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2017年12月13日 00:06:00 | 作者:120健康 | 来源:新华社
Telling jokes谈独特玩笑Have you heard the one…你有没有听过…Groucho Marx liked a good oneGroucho Marx喜欢听精的No Joke: Making Jewish Humour.By Ruth Wisse.不许说笑:犹太式的玩笑THIS sharp and thoughtful study presents a reviewer with an unusual challenge: which joke do you e? One cannot tell them all, both because space forbids it and because some of them replicate, in order to mock and render harmless, noxious Jewish stereotypes.尖锐而又内涵的研究将一个不寻常的挑战放在读者面前:这句玩笑你引自何处?人们通常说不出所有之乎者也来,一方面是篇幅限制,另一方面是很多玩笑是照葫芦画瓢的,用以嘲讽和带恶意的或没有恶意的犹太人的固有看法。The most telling joke is one that Ruth Wisse, professor of Yiddish literature at Harvard, attributes to Immanuel Olsvanger, a folklorist who was born in Poland in 1888 and who collected Yiddish humour. Here it is, paraphrased. When you tell a joke to a peasant, he laughs three times: once when you tell it, next when you explain it to him and finally when he understands it. The landowner laughs twice: once when you tell it and again when you explain it. The policeman laughs only when you tell it, because he does not let you explain it and so never understands. When you tell a Jew a joke he says, “Ive heard it before. And I can tell it better.”有个讲的最多的笑话是 哈佛希伯来语文学教授Ruth Wisse属于Immanuel Olsvanger ,后者是个搜集希伯来语笑话的民俗学家,于1888年出生于波兰。这里只是转述一下。跟农民讲笑话他会大笑三次,第一次是你给他讲的时候,第二次是你向他解释的时候,最后一次是当他终于听懂的时候。地主会笑两次:你讲的时候还有听你解释的时候。而警察只会在听你讲时候笑一笑,他不会让你解释所以他也不会听懂。但当你跟一个犹太人讲笑话时,他会跟你说“噢,这我以前就听过,我可以讲的更好”。His joke hinges not just on Jews fondness for humour, but also on Jewish verbal dexterity, competitiveness and anxiety over social status. But, as Ms Wisse explains, the Jewish reputation for humour is neither universal nor ancient. The connection began with the Enlightenment, but even in the late 19th century Londons chief rabbi felt obliged to defend Jews against charges of humourlessness. Jews in Arab countries do not seem to have had the laughing gene, but in the Yiddish-speaking world—and in America and Israel, where many, if not most, Jews descend from Yiddish speakers—the connection between humour and Jews is so strong as to be almost axiomatic. Ms Wisse sees it as similar to “French cuisine” or “Turkish baths”.他的玩笑不拘泥于犹太式的幽默,更有犹太人的巧舌如簧,和在社会地位上犹太人的竞争力与焦虑感。但Wisse教授解释说,犹太人的幽默感,名声在外,说既不是被普遍接受的也不是有史可溯的。这种形象起源于启蒙时期,但19世纪末的伦敦的犹太教大法师都感到有必要反驳犹太人无幽默感的说法阿拉伯世界的犹太人也不像有笑神经的人,但在希伯来语世界以及美国和以色列,很多犹太人,如果不是绝大多数,犹太人与幽默的联结在希伯来语世界中强大得如同与生俱来,不言自明的一样。Wisse教授把这种怪圈比作“法国烹饪”或者“土耳其浴”一样。To her credit, Ms Wisse offers no general theory of Jewish humour in her book, preferring description and textual analysis, at which she excels, to psycho-historical puffery. Yet certain traits persist across temporal and geographic boundaries. Jewish humour tends, paradoxically, to provoke both relief and discomfort, as with Heinrich Heines sharp send-ups of Jewish converts in early 19th-century Germany. Much of it tends towards the absurd: consider the inspiring lunacy of Lenny Bruce, the dark surrealism of Franz Kafka or the comparatively light version that imbues the short fiction of Etgar Keret, an Israeli writer.出于她信誉的原因,Wisse并没有在书中做出犹太式笑话的概括性的论述,而是在她擅长的历史心理学吹赞方面做了些描述以及逐字逐句的分析。但在一定时间、地理范围内是有确切依据的。犹太式幽默常常是似是而非的,带来轻松或者抒发不悦,就像19世纪初德国的Heinrich Heine对犹太人尖酸嘲讽改变了一样。很多犹太人都偏荒诞:比如鼓舞人心的疯子Lenny Bruce,暗黑超现实主义的Franz Kafka又或者相比之下程度较轻的以色列短片科幻小说作家Etgar Keret。