临淄区治疗龟头炎多少钱

明星资讯腾讯娱乐2017年10月24日 11:54:20
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The point of articles such as these isn#39;t to dictate how you#39;re supposed to live. The point is to offer you different perspectives to consider, so you can make more conscious and deliberate choices for yourself.文章里的这些观点并不是要指示你如何生活,而是提供不同的思路供你参考,从而使你自己做出更为深思熟虑的选择。1. Get to know your authentic self.认清真实的自己。Discover the real you. Don#39;t blindly accept the role you were conditioned by others to fill. You have your own path to follow. Be your own independent person. Don#39;t allow peer pressure to force you into an inauthentic role。发现真实的自己。不要盲目接受别人习惯施加给你的角色。你有自己的路去走。成为独立自主的个体。不要在压力的屈从下扮演不真实的自己。 /201402/277626

A blood test that can predict whether someone may attempt suicide has been developed by scientists in a breakthrough which could prevent hundreds of deaths.据英国《每日电讯报》报道,研究人员取得科研突破,通过验血来预测人们是否具有自杀倾向,从而防止众多悲剧发生。American researchers have found that variations in a single gene can be used to predict if someone is likely to take their own life.美国研究人员发现,通过验血可以检查一种基因是否发生变异,从而预测某人是否企图自杀。Researchers at John Hopkins University, in Baltimore, Maryland, found that the gene SKA2 stopped functioning correctly in people at risk of suicide. The SKA2 gene is found in the prefrontal cortex of the brain, and is involved in preventing negative thoughts and controlling impulsive behaviour.美国约翰#8226;霍普金斯大学研究人员发现,存在自杀风险的人的SKA2基因功能异常。SKA2基因位于大脑前额皮质,负责控制体内压力荷尔蒙皮质醇的含量,能够防止人们产生消极情绪并控制其冲动行为。If there isn#39;t enough SKA2, or it is altered in some way, the body cannot control levels of cortisol. Previous research has shown that people who attempt suicide or who take their own lives have large amounts of cortisol in their systems.若体内SKA2基因含量不足,或以某种方式发生变化,人体将无法有效控制皮质醇含量。此前的研究发现,自杀或有自杀倾向的人体内皮质醇含量较高。A test could allow doctors or psychologists to place patients on ‘suicide watch’ and restrict their access to drugs or equipment which they could use to end their own life.因此,通过验血检测下SKA2的水平或者是否发生突变,能够允许医生对具有自杀倾向的人进行观察,同时防止他们靠近药品或其它自杀工具。The research was reported in the American Journal of Psychology. ;We need to study this in a larger sample but we believe that we might be able to monitor the blood to identify those at risk of suicide, ; Kaminsky said.该研究发表于《美国心理学杂志》,主要负责人凯明斯基表示:“该研究还需加大样本量,但我们相信,可以通过验血辨认出那些具有自杀风险的人。”;Suicide is a major preventable public health problem, but we have been stymied in our prevention efforts because we have no consistent way to predict those who are at increased risk of killing themselves, ; says study leader Dr Zachary Kaminsky, an assistant professor of psychiatry and behavioural sciences.精神病与行为科学助理教授扎卡里#8226;凯明斯基表示,自杀是我们目前面临的主要公共健康问题,但由于缺乏直观的途径预测人们的自杀风险,导致我们无法及时预防。;With a test like ours, we may be able to stem suicide rates by identifying those people and intervening early enough to head off a catastrophe.;“但通过我们的测试,我们可以及早确认并干预具有自杀倾向的人群,从而降低社会自杀率。”The blood test managed to predict those with the most severe risk of suicide with 90 per cent accuracy. They could also spot if someone had aly attempted suicide with 96 per cent accuracy, simply by looking at the levels of SKA2.据报道,通过验血预测最严重的自杀风险精确度高达90%,同时,只要简单观测一下SKA2的水平,便能以96%的精确度判断某人是否已企图自杀。 /201408/322475

  

