide a recurring character, Tor Baz, the “black falcon” of the title.自从1950年开始,在伊朗,巴基斯坦和阿富汗的边界这个岩层剥落,饱受风雨侵蚀的,崎岖的小山群地域中,艾哈迈德先生经历了二十年的历程在该地区的向着东北方向进行研究。书中,艾哈迈德以“黑鹰”“为题,独辟一节,通过主人公托尔·巴兹追忆那些经历之地。一路中,其边走边停,向读者娓娓道来那些半自治游牧区生活:以迁徙为生的游牧民族卡罗兹,生活安逸却又饱受折磨的古加尔,还有瓦济里斯人与马苏德人间的恩恩怨怨。Tor Baz is ostensibly the focus of “The Wandering Falcon”, gliding through the sky as men murder each other and women are sold for a pound of opium on the ground below. His function is to help the er understand the passage of time. Born to unwed parents in the first story—and witness to the brutal justice they receive as a result—by the final tale Tor Baz takes a wife. He appears, quietly, in the intervening stories—here a guide, here an informer—a bit player in a much larger narrative that contrasts the ancient customs of the tribes with the rocky adolescence of the new state.表面上,Tor Baz是《流浪的猎鹰》的关键人物,在地上,男人们相互厮杀,女人们被以一磅鸦片的价钱卖掉,而他却如鹰般在空中翱翔。他是用来帮助读者理解时间发生的顺序的。在第一个故事中他由未婚父母生出—鉴于残酷的法律,他们受到了惩罚—到最后一个故向事时他有了自己的妻子。他神秘地出现在故事中间—时而作为导,时而作为告密人—这个在宏大故事背景中的小角色,使古老的部落习俗与局势动荡的新兴国家形成了鲜明对比.。Born in 1933, Mr Ahmad spent his working life as a Pakistani civil servant in postings up and down the region. “The Wandering Falcon” was completed in 1974 and sat unpublished for four decades until friends and family persuaded him to show it to Meru Gokhale, a young editor at Penguin India. Mr Ahmad writes with an insider’s knowledge, a careful attention to detail and an admirable restraint in his language. Metaphorical flourishes are rare and he is almost never judgmental. This is how the tribes live, he says, neither romanticising nor criticising their way of life.艾哈迈德先生出生于1933年,他大部分的工作时间都用在作为该地区的巴基斯坦的邮政公务员。《流浪的猎鹰》是在1974年完成的,并且直到他的朋友和家人希望他将这本书给Meru Gokhale看前,这本书40年都没出版。Meru Gokhale是企鹅印度出版公司的年轻编辑。艾哈迈德先生用知情人的知识,细心的细节描述和让人敬佩的语言上的克制来写出这本书。隐喻的华丽辞藻很少出现在文中,他大多数时候从来都不做出个人的判断。这就是他所说的部落生活如何既不传奇化他们的生活也不批判他们的生活方式的方法。“The Wandering Falcon” is not a long book. But it is dense with nuance and offers uncommon insight into a land too often explained away as “the most dangerous place on earth”. A wonderful debut.《流浪的猎鹰》这本书篇幅并不长。但是这本书由精微的细节浓缩并且提出不同寻常的对于一个地方经常被误解成“世界上最危险的地方”的洞悉。这本书的初次亮相,惊艳无比。 /201307/246377。
  • Language in Taiwan汉语在台湾Lost in Romanisation迷失拼音Ideological warfare over spelling拼写上的意识形态冲突THE policy of détente with China espoused by Taiwans president, Ma Ying-jeou, has caused fears among some Taiwanese that the islands rowdy democracy will be pushed into Beijings political embrace. Fears of future reunification are even causing some Taiwanese cities to reject hanyu pinyin, the official system for Romanising Chinese words in both China and Taiwan, in favour of an older system.台湾总统马英九就两岸关系主张缓和政策。这让台湾民众忧心忡忡,生恐岛内吵闹的政治局面将台湾推向大陆的怀抱。对于回归的担忧甚至引发部分台湾城市抵制汉语拼音,转而持旧有的拉丁化方案。Mr Mas government declared more than five years ago that the country would start using hanyu pinyin. The reasoning is sensible. It is the phonetic system used virtually everywhere in the world, including the ed Nations and the International Organisation for Standardisation, for transcribing Mandarin pronunciation of Chinese characters into the Roman alphabet. The one problem: it was developed in Communist China in the 1950s and so, for some Taiwanese, remains suspect.