Jewish humour also rests on a closeness but separateness from the societies in which Jews lived—particularly Yiddish-speaking Jews in Europe—and on paradoxes. “A culture forged in the ancient East that developed in the modern West, and a theology founded in divine election whose adherents have been targeted for genocide—such incongruities tickle the modern Jewish imagination,” explains Ms Wisse. In other words, it is much better to have defiant, life-affirming laughter than tears and lamentation.犹太式幽默同样依存于一个与他们生活的社会分离的,私密的环境以及种种悖论。Wisse教授解释说,“一个由古老东方育在现代西方发展的,他们的神学体系建立在曾经历过大屠杀的后代的牧师选举制之上的文明-诸如此类的不协调启发着当代犹太人的想象力。”也就是反抗着总是好的,生命赋予我们比泪水和哀鸣更多的欢笑。 /201404/293151Today Yael and Don discuss mirrors. Yael和Don今天谈的是镜子。Y: Mirror mirror on the wall, whos the fairest of them-- 镜子,镜子,谁是世界上最美的人?D: Watcha doing? 你在干什么?Y: I was, um, calibrating the surface smoothness of this mirror. 恩。。我在校准这面镜子表面的平整度。D: I see. 我知道。Y: Did you know that in order for a mirror to work properly it has to be perfectly smooth? 你知不知道只有表面光滑的镜子才能正常使用。D: Whys that? 怎么这么说?Y: Well, a mirror is basically something that reflects light, right? 镜子基本上都能反光对吧?D: Right. 对。Y: When light hits something, some of the light is reflected, some absorbed, and some passes through. 当光线照到某些东西的时候,有些光被反射,有些光被吸收,还有些光直接穿过去。D: So for a mirror to produce a clear image it has to reflect as much of the light as possible, and in order to do that it has to be smooth. 所以说,镜子反射的光越多,它所形成的图像就会越清晰。要是想做到这点,镜子的表面就是越光滑越好。Y: Exactly. A warped mirror scatters and diffuses light, making the image it produces look deformed. But a smooth mirror reflects without distortion. 确实是。一面扭曲的镜子会发生散射和漫散射作用,使得所形成的图像变了形。而一面光滑的镜子经过反射作用而不会失真。D: Which is what makes it possible for you to stand in front of the mirror and preen. 哪种镜子更适合你站在前面打扮自己呢?Y: I was not preening! 我不是在打扮。D: Right. But theres nothing wrong with preening, you know. People have been admiring themselves in mirrors for a long time. Take the Greeks and Romans. They loved looking atthemselves, although they only had highly polished pieces of bronze, tin, and silver. Their descendants were even more vain, so in 16th century Venice mirror makers discovered the technique of backing a piece of glass with a reflecting metal composed of tin and mercury, producing a much clearer reflection. That technique is still in practice today, although now we use a thin layer of molten aluminum or silver sprayed onto the back of a piece of glass in a vacuum to achieve premium smoothness. 好。但你知道的,就算是在打扮也没问题的。人们总是喜欢在镜子前自恋一会儿。拿希腊人和罗马人来说,尽管他们只有零碎的打磨好的青铜镜,锡镜和银镜,但他们仍然是很爱照镜子。他们的后代更加自负,所以16世纪的镜制造商发明了一项技术,它可以将由锡和汞构成的反射金属和一片片玻璃拼接到一块儿。但这项技术现今还在应用。但我们现在更多的都是在真空中将一层薄薄的熔融铝或银喷到玻璃后面以保溢价平衡。Y: Thanks for the history lesson. 谢谢你给我上了节历史课。D: Youre welcome. And by the way . . . 不客气。对了顺便说一下……Y: Yes? 恩?D: You are the fairest of them all. 你是世界上最美的人。Y: Oh Don. 哦Don...201308/254476You know how eye contact is a pretty important component ofinteracting with people,right?我们都知道在与人交流时目光交流很重要。So scientists recently tested thisby measuring peoples brain activity as they responded topictures of angry people and pictures of people who look afraid.因此,科学家最近做了这样一个实验:给被实验者看一些发怒的人和看起来让人害怕的人的照片,测量当时他们的大脑活动。It turns out that eye contact plays an important role when people are evaluating potential threats.结果发现,人们在评估潜在威胁时,目光接触起着重要的作用。