  In the 1939 film classic The Women, much is made of the alluring quality of a specific color of nail polish: “Jungle Red.” It turns out that the characters’ faith in the product was not misplaced.在1939年的经典影片《女人们》中,主角们常常说到一种特殊的指甲油颜色——“丛林红”特别具有诱惑力。科学明,这些电影角色对这种指甲油色号的笃信并非没有根据。New research suggests the color red on a woman does indeed signal sexual availability—not only to men, but also to other women.现在科学研究指出,女性身上红色的装饰确实会向他人发送诱惑的信号——不仅向男性,也会向其他女性发送这种信号。As we have noted previously, studies have found that men tend to view women in red as more sexually attractive. But, ladies, if you were thinking wearing that color would send a subliminal signal only males would pick up on, you’re out of luck.我们已经知道,研究发现,男性往往认为穿红衣的女性更具有吸引力。但是姑娘们,如果你以为穿红衣只会对男性发送微妙的信号,那你就错了。“Our results suggest that women perceive and behave toward other women in red as if these other women are actively advertising” their openness to the possibility of a sexual encounter, writes a research team led by University of Rochester psychologist Adam Pazda.罗彻斯特大学的心理学家亚当·帕扎达所带领的研究团队指出,“我们的研究成果表明,当某些女性穿着红衣的时候,其他女性就会认为她们正在积极地招蜂引蝶,她们对这些红衣女士的态度和交流方式都会有所不同。”Pazda and his colleagues describe a experiment conducted on two different continents that provide evidence that wearing red sets off certain alarm bells. In the first, 196 women recruited online viewed a photo of “a moderately attractive women in her late 20s.”帕扎达的团队在两块不同的大陆上进行了三项实验,这些实验的结果实,穿红衣的女性会发出警示信号。在第一项实验中,科学家们请196名参与实验的女性观看一张“具有现代美的二十八九岁的女性”照片。Half saw an image of her wearing a white dress; the rest viewed an otherwise identical image of her in a red dress. Afterwards, all responded on a sliding scale to a series of statements such as “This person is sexy.”一半的实验参与者看到的照片上姑娘穿着白衣;另一半的实验参与者看到的照片上姑娘穿着红衣。实验结果是,所有的参与者都认为“这个人很性感”,但是性感的程度却有明显的高低之分。As expected, the woman was seen as more sexy if she was wearing red. This held true whether or not the study participants were in a committed relationship.如科学家们所料想的,穿红衣的姑娘被认为更加性感。无论实验参与者是否单身,他们的观点都是这样的。The researchers caution that, needless to say, “not all women displaying red are actively advertising sexual availability.” For those who are not, it’s valuable to understand the ways their wardrobe choices are being interpreted—both by men, and by their female acquaintances.研究者们提醒道,“并不是所有女性在穿红衣的时候都在故意显露性感。”——这一点毋庸置疑。对那些无意穿红色衣的姑娘们,你们有必要知道:你衣着的颜色不仅会向男性、也会向女性同胞们发送某种信息。 /201407/311662。

  

  In 2008, the murder of Canadian model Diana O#39;Brien in her Shanghai stairwell rocked the city#39;s Chinese and expat community. Years later, author Mara Hvistendahl revisited the story, interviewing the family of the victim and accused killer, police investigators and other models working in China.2008年,加拿大模特戴安娜#8226;奥布赖恩(Diana O#39;Brien)在上海居民楼内遇害,在上海中外社区引发了震动。几年后,作家马语琴(Mara Hvistendahl)回顾了这一事件,对受害者家庭、被控杀人者、警方调查人员和其他在中国工作的外籍模特进行了采访。Her new book, #39;And The City Swallowed Them,#39; looks at the world that brought two different kinds of newcomers together--foreigners, including young models fighting for emerging opportunities in high fashion, and China#39;s own migrants, including those traveling from poor villages who were willing to go to desperate measures to scrap together their own living.她的新书《And The City Swallowed Them》(意为:他们被城市吞没)探究了一个将两类不同的外来者联系起来的世界。其中一类是外国人,包括为获得高端时尚业的机遇而努力的年轻模特,另一类是外地人,包括那些来自贫困农村、不得不在绝望时用极端手段谋生的人。