早在5年多以前,马英九政府就宣布台湾将开始使用汉语拼音。其理由也非常充分,这种拼音方案几乎被全球所有地区用来将汉字发音转化为拉丁字母,包括美国和国际标准化组织。唯一的问题在于:这个方案诞生于19世纪50年代共党治下的中国,因而台湾民众对它疑心重重。Officials argue that its use will improve Taiwans economic competitiveness by co-ordinating with other Chinese-speaking societies. But some Taiwanese believe this is a ploy by Mr Ma covertly to integrate Taiwan more closely with mainland China.官方认为使用汉语拼音的能够同其他使用汉语的社会统一标准,从而也能提高台湾的经济竞争力。但不少台湾人坚信这这是马英九暗中将台湾和大陆一体化的阴谋。Hanyu pinyin is now used on street signs in the islands capital, Taipei, but some cities ruled by opposition mayors are staging a boycott. They include Kaohsiung, the islands second-largest metropolis, and Tainan, a popular tourist spot filled with charming temples. These cities are clinging to the Romanisation system known as tongyong pinyin, which was introduced in 2002 and is closely associated with Mr Mas predecessor, Chen Shui-bian, a passionate advocate of independence. Tongyong pinyin is unique to Taiwan, and its use was once lambasted by Xinhua, the mainlands official news agency, as a move to rid Taiwan of Chinese influence.汉语拼音如今已经用于首都台北的路牌,不过由反对党市长领导的城市仍在进行抵制。其中包括岛内第二大城市高雄和寺庙充盈的旅游胜地台南。这些城市坚持使用“通用拼音”,该拉丁化方案在2002年开始使用。这套方案的使用同马的前任—激进的台独分子陈水扁,有很大关系。通用拼音仅被台湾采用,并且曾被大陆官媒新华社斥责为意图消除台湾的中华传统。Expatriate newcomers who cannot Chinese characters easily lose their way. The Altar of Heaven, a temple in Tainan, is located on a lane off Jhongyi Road on the city government website, but is off Zhongyi Road on Google Maps. A lingering third system known as Wade-Giles, used before both the others, confuses visitors even more. Mr Mas officials say there is no legal requirement for local governments to adopt hanyu pinyin and they are reluctant to push too hard, lest theystir up memories of the harsh martial-law regime that ended over two decades ago. But, even in language, Taiwan remains divided.不懂汉语的移民后代重回台湾时,很容易就会迷路。比如,台南天坛位于忠义路边上的小巷中,这条路的路牌上写的是Jhongyi Road,而谷歌地图的显示是Zhongyi Road。还有第三种拼音方案叫做威妥玛式拼音法,曾被双方使用,但是却更让游客迷惑。马英九政府的官员表示,法律上并没有要求地方政府接受汉语拼音,政府也不愿意强制推行,以免让他们觉得回到了20多年前残酷的军统时期。即便是从语言上说,台湾仍出在和大陆分离的状态。 /201407/309545。
  • Made in Spain西班牙制造A pressing issue迫在眉睫The government frets about foreign hands on the nations olive-presses外国人插手本国橄榄油产业让政府很不安These are Spanish, not Italian这些是产自西班牙的橄榄,不是产自意大利的THE French government once scuttled a possible foreign bid for Danone, a big dairy firm, on the ground that it was a national industrial “jewel”. If yogurt is strategic for the French, olive oil has the same exalted status inSpain. Four savings banks wanted to sell their combined 31% stake in Deoleo, the countrys largest producer, and under Spains stockmarket rules anyone buying such a large stake has to bid for the whole company. Earlier this month, when it emerged that all the bidders were foreign, ministers said they would prefer that it remained in Spanish hands, and raised the possibility of the state taking a stake in the firm.达能集团是法国一家大型乳制品公司。法国政府曾以它是法国工业的“瑰宝”为理由,否决一项可能达成的国外买家对它的收购案。如果把酸奶产业看作是法国的战略产业,那么橄榄油产业在西班牙拥有同样高的地位。Deoleo是西班牙最大的橄榄油生产商,四家储蓄想抛售他们所持有共计31%的Deoleo股份,而根据西班牙股市交易规则,不论是谁购入如此大额的股份,他都必须向整个公司股东发出收购要约。