If we measured your brain activity, wed see that the part of their brain that regulates emotionsand detects potential threats is hard at work.如果测量大脑活动,我们会看到大脑的一部分控制着情绪,并会察觉出潜在威胁。On the other hand, if Ive been scowling atsomething else, like this microphone, this wouldnt have bothered you nearly as much.And the exact opposite is true for fear.另一方面,如果我是盯着其他东西,像话筒,就不会使你感到不安。If I was staring at something and looking really frightened, your brain would work harder to figure out if whatever is scaring me may also pose a danger to you.如果我盯着一样东西看并受到惊吓,你的大脑就会努力找出,使我害怕的东西是否会对你造成危险。Eye contact means different things in different situations.在不同情况下,目光交流的意义也不同。If youre mad and looking at someone,you might be a threat.如果你很生气地看着我,你可能会成为一种威胁。But if youre scared and looking at me, its unlikely that youre going toattack.但是如果你是受到惊吓然后看着某个人,就不大可能表现出攻击性。So what the study suggests is that when youre studying emotions, you have to take eyecontact into consideration.所以,研究表明,当你在观察别人情绪时,必须考虑目光交流。It also suggests that in ambiguous situations, your brain has to domore work to process other peoples facial expressions in order to be able to evaluate the situationand respond appropriately.研究还表明,在模凌两可的情况下,为了正确评估形势和做出适当的反应,大脑需要做个更多的工作来处理其他人的面部表情。201407/308865

Most people will agree they cannot remember much, if anything, prior to around age four. 大部分人都很难回忆起四岁以前的事情。What is remembered often comes in ;spot; images, floating in an otherwise gray area of uncertainty. 能记得东西都是来自于一些影像点,漂浮在不确定的灰色区域里。Yet when we look at a two or three year-old,perception and basic cognition appear to be in place and to have been functioning for a good long while. Why are those years lost to us?但是当我们看一个两,三岁的小孩子时,感觉和基本认知都已经形成并且发挥作用有一段时间了。为什么我们那些年的记忆却消失了呢?One possibility is that memory in humans requires a narrative context. ;Narrative context; means that it isnt enough to provide, say, a random visual image to the brain in order for it to form a working memory: 一种可能性是人类的记忆需要一个叙事语境。但“叙事语境”也不是什么都能提供,或者说,大脑中的任意的一个片段都能产生一个流动的记忆:the image needs to be put in place alongside a number of other images, with which it helps to establish a pattern. 这种影像需要被置于一系列的影像中,这样才足以建立一个图景。The very first time you see a tree, your brain cant do anything with it yet ---the information may simply be stored until it can be connected to other things, such as the back yard where you saw it, its size and color, or events of significance that occurred at the same time. 你第一次看见大树的时候,你的大脑可能不会做出任何反应——但到你下次再看见类似的东西的时候,这种印象又会蹦出来。例如,你曾经见过的后院,随之后院的面积,颜色,还有一切相关的事物都会同时出现。Once enough relationships are in place, it then becomes possible to remember -- not just ;tree; as an abstraction, but ;the big green tree I saw when I was walking this morning behind the house.;一旦足够的关系是到位时,它就变成了可能记住——不仅仅是“树”作为一种抽象概念,而是“大青翠树我走路的时候我看到今天早上在他的房子后面。”Learning words probably aids in this process, but is not strictly necessary. Still, the brain may provide context for memories by telling itself miniature stories, complete with setting, characters, and relationships. 在这个过程中可能会学到东西,但并不一定是必须。尽管如此,大脑可以联系前后关系进行记忆,从而完成与背景,人物,和人际关系的缩影。According to this idea, early childhood events occur at a time before we have developed enough narrative skills to tell the stories necessary for the formation of memories. 由此看来,早期无法回忆的童年往事,往往发生在我们还不具备充分的、能够阐述情节以构成记忆的技能之前。No narrative context, no long-term memory -- end of story. 没有叙事背景,没有长期记忆——故事结束。 201308/253540