Ms. Hvistendahl has lived in Shanghai for eight years. Her first book, #39;Unnatural Selection,#39; was a 2012 Pulitzer Prize finalist. China Real Time sat down with the author to talk about her latest story. Edited excerpts:马语琴在上海生活了八年。她的第一本书《非自然选择》(Unnatural Selection)是2012年普利策奖(Pulitzer Prize)入围作品。中国实时报栏目与马语琴探讨了她的新书。以下是经过编辑的访谈摘录:You were living in Shanghai at the time of the murder, also a young single woman. What was your reaction at the time?那起谋杀案发生时你在上海,也是一名年轻单身女士。当时你的反应是什么?When the crime happened, I lived in a pretty low-end apartment, a six-floor walkup, a gong fang, cement building with no security. It never occurred to me living there and sometimes coming home late at night that Shanghai could be unsafe. I would walk home from the subway carrying keys in my hand. Like a lot of foreigners, I thought it was pretty shocking somebody had been killed in the center of the city, and that there didn#39;t seem to be an immediate reason for it. The victim wasn#39;t involved in crime or anything nefarious.在罪案发生时,我住在一座非常低端的居民楼中,那是一座六层的楼房,没有电梯,是所谓的公房,没有任何安保。我住在那里,有时会很晚回家,从没想到上海可能是不安全的。我会从地铁站步行回家,手中拿着钥匙。与许多外国人一样,我也认为有人在市中心被害、却似乎无法立即找出原因的情况是非常令人震惊的。受害者并未参与犯罪活动,也没有任何极端恶劣的行为。Both international and local media jumped to cover the story. What kind of insight did you draw from their coverage?中国本地媒体和海外媒体均对此事进行了报道。你从他们的报道中获得了什么灵感?After the murder happened, the Chinese press didn#39;t report on it for a few days. Probably because there wasn#39;t good reporting coming out of China, all kinds of rumors circulated among foreign press. It was reported that Diana was killed on Chongming Island, rather than her building, and that she was a bar dancer, a go-go dancer.谋杀案发生后的最初几天,中国媒体并未报道此事。或许是因为中国没有好的报道,因此外媒有了各种各样的传言。有外媒报道说,戴安娜是在崇明岛而不是在她居住的楼内遇害,还说她是酒吧的舞女。In the end, the PSB [Shanghai#39;s Public Security Bureau] issued a notice on its website that allowed Chinese reporters to take up the story. By the time the trial happened, the coverage was pretty detailed. But for a few days, there was a lot of speculation. You saw the local reporters really following the PSB#39;s lead or really waiting for their signal. I don#39;t know if there was a specific censorship directive or not. My guess is there more likely was self-censorship.最后,上海公安局在其网站上发布了一则公告,允许中国记者采访报道此事。到案件开庭时,媒体报道已经相当详尽。但是在案件刚刚发生的那几天,流言满天飞。当时,本地记者真的很相信公安局,等待公安局的消息。我不知道是不是上头有专门的审查命令。我猜,可能更多地是媒体的自我审查。In China, the police often write their own news. A story that comes out with a lot of detail on a case or investigation often originates from the police. In this case, a lot of the detail that I had of the investigation came from a lengthy feature article published by a publication that was affiliated with the police.在中国,警方通常会自己发布消息。关于某起案件或调查、有着大量细节的报道通常都来自警方的消息。在这起案件中,我了解到的关于调查的许多细节都来自一篇长篇特写,发表特写的媒体与警方有联系。What#39;s changed about the modeling industry in Shanghai since this case?这起谋杀案发生后,上海的模特业有了哪些变化?If anything, the conditions for models here have gotten worse. There are more and more small, fly-by-night modeling agencies. It#39;s harder to keep track of how many there are and their names. As models flood the market, wages have gone down as well. One model I talked to who worked on and off in China, used the phrase #39;bottom of the barrel.#39;如果说有什么改变的话,那就是模特们的生存状况变得更糟糕了。不可靠的小型模特机构如雨后春笋般冒了出来,想要追踪有多少家、各叫什么名字也越发困难。