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2018年01月18日 06:05:58来源:携程网络

E. T. Phoned. Now What?外星人来电Suppose one day scientists pick up a transmission they think is generated by aliens. Now what? Do we build a landing strip and break out the welcome wagon?假如有一天,科学家收到到外星人发来的信号该怎么办呢?我们有建造飞碟起落跑道来欢迎它们吗?Well here’s the thing about picking up alien broadcasts. The receivers scientists are currently using to listen to space noise are designed to find constant signals, or signals that are pulsing at regular intervals. But any message carried by these signals would probably be lost because the receivers can’t pick up the modulation, or rapid variations, in the base signal. The SETI institute, which searches for extra terrestrial life, has compared picking up a signal’s modulation to picking up the sound of a flute when it’s masked by the noise of a waterfall.关于接收到外来广播的事情是这样的。科学家接者收目前会听航天噪音,然后找出不变信号或者找出那些常规跳动的信号。但是任何携带信息的信号都可能丢失,因为接收者在信号基地不能收集到变调或快速变化的信号。对外星智能的探索研究院,专门寻找外星生物。它他们对接受到信号的变调和被瀑布声掩盖的笛声做了比较。Luckily, scientists would still have enough data to pinpoint where in the sky the transmission is coming from. And any slow changes in the broadcast frequency would reveal information about the rotation and movement of the aliens’ planets.幸运的是,科学家们有足够的数据来确定信号广播的位置。广播频率的细微变化都会揭露外星人星球的旋转和运动情况。Okay, but how will we know if they are friendly? Well, If we ever do detect a transmission, this would be huge news. The government would definitely allocate funds to building larger instruments capable of picking up signal modulations. However, even once scientists are able to measure the modulation, it isn’t certain that we’ll be able to understand the message. I guess everyone’s hoping that if the aliens are anything like us, they’ll send simple pictures and easy-to-decode messages.我们怎样才知道那些是友好的信号呢?如果我们发现了外来广播,那就是很大新闻了。政府一定会拨款建造更大的仪器,能够接受信号变调。不管怎样,即使科学家能够测量变调,也不能确定我们能明白这些信息。我想每个人都希望外星人与我们多少有点相似之处,会发简单的图画和容易解码的信息。 /201303/228408。

  • Business商业Corporate fraud公司欺诈行为Mind your language谨言慎行How linguistic software helps companies catch crooks语言识别软件帮助公司擒获不法之徒IN THE film ;Superman 3;, a lowly computer programmer (played by Richard Pryor, pictured) embezzles a fat wad of money from his employer.在电影《超人3》中,一位地位低的电脑程序员(上图,理查德?普莱尔[Richard Pryor]饰演)盗走雇主一大笔钱。The boss laments that it will be hard to catch the thief, because ;he wont do a thing to call attention to himself. Unless, of course, he is a complete and utter moron.;老板悲伤至极,哀嚎着抓住窃贼可不容易,因为;窃贼可不会显露自己的踪迹,除非他完全是个十足的傻瓜。;Just then the thief screeches into the car park in a brand new red sports car, radio blaring.就在此时,窃贼溜到停车场,钻进一辆全新的红色跑车中,广播大声响起。In the real world, embezzlers are seldom so obvious.现实世界中,盗贼很少如此名目张胆。The traditional way to snare them is to hire an accountant to scrutinise accounts for anomalies.要抓到他们的传统方法就是雇佣一位会计,审查账户不正常交易。But this is like looking for a contact lens in a snowdrift.但是这就像是在飘雪中找寻隐形眼镜(大海捞针)。So firms are turning to linguistic software to narrow the search.因此,公司就借助语言识别软件来缩小搜查范围。Rip-offs tend to occur in what gumshoes call the ;fraud triangle;: where incentive, rationalisation and opportunity meet.盗窃常常出现于侦探所说的;诈骗三因素;,即动机、理由及机会三者相满足的时候。To spot staff with the incentive to steal (over and above the obvious fact that money is quite useful), anti-fraud software scans e-mails for evidence of money troubles.(除了找到急需用钱的明显事实外)为了识别有偷窃动机的员工,反欺诈侦破软件搜寻邮件寻找有财务问题的据。