Business商业报道Canadian retailing加拿大零售业Drug deal 药品生意A merger to see off an American challenge实行兼并抗衡美国的挑战THEY met on July 11th in a minivan on a country road.7月11号,维斯顿·佳林,加拿大零售王朝的孙子和科库至·霍尔格,When they emerged Galen Weston, scion of a Canadian retailing dynasty, and Holger Kluge, chairman of the countrys biggest drugstore chain, had made a deal.乡村最大的药品连锁店董事长在一条乡村道路上的小货车里见了面并达成协议。The Weston groups Loblaw grocery chain, by far Canadas largest,agreed to buy Shoppers Drug Mart for 12.4 billion.维斯顿集团的罗伯劳连锁店,作为加拿大目前最大的食品杂货连锁店,同意以12.4亿加拿大元的价格购买其康药房。With this, the relatively cosy world of Canadian retailing comes of age.随着此合同的签订,加拿大零售业迎来一个比较舒适的氛围。To global retailers accustomed to merciless competition Canada is appealingly civilised.相对于国际零售商惯于的残酷竞争,加拿大则更偏向于文明的请求。Unlike Americans and Europeans, Canadians have not been hammered by a housing bust.不同于美国和欧洲,加拿大没有受到房地产泡沫的打击,Fewer big grocery chains are fighting for market share than they are south of the border.很少有大的百货公司连锁店像他们南边的邻居一样在争取市场份额时那么努力。Compared with the ed States, Canada has about 60% of the retail floor space per consumer and profit margins are higher.加拿大有美国60%的人均零售面积但利润却更大。But things are becoming less comfortable.但是,事情开始变得有点不乐观。Target, an American discount chain, moved into Canada this year, joining Walmart, a behemoth that has been there since 1994.塔吉特公司,一家美国的折扣连锁店,今年加盟沃尔玛,进入加拿大。沃尔玛,自1994年就进入加拿大的大公司。Safeway, another American grocer,pulled out in June,西弗伟公司,另一家美国百货公司,则在6月份退出。but only because a Canadian rival, Sobeys, made an irresistible offer for its stores.原因不仅因为加拿大内部的竞争,超市也为他的商店提供了令人不可抗拒的价格。Clothes retailing is getting more crowded, too.装零售业也人满为患,J.Crew arrived in 2011 and Nordstrom, an American department-store chain, is expected in 2014.J·克鲁2011年进入加拿大,诺斯通,一家美国连锁百货商场有望2014年进入。All this is happening as consumers are becoming less cheery: economic growth is sluggish and debt is high.面对这些,由于经济萧条,债台高筑,消费者越来越不怎么乐观。Century-old Loblaw is part of the Weston familys transatlantic empire, which ranges from food manufacturing to the Selfridges and Fortnum amp; Mason department stores in Britain.世纪公司罗伯劳是维斯顿家族横跨大西洋帝国的一部分。在英国,它涉及食品制造到塞尔福里奇和福特纳姆amp;梅森百货商店。Loblaw hit a rough patch in the mid-2000s, when it briefly fell into loss.罗伯劳公司经营曾在20世纪中叶的时候亮过红灯,陷入短暂的亏损之中。But it has since streamlined operations and upgraded its technology.但是从那时起,它就精简业务,提高科技。Shoppers Drug Mart has built its network steadily over the past half-century.其康药房在上半个世纪里建立了稳定的商业网。The merged group, with sales of C42 billion, is in part a counter to the American onslaught.合并之后的集团,售价高达420亿加拿大元,在某种程度上,是对美国冲击的一种反击。Shoppers will remain a separate unit and keep its top managers.商店依然是独立的单元,并保留其高级管理者。Even so, the partners expect to save C135m on annual technology and marketing costs.即使如此,合伙者希望每年能在科技和市场上节省13.5亿加拿大元。More important, says Ken Wong, who teaches business strategy at Queens University in Ontario, is the opportunity for both chains to wring more from their private-label product lines and loyalty programmes.王肯,安大略洲皇后大学商业策略讲师说,更重要是两个连锁店有机会从自有品牌和客户忠诚上赚取更多。By Canadian standards they are adept marketers of their own ranges.按照加拿大标准,他们在各自的领域里是熟练的经销商。But Canada lags private-label powerhouses such as Britain and Switzerland.但在,加拿大在自有品牌上落后于其他强手,比如英国和瑞士。