随着大量模特涌入市场,其薪资也跟着下降。我与一位在中国时断时续工作的模特交谈时,她说自己的状况已经跌至谷底。When Diana was here, Shanghai was a pretty lucrative place to work. It was grueling--the hours were long and conditions on the job weren#39;t great--but you could still make good money. Now, there are agencies here that can get models good jobs, but it#39;s not Paris or Milan.戴安娜在的时候,上海还是一个非常有利可图的市场。模特一行确实很累人,需要一连工作数个小时,条件也不怎么好,但收入颇丰。而现在,上海确实也有一些机构能给模特找到不错的工作,但比不上巴黎、米兰。Diana and her killer came from different backgrounds, traveling to Shanghai from two completely different corners of the world. The victim was from idyllic Salt Spring, one of Canada#39;s Gulf Islands, and the killer was an 18-year old migrant worker from a remote village in Anhui province. But your book suggests parallels between the two characters. What are they?戴安娜和杀死她的凶手有着完全不同的背景,从两个天差地别的世界角落来到上海。戴安娜来自加拿大海湾群岛(Gulf Islands)中具有田园风情的小岛盐泉岛(Salt Spring),凶手则是一个来自安徽省偏僻山村、年仅18岁的农民工。但你的书中写了这样的两个人物之间也有平行线,是什么?In 2008, Shanghai was in transition, in the lead up to the Olympics and the Expo. The city was being remade overnight. You had two populations flooding in--the expats and immigrants.2008年,上海还处在过渡时期,为了迎接北京奥运会(Olympics)和世会(Expo),几乎在一夜之间,上海的面貌就发生了天翻地覆的变化。有两种人大批涌入:外国移居者和中国农民工。People often think of expats as foreigners on packages for two to three years, who have drivers and lots of expendable income. In this case, I was interested in foreigners with temporary visas who work short-term jobs, often for very low wages, the people who end up as waiters, models, DJs or promoters. The migrant workers who come here face some of the same employment issues. They often don#39;t have real papers, or a hukou [household registration], that would qualify them for social services. They also work without contracts.人们通常将外国移居者视作暂且在中国居住两到三年的“老外”,拥有专职司机和大把大把的钞票。在我所指的是那些打短期零工、持临时签的外国人,他们拿的薪水通常极低,干的是侍应生、模特、DJ或促销员这样的工作。而来到上海的中国农民工也面临着一些相同的问题。好多人都没有户口,无法享受社会福利。他们的工作也没签合同。The migrants have it much worse off than the foreigners, but I could see parallels between their two experiences. The city is pretty oblivious to both groups, yet relies on a constant flow of Chinese migrants and foreigners coming in to revitalize. Models were especially important to the image that Shanghai was trying to represent--an international city and of place where foreign faces graced whatever products were on billboards.而从中国其他地方来到上海生活的外地人境遇远不如这些外国人。但我还是可以看到他们之间的相似之处。上海对这两个群体都很冷漠,尽管这个城市需要外地人和外国人源源不断地流入才能保持活力。模特对于上海的城市形象特别重要,上海希望以国际城市的形象示人,希望这个城市的商品广告牌上处处有外国人的面孔。What was most surprising in writing the book?在写这本书的过程中最让你感到意外的是什么?I went into it with assumptions about how China#39;s criminal justice system worked, thinking like many people who were in Shanghai at the time, that the police had just found and arrested someone who was not the murderer.在我写这本书的时候,我曾经对中国刑事司法系统如何运行有过种种猜想,当时我和很多在上海生活的人一样,认为警察可能抓错了人。By the end, the situation became a lot more complex. I didn#39;t expect the degree to which the police involved Diana#39;s parents in the investigation. The parents were consulted on the sentence for their daughter#39;s killer. They didn#39;t want the death sentence and that opinion had an impact on the outcome.但最终的情况要复杂得多。我没有料到警察会让戴安娜的父母参与到调查中来。在对杀害女儿的凶手的量刑问题上,警方曾征询过戴安娜父母的意见。他们并不希望判处凶手死刑,这个意见影响了最终结果。Did that give you hope for China#39;s justice system?