Phrases like ;under the gun; and ;make sales a; can indicate that an employee is desperate for a bit extra.或许像;债台高筑;与;限额销售;会表明有雇员急需一笔意外之财。Spotting rationalisation is harder.要找到合理的理由就更难。One technique is to identify those who seem unhappy about their jobs, since some may rationalise wrongdoing by telling themselves that their employer is an evil corporation that deserves to be ripped off.一种技巧就是找到似乎对自己的工作不满意的员工,因为有些人可能会告诉自己雇主是家品行不端的公司,遭到窃取利索应当,以此为自己的犯罪行为找到理由。Ernst amp; Young (Eamp;Y), a consultancy, offers software that purports to show an employees emotional state over time: spikes in trend-lines ing ;confused;, ;secretive; or ;angry; help investigators know whose e-mail to check, and when.安永会计师事务所多提供的软件据称可追踪雇员不同时间内的情绪变化:趋势线中的峰值显示;困惑;,;秘密;或;愤怒;,帮助调查者知道该检查谁的电子邮件,何时检查。Other software can help firms find potential malefactors moronic enough to gripe online, says Jean-Fran?ois Legault of Deloitte, another consultancy.还有其他软件可以帮助公司发现在网上抱怨的笨蛋,识别潜在罪犯,另一会计师事务所德勤的Jean-Fran?ois Legault说。To work well, linguistic software must adjust to the way different people talk.为了产生效果,语言识别软件必须根据不同人群的交谈方式调整侦测。For example, when software gurus at Eamp;Y looked at e-mails among financial traders, their first impression was that ;these guys hair is on fire,; recalls Vincent Walden, a fraudbuster at the firm. The e-mails were packed solid with swear-words.例如,安永公司的软件专家检查金融交易员彼此的电子邮件时,他们的第一反应就是;这些小伙子火气很大;,该公司的反欺诈专员文森特?瓦尔登(Vincent Walden)说。But this is how traders normally talk.这些电子邮件中特别多的污言秽语。It is when they go quiet that the software must prick up its electronic ears.但交易员通常就是这么讲话。反倒是在交易员安静无声的时候,该软件必须保持警惕。Dick Oehrle, the chief linguist on the project, explains how it works.该项目的首席语言学家Dick Oehrle特别讲解了该软件的工作原理。First, the algorithm digests a big bundle of e-mails to get used to employees language.首先,计算程序中输入众多电子邮件,以熟悉雇员的语言。Then human lawyers code the same e-mails, sorting things as irrelevant, relevant or serious.然后由人类律师将同类邮件分为;无关;,;相关;或;严重;等级别。The human feedback and the computers results are then reconciled, so the system gets smarter.人类反馈与电脑结果达成一致,那么这个系统就会变得灵巧。Mr Oehrle says the lawyers also learn from the computers (presumably such things as empathy and the difference between right and wrong).Oehrle先生说,律师也可通过电脑学习东西(例如移情、对错的区别这些都有可能)。To find employees with the opportunity to steal, the software looks for what snoops call ;out of band; events: messages such as ;call my mobile; or ;come by my office; suggest a desire to talk without being overheard.为了找到有盗窃机会的雇员,该软件搜寻侦探所说的;域外;情形:例如;打我电话;或;来我办公室;这类信息就表明不想谈话被听到。E-mails between an employee and an outsider that contain the words ;beer;, ;Facebook; or ;evening; can suggest a personal relationship.雇员与公司外的人之间的电子邮件含有;啤酒;、;Facebook;或;晚上;这类词汇就表明私交过密。Your e-mails may be aired in court您的电子邮件有可能作为成堂供物Financial Tracking Technologies, a firm based in Connecticut, goes a step further, making software that can go through calendar apps and travel-expense claims to determine who has come into contact with certain outside investors.总部位于康涅狄格州的金融追踪技术公司(Financial Tracking Technologies)跟进一步,做出的软件可以搜寻日历应用程序及出差报销单,以确认哪位成与某个外部投资商联系。This can be married with information about the timing of trades: for example, a short sale before the public release of bad news, says Tony Turner, the companys boss.该软件可与交易时机有关的信息联系到一起:如在坏消息公开之前抛售。该公司所有者托尼?特纳(Tony Turner)说。Or consider a broker who e-mails someone a question about the trading volume at which a certain stock would be likely to rise (or fall).