There is much to be gained from selling Shoppers “Life” range of mouthwashes and plasters in Loblaws groceries and pushing Loblaws “Presidents Choice” food in Shoppers pharmacies, says Mr Wong.王先生说,在罗伯劳的百货店销售生活用品,从漱口水到药膏,在其康药房促销“总统的选择”的食物有很大的好处。Loblaws loyalty programme will get a boost from merging with Shoppers superior scheme and both will gain from having a bigger data lode to mine.和其康合并的方案,会让罗伯劳的客户忠诚项目参与人数大增,双方都会有一个更大数据脉矿开发。The deal will mark the arrival in Canada of another global fad.这个决议标志加拿大另一个全球风尚的到来。Until now Canadian grocers have largely ignored the trend in other rich countries to open “convenience” shops in the neighbourhoods where their customers live.目前加拿大百货店已经很大程度上忽视了在其他发达国家有客户居住的社区开便利店的趋势。The acquisition of Shoppers 1,242 stores, which are mainly smallish outlets in cities and towns, provides Loblaw with a full-fledged convenience chain at a stroke.超市的1,242家分店,多为市镇的小网点,这为罗伯劳公司的反击提供了充分的便利链。It places Loblaw “at the front of the pack”, says Kenric Tyghe of Raymond James, a financial-advice firm.金融咨询公司瑞士金融集团的Kenric Tyghe 说,合并让罗伯劳公司走在前列。The stockmarket likes the deal:股票市场看好这个交易:shares of both companies jumped on the news.消息传出之后两家公司的股票都上涨了,So did those of rivals Metro, a supermarket, and Jean Coutu, a drugstore chain.股票上涨的还有他们的对手一个超级市场和一个连锁药店,尚酷都。Investors are speculating that these two will join to form another Canadian champion. That is unlikely to deter further incursions from across the border.投资者认为这两个公司的联合会形成一个新的加拿大冠军并有可能阻止国外进一步的打击。 /201308/252296

Remember when the Blackberry was all the rage, and people worried about straining their thumbstyping on that tiny keyboard?记不记得当初黑莓手机风行一时的时候,人们担心在这么小的键盘上敲击键盘会造成拇指劳损?Well, now that the iPhone and other smart phones have taken center stage, theres another malady gaining traction text neck.而现在由于iPhone和其他智能手机的普及,另一种疾病开始高发,这就是短信脖。Seriously text neck, as in all that hunching over phones and tablets playing Angry Birds, causing muscles in the neck, shoulders, and even arms and hands to become strained.就像弓身缩背在手机和平板电脑上游玩愤怒的小鸟一样,短信脖会造成颈部、肩膀甚至胳膊及双手严重肌肉劳损。And all that straincan lead to chronic pain, because the joints and muscles of the neck and shoulders are not meantto be flexed for long periods.这些劳损会造成慢性疼痛,因为颈部和肩膀的关节和肌肉不适合长时间弯曲。Theres even been a study on the text neck phenomenon.有人甚至专门针对短信脖作了研究。It found that among 140 students or so surveyed, those who used tablets and smart phones at least three hours a day were more likely to experience neck and shoulder pain than those who used the devices less frequently.研究发现在被调查的约140名学生当中,每天使用平板电脑或智能手机超过3小时的学生相比更少使用这些设备的学生更容易患颈部或肩膀疼痛。True,140 students is a pretty small sample.140名学生确实不能说明什么显著的问题。But anecdotal evidence is legion.但坊间据层出不穷。And chiropractors and orthopedic doctors have been advising people to avoid text neck by not hunching overtheir devices.推拿师和整形医师们一直在建议人们不要弓身玩这些设备,以免患上短信脖。Instead, try tucking your elbows into your side and holding the device up by yourchest.他们建议要把双肘夹在身体两侧,把设备举到胸部以上的位置。And, of course, its important to take regular breaks from staring into your smart phones bottomless digital playground.当然,重要的是你需要有规律的休息,隔一段时间就让你的视线离开智能手机那无底洞般的数字游乐场一会儿。Theres even a text neck app that alerts you when youre hunching over your device andreminds you to straighten up.人们甚至开发了一种预防短信脖的应用程序,它会在你弯着腰摆弄设备时发出警告,提醒你挺直身躯。 201404/287492

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