这件事是否让你看到了中国司法系统的希望?I#39;m not sure. I also learned a lot of discouraging things about the Chinese justice system--the confession rate is really high, suspects can be detained up to 37 days without being formally arrested. Allegations they are tortured and wrongful convictions are common. In one recent case, a man who had been convicted of murder was released after the victim turned up alive.这我不太确定。我也了解到有关中国司法系统的不少负面的东西,例如认罪率相当的高、嫌疑人可以在没有正式被逮捕的情况下被扣押最多37天。也经常听到有关嫌疑人遭到刑讯逼供以及误判的事情。近期就有一宗案例,一个人被判犯有杀人罪,但之后被杀的人却活着回来了,在这种情况下此人才被释放。There is hope that the system is changing. Voices that are calling for reform and the number of executions has declined. Still, the system is not not changing as fast as some people would like.中国司法制度有改变的希望。司法改革的呼声很大,死刑执行的数量也有所下降。但司法改革的推进速度仍没有达到一些人的期望值。The book is the first story published by a digital platform that you helped start called Deca. Why choose an e-book format?这本书是你帮助发起的称作“Deca”的数字平台出版的第一本书。为什么选择以电子书的形式出版?No one#39;s really figured out a good word for these sort of pieces. They#39;re short books, long-form pieces, or singles. They are somewhere in between a magazine article and full-length book, that seem to work well on an e-er, Kindle or iPad.还没有人真正为这类作品想出一个好名字。可以叫短书,也可以叫长文章,或者叫单行本,介于杂志文章与足本书籍之间,似乎用Kindle或iPad等电子阅读设备看最合适。Initially, one of the big surprises of digital publishing was that people were ing long stories. There was a fear that people would just stop ing. Instead, pieces that were driven by narrative took off.最初,电子出版领域一个出人意料的现象是,人们都在读长篇文章。有人担心过段时间大家就不会再读了。而实际上,叙述体的作品获得了飞跃式发展。The writers that started Deca are all experienced magazine writers. We#39;ve seen the feature world shrinking. The number of pages devoted to full length features has declined over the past few years, as have the number of outlets that we can publish in. Meanwhile, digital publishing has emerged. The margins are actually better for writers as well. I#39;m pretty hopeful about it.发起Deca的作者都是富有经验的杂志写手。我们发现,特写创作正出现萎缩。过去几年,标准长度的特写所占页面数量出现下降,刊发这类特写的出版物的数量也在减少。而与此同时,数字出版业务则应运而生。实际上,数字出版给作者带来的利润率也更高。我对此还是抱着很大希望的。 /201406/307969When it comes to organizing your week, I’m sure it feels like the weeks fly by so quickly that you can’t help but ask yourself, “What did I do last week?” Or, “Where did the time go?”当谈到如何对一周的活动进行组织时,我敢肯定你会觉得时间一周一周飞速流逝,你会禁不住问自己,“上周我做什么了?”或者“时间哪里去了?”Life seems to get the best of us and soon, before we know it, we’ll be 70 years old and wondering what we have accomplished.生活似乎总是胜过你,不久之后,在我们意识到之前,我们就70岁了,还在想我们做了哪些事情。We may not feel that time is slipping away, but once we reflect on our memories we tend to appreciate time just a little more.也许我们没有感觉到时间在偷偷溜走,但是一旦我们进行回忆,我们就会比以往更加珍惜时间。How to Plan Your Week So You Can Start Living a More Fulfilling and Rewarding Life如何计划每周的生活,来开始过更充实和更有意义的生活? /201309/255515

  

  

  

  As one of his generation#39;s best wizards, Harry Potter ended up enrolling in the prestigious Hogwarts School. For those less magically gifted, China#39;s Hebei province now has a fallback option.作为同代人中最好的魔法师之一,哈利#12539;波特(Harry Potter) 就读的是大名鼎鼎的霍格沃兹魔法学校(Hogwarts School)。对于那些魔法天赋不高的孩子,中国的河北省目前提供了一个备选学校。