本月初,当发现所有的竞购者都来自国外,部长们表示他们更希望Deoleo公司的所有权留在西班牙手中,随即提出了国家参股的可能性。On April 10th a British private-equity firm, CVC Capital, won the backing of Deoleos board after making the highest offer, valuing it at 439m. But given the controversy over selling to foreigners, two of the four would-be sellers now look like keeping their stakes. CVC will end up owning 30% of Deoleo but will later seek to buy the rest.4月10日英国一家私募股权公司CVC Capital以4.93亿欧元的最高价竞投,赢得了Deoleo董事会的持。但考虑到买家是外国人而引发的争议,现在四家储蓄中的两家看来要拒绝出售他们所持有的股份。CVC公司最终将拥有Deoleo 公司30%的股份,但之后将寻求购买其余股份的机会。Olive oil accounts for a mere 0.8% ofSpains exports. Yet it is an extra-sensitive matter. The country is the worlds largest producer of the oil, but one-third of its exports are sent in bulk toItalywhere it is bottled and sold, often for a significant markup, under Italian labels. Some of the oil sold with the Bertolli brand, one ofItalys andAmericas favourites, is in fact pressed by Deoleo from the fruits of Spanish olive groves.橄榄油出口额仅占西班牙出口额的0.8%。然而它却是一个特别敏感的问题。西班牙是世界上最大的橄榄油生产国,但是其出口的橄榄油有三分之一是批量发送到意大利的,在那里橄榄油以装瓶出售,通常带着明显的意大利标签,以意大利自有品牌进行销售。Bertolli是意大利人和美国人最青睐品牌之一,然而,有些冠以Bertolli的品牌出售的橄榄油,实际上是使用产自西班牙橄榄园的橄榄,由Deoleo公司压榨的。It is a similar story for wine.Spainhas overtakenFranceandItalyto become the worlds largest producer, but sells almost half of its exports in bulk to markets likeFrance, some of which is retailed under French labels. French- and Italian-labelled wines typically fetch higher prices than Spanish-labelled ones, though the gap is narrowing. And despite the global success of Spanish fashion retailers such as Inditex and Mango, the fancy handbags turned out by artisans in the small Andalusian town ofUbriqueare sold under French and Italian labels. Stuart Weitzman, an American shoe designer who makes his products inSpain, says the country produces the worlds best footwear, but its domestic labels have barely left a footprint on the world stage.对于葡萄酒,情况也类似。西班牙已经超过法国和意大利,成为世界上最大的葡萄酒生产国,但其出口的葡萄酒有几乎一半都批量送往国外零售市场,如法国零售市场,其中一些葡萄酒被冠以法国品牌出售。被冠以法国和意大利品牌标签的葡萄酒通常比西班牙品牌的葡萄酒售价更高,但这一差距正在缩小。尽管西班牙快时尚零售商在全球取得了成功,例如Inditex集团和芒果饰,但是由乌夫克里的安达卢西亚小镇中的工匠所制作的高档手袋,却被冠以法国和意大利的品牌销售。美国的鞋设计师斯图尔特.威兹曼在西班牙生产他的产品,他说:西班牙出产全世界最好的鞋,但其本土品牌却鲜有在世界舞台上留下足迹。Spainhas come a long way, compared with the relatively closed economy it had before joining the European Union in 1986. More recently, rising exports have helped pull the country out of a deep recession, with the economy returning to growth in the third quarter of 2013. Exports are now 34% of Spains GDP, up from 24% in . Its olive oil is winning new customers in places likeChinaandMexico. Prominent chefs like Ferran Adria have raised the profile of Spanish cuisine and attracted foodie tourists. But the country clearly has some way to go in raising the prestige of the “Made inSpain” label.1986年加入欧盟前,西班牙还是个相对封闭的经济体,到如今,它已取得很大进展。最近,出口的增长已帮助西班牙走出了深度的经济衰退。随着2013年第三季度经济回暖,日益增长的出口逐步拉动西班牙走出大萧条的泥沼。年,西班牙的出口额仅占国内生产总值的24%,如今已增长到34%。其橄榄油产品正在赢得中国和墨西哥等国顾客的青睐。像Ferran Adria这样的著名厨师提高了西班牙美食的知名度,也吸引了美食游客的到来。但显然,对于提高“西班牙制造”的声望,西班牙还有一段路要走。 /201404/293152。
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