或者审核交易员向某人发送邮件询问可能影响某只股票升(或跌)的交易数量。This might indicate an interest in manipulating the price.这就有可能表明有操纵价格的倾向。So the software will sift through other data to see if the broker would benefit, even indirectly, perhaps by increasing the value of a derivative in his personal portfolio, says Frederic Boulier, a Paris-based director of NICE Actimize, an American firm.因此该软件要过滤其他数据,以确定该交易员是否有可能(甚至是间接)通过增加个人投资组合中一个衍生品的价值来获利,总部位于巴黎的美国公司NICE Actimize的经理Frederic Boulier说。Employers without such technology are ;operating blind;, says Alton Sizemore, a former fraud detective at Americas FBI.侦测人员没有此类技术的协助就会;盲目操作;,一位前美国联邦调查局反欺诈探员奥尔顿?希斯莫尔(Alton Sizemore)说。They often pursue costly investigations based on hunches, which are usually wrong, he says.根据直觉进行的调查通常是错误的,而且耗费很高,他说。Mr Sizemore, who now works for Forensic/Strategic Solutions, an anti-fraud consultancy in Alabama, reckons that nearly all giant financial firms now run anti-fraud linguistic software, but fewer than half of medium-sized or small financial firms do.希斯莫尔先生先任职于总部位于阿拉巴马州的反欺诈咨询公司法庭/战略解决方案公司(Forensic/Strategic Solutions),他认为几乎所有大型金融公司现在都有反欺诈语言识别软件,但是投入力度仍不及中小型金融公司的一半。So there is plenty of room for growth.因此,此类软件还有很大的增长空间。NICE Actimize says its revenues are steadily rising, though it declines to give figures.NICE Actimize说该公司的收益逐年上升,但其拒绝提供数据。Prospective users typically pay for a single ;snapshot; search of 12 months of company records, according to APEX Analytix, a developer of the software in Greensboro, North Carolina.据位于北开罗莱纳州格林斯罗的软件开发商APEX Analytix称,潜在用户特别会购买公司全年12月数据;快照;搜寻的单一务。For a company with 10,000 employees, this costs about ,000.对一间有万名员工的公司来说,此项花费约4.5万美元。Unless a company is very small, evidence of fraud almost always surfaces, convincing clients to sign up for a yearly package that costs three or four times as much as a spot-check, says John Brocar of APEX Analytix.除非公司规模很小,使用软件欺诈的据总会查到,APEX Analytix公司的约翰?罗卡(John Brocar)意图说客户签购要比抽查贵两到三倍的全年软件包时说。Why spend the money?为什么要花这笔钱?Partly because no one likes to be ripped off.部分原因是没有公司愿意被窃取资产。But also because laws on bribery (which is harder to spot than theft) have grown tougher.而且也因为贿赂(这要比偷窃更难监察)监管法律越来越严厉。American bosses can in theory be jailed if their underlings grease palms.如果美国公司的老总们的下属有贿赂行为,理论上他们也会受刑。Jonas Dischl-Luell of AWK Group, a Swiss firm, sells software that scans e-mail addresses to see if any employees are in contact, even indirectly, with officials in corrupt governments.瑞士AKW集团的Jonas Dischl-Luell销售搜寻电子邮件地址,查看是否有员工与腐败政府的官员有往来,甚至是间接往来。If a company shows it has systems in place to detect this kind of thing, and starts investigating before outsiders do, it may have an easier time in court.如果一间公司明已安装侦查此类行为的系统,并在外部进行调查前已先行展开调查,那么在法庭上便有据可出,从容应对。 /201210/206854。
  • Obituary;Bill Millin;讣告;比尔·米林;Bill Millin, piper at the D-Day landings, died on August 17th, aged 88.诺曼底登陆战中的风笛吹奏者比尔·米林于2010年8月17日辞世,享年88岁。Any reasonable observer might have thought Bill Millin was unarmed as he jumped off the landing ramp at Sword Beach, in Normandy, on June 6th 1944. Unlike his colleagues, the pale 21-year-old held no rifle in his hands. Of course, in full Highland rig as he was, he had his trusty skean dhu, his little dirk, tucked in his right sock. But that was soon under three feet of water as he waded ashore, a weary soldier still smelling his own vomit from a night in a close boat on a choppy sea, and whose kilt in the freezing water was floating prettily round him like a ballerinas skirt.1944年6月6日(世称D日—译者注),当比尔·米林(Bill Millin)随军向法国诺曼底登陆战场上的剑滩斜坡攻击时,任何理性观者都会认为米林没有带武器。与他的战友们不同的是,面显苍白的21岁米林确实手中无。当然,米林一如往昔,身着全式苏格兰装束,他带有一把深得其喜爱的小佩剑(苏格兰高地人特有的——译者注),也就是一把插在他那右边的袜筒里的小匕首。不过,当他涉水上岸时,这身装束很快没入三尺海水中,他成了一位因在汹涌大海上、拥挤不堪的舰船里一夜折腾,嗅着自己呕吐物疲惫不前的士兵。米林身着的苏格兰短裙(即小沈阳在《不差钱》中穿错的那家什—译者注)就像芭蕾舞女演员的裙子,在寒冷的海面上绕着米林优美漂荡。But Mr Millin was not unarmed; far from it. He held his pipes, high over his head at first to keep them from the wet , then cradled in his arms to play. And bagpipes, by long tradition, counted as instruments of war. An English judge had said so after the Scots great defeat at Culloden in 1746; a piper was a fighter like the rest, and his music was his weapon. The whining skirl of the pipes had struck d into the Germans on the Somme, who had called the kilted pipers “Ladies from Hell”. And it raised the hearts and minds of the home side, so much so that when Mr Millin played on June 5th, as the troops left for France past the Isle of Wight and he was standing on the bowsprit just about keeping his balance above the waves getting rougher, the wild cheers of the crowd drowned out the sound of his pipes even to himself.然而,米林先生不是没有武器,而是带着胜于武器的东西。他带着风笛,他先是把风笛举过头顶以防弄湿,随后将风笛置于臂湾吹奏起来。根据久已形成的传统,风笛成为了战争乐器。1746年英格兰人取得卡洛登大捷后,一位英国法官裁定风笛是战争乐器。风笛吹奏者像其他士兵一样,也是战士,他奏出的乐曲就是他的武器。风笛发出的哀声使法国索姆河畔的德国佬陷入绝望,他们把身着苏格兰短裙的风笛手叫作“来自地狱的女人”。而且,风笛声也激励起已方士气,它甚至可以达到如许程度——6月5日,当部队经过怀特岛向法国进发时,米林站在船首撑杆旁吹奏风笛,海浪越来越汹涌,他只能勉强保持平衡,兵们发出的强烈欢呼声淹没了他的风笛声。His playing had been planned as part of the operation. On commando training near Fort William he had struck up a friendship with Lord Lovat, the officer in charge of the 1st Special Service Brigade. Not that they had much in common. Mr Millin was short, with a broad cheeky face, the son of a Glasgow policeman; his sharpest childhood memory was of being one of the “poor”, sleeping on deck, on the familys return in 1925 from Canada to Scotland. Lovat was tall, lanky, outrageously handsome and romantic, with a castle towering above the river at Beauly, near Inverness. He had asked Mr Millin to be his personal piper: not a feudal but a military arrangement. The War Office in London now forbade pipers to play in battle, but Mr Millin and Lord Lovat, as Scots, plotted rebellion. In this “greatest invasion in history”, Lovat wanted pipes to lead the way.米林吹奏风笛是战斗计划的一部分。在威廉堡附近的特攻队训练时,他与英军第一突击旅指挥官洛瓦特(Lovat)勋爵建立起了友谊。在很大程度上,他俩并没有多少共同点。米林身材五短、面庞宽大冷漠,是一位格拉斯哥警察的儿子;他最刻骨铭心的童年记忆就是“贫穷”,1925年随家人从加拿大回苏格兰时,穷得睡在甲板上。而洛瓦特身材颀长,英俊无比且富于浪漫情怀;他有一座耸立于因弗内斯附近比尤利河岸之上的城堡。他要米林先生作他的私人风笛手:不是个人需要而是出于军事安排。伦敦陆军部当时禁止风笛手在战斗中吹奏。但同为苏格兰人的米林先生和洛瓦特勋爵密谋不受陆军部禁令约束。在这场“历史上最伟大的登陆战”中,洛瓦特要让风笛声为胜利指明方向。He was ordering now, as they waded up Sword Beach, in that drawly voice of his: “Give us a tune, piper.” Mr Millin thought him a mad bastard. The man beside him, on the point of jumping off, had taken a bullet in the face and gone under. But there was Lovat, strolling through fire quite calmly in his aristocratic way, allegedly wearing a monogrammed white pullover under his jacket and carrying an ancient Winchester rifle, so if he was mad Mr Millin thought he might as well be ridiculous too, and struck up “Hielan Laddie”. Lovat approved it with a thumbs-up, and asked for “The Road to the Isles”. Mr Millin inquired, half-joking, whether he should walk up and down in the traditional way of pipers. “Oh, yes. That would be lovely.”当战士们下舰向剑滩蹚去时,洛瓦特正以他惯有的缓慢悠长的声音下命令:“风笛手,给——我们——整一曲!”。米林先生认为洛瓦特是一个疯狂的混蛋。在即将发起攻击的时刻,在洛瓦特身旁的一位战士被子弹击中面部倒下。但洛瓦特仍以他的贵族气派相当冷静地穿行于战火之中(据说,在他的夹克下穿着一件有字母组合的白色套头衫,手持一杆古老的温彻斯特步),因此,如果洛瓦特真是疯狂的混蛋的话,那么米林先生认为自己最好还是也成为疯狂的混蛋,于是米林随即奏起《嗨,热情的少年》曲。洛瓦特翘起拇指赞同,随后又要求米林吹奏曲子《通往小島之路》。米林半开玩笑地问,他是否应该以风笛手的传统方式,在吹奏时上下行走。洛瓦特回应道“好,那样好极了”!Three times therefore he walked up and down at the edge of the sea. He remembered the sand shaking under his feet from mortar fire and the dead bodies rolling in the surf, against his legs. For the rest of the day, whenever required, he played. He piped the advancing troops along the raised road by the Caen canal, seeing the flashes from the rifle of a sniper about 100 yards ahead, noticing only after a minute or so that everyone behind him had hit the deck in the dust. When Lovat had dispatched the sniper, he struck up again. He led the company down the main street of Bénouville playing “Blue Bonnets over the Border”, refusing to run when the commander of 6 Commando urged him to; pipers walked as they played.因此,他在剑滩海边上下行走了三次。他深深记得:炮火中,剑滩在他脚下颤抖;海涛里,尸体撞击他的双腿。在抢滩后其它时间,每当指挥官发出命令,他就吹起风笛。他吹起风笛激励攻击部队沿着卡昂运河(Caen Canal)凸路冲锋,眼见在他前面约100码处一敌方阻击手的来福伸出火舌,在不到一分钟的时间里,他身后的每个战士都卧倒在已成残骸的甲板上。当洛瓦特旅长消灭了狙击手后,他又一次把风笛吹响。当英军第六空降师突击队指挥官催促躲避战火时,他予以拒绝,吹起《苏格兰狂想曲》把战友们引向Bénouville大街;风笛手们的吹奏会显灵。 He took them across two bridges, one (later renamed the Pegasus Bridge) ringing and banging as shrapnel hit the metal sides, one merely with railings which bullets whistled through: “the longest bridge I ever piped across.” Those two crossings marked their successful rendezvous with the troops who had preceded them. All the way, he learned later, German snipers had had him in their sights but, out of pity for this madman, had not fired. That was their story. Mr Millin himself knew he wasnt going to die. Piping was too enjoyable, as he had discovered in the Boys Brigade band and all through his short army career. And piping protected him.他带领战友们横跨二座桥梁。一座后来叫飞马桥,榴弹打在桥两边的金属构件上,清脆猛烈;一座只有木栏杆,子弹呼啸而过:“那是我曾经吹笛走过的最长的桥”。这两次跨桥行动使他们与先期到达的部队胜利会师。他后来了解到,在整个冲锋途中,德军阻击手们的瞄准具已把他标定,但是,出于可怜他这个精神失常者,没有射杀他。 这个故事是[被俘] 德军讲的。米林认为他不会死。从他结识Boys Brigade 乐团到短暂军旅生涯的始终,吹笛送军前行太令人愉快了。吹笛也保佑着他。 The Nut-Brown Maiden《棕色姑娘》The pipes themselves were less lucky, injured by shrapnel as he dived into a ditch. He could still play them, but four days later they took a direct hit on the chanter and the drone when he had laid them down in the grass, and that was that. The last tune they had piped on D-Day was “The Nut-Brown Maiden”, played for a small red-haired French girl who, with her folks cowering behind her, had asked him for music as he passed their farm.而风笛管就不太走运了,当米林向战壕冲进时,笛管被炮弹损伤。虽然他尚可用笛管吹奏,但四天后,当米林将笛管放在草丛中时,风笛的舒音管和低音管被彻底击坏,吹笛使命就此终结。在D日吹出的最后一曲子是《棕色姑娘》,那是米林从一法国红发小姑娘家人的农场经过时,应小姑娘的要求吹奏的,当时,小姑娘的父母在她身后抖缩不安。He gave the pipes later to the museum at the Pegasus Bridge, which he often revisited, and sometimes piped across, during his long and quiet post-war career as a mental nurse at Dawlish in Devon. On one such visit, in full Highland rig with his pipes in his arms, he was approached by a smartly dressed woman of a certain age, with faded red hair, who planted a joyous kiss of remembrance on his cheek.他后来把风笛赠给了飞马桥物馆。战后,他在德文郡的道利什作一名心理护理员,在整个漫长而平静的职业生涯里,飞马桥是他常常故地重游的地方。有时,他还重温吹笛过桥。 在一次重温时,他身着全式苏格兰装束,将风笛置于臂湾,一位满头褪色红发、身着整洁连衣裙的不再年轻的女士向他走来,在他脸颊上留下追忆的欣吻。 /201211/211556。
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