Located in the industrial city of Shijiazhuang, the Hebei Academy of Fine Arts may not have games of Quidditch, talking paintings or classes in wand-waving. But its campus does have various castle-like qualities similar to the school at the heart of J.K. Rowling#39;s hit #39;Harry Potter#39; series--including tall turrets and a 100-meter bell tower--that have earned it the nickname #39;Asia#39;s Hogwarts.#39;位于工业城市石家庄的河北美术学院(Hebei Academy of Fine Arts)或许没有魁地奇球赛(Quidditch)、会说话的图画或学习使用魔杖的课程,但是它的校园里有着各种各样的城堡,与J.K.罗琳(J.K. Rowling)《哈利#12539;波特》系列小说中的校园如出一辙,核心建筑包括高耸的塔楼和100米高的钟楼,由此赢得了亚洲霍格沃兹的称号。The school didn#39;t return calls for comment.该学院未予置评。State broadcaster CCTV paid a recent visit to the campus and spoke to the principal, Zhen Zhongyi, who said that the campus#39;s design was based merely on European Gothic architecture; that is, not intended to hew too closely to the realm of Harry Potter. The campus cost nearly 400 million yuan ( million), the broadcaster reported, and will enroll its first students this fall.中央电视台(CCTV)最近访问了这个学院,并采访了校长甄忠义。甄忠义说,校园设计仅仅是汲取了欧洲哥特式建筑的风格;也就是说,并不想模仿哈利#12539;波特书中的魔法学校。据CCTV报道,校园的建设耗资接近人民币4亿元(合6,400万美元),今年秋季即将迎来首批学生。Like most other countries around the world, the Chinese love for the bespectacled Harry Potter is legion, and has sprouted a whole genre of fan fiction by turns amusing and strange, including #39;Harry Potter and the Waterproof Pearl,#39; #39;Harry Potter and the Porcelain Doll#39; and #39; Harry Potter and the Chinese Overseas Students,#39; the last in which Chinese wizards fight Voldemort alongside Harry Potter. The book has also found an audience among Tibetan-language ers, following the efforts of one translator, who renamed the main character Harry Podder, which in Tibetan means #39;brave.#39;和世界大多数国家一样,哈利波特在中国也有大批粉丝,他们还创作了一系列有趣古怪的粉丝作品,比如《哈利#12539;波特与防水珍珠》(Harry Potter and the Waterproof Pearl)、《哈利#12539;波特与瓷娃娃》(Harry Potter and the Porcelain Doll) 、《哈利#12539;波特与中国留学生》(Harry Potter and the Chinese Overseas Students)等等,最后这本小说讲述了中国魔法师与哈利波特一同对抗伏地魔(Voldemort)的故事。这本书在西藏地区广受欢迎,源于一位译者将主人公的名字改为Harry Podder,在藏语里意为勇敢。So deeply has the novel penetrated Asia that earlier this year, even a diplomatic spat between China and Japan was littered with references to Ms. Rowling#39;s series. The incident kicked off in January, when the Japanese ambassador to the U.K. penned an article declaring that China risks playing #39;the role of Voldemort#39; in Asia, citing concerns about Chinese movements in the East China Sea. For his part, meanwhile, the Chinese ambassador to the U.K. retorted with his own fantasy allusion, saying that the Yasukuni Shrine in Tokyo--home to a number of war criminals but still regularly visited by Japanese officials, and more recently Justin Bieber--was #39;a kind of horcrux, representing the darkest parts of that nation#39;s soul.#39;这些小说早已深入亚洲读者的内心,甚至今年早些时候中国和日本之间的一场外交争端中也夹杂着罗琳作品的痕迹。事件始于1月份,日本驻英国大使发表文章,对中国在东中国海(中国称东海)的举动表示担心,认为中国有成为亚洲“伏地魔”的风险。与此同时,中国驻英国大使反驳了上述言论,他表示,东京的靖国神社(Yasukuni Shrine)是藏匿日本这个国家灵魂最黑暗部分的魂器。靖国神社供奉着日本许多战犯,但日本官员仍定期参拜,最近贾斯汀#12539;比伯(Justin Bieber)也前往参观。No word yet on how tough the competition is to get into Hebei#39;s Hogwarts-like campus. In the meantime, Chinese Internet users are lavishing their affections on another school, one in the U.S. that#39;s free and whose acceptance rates rival Harvard#39;s--which, coupled with an unusual pedagogy, they see as having its own kind of magic.目前尚不清楚进入这所河北霍格沃兹学校的难度有多大。而中国网民更青睐另一所美国的学校,这所学校不仅免费入学,而且录取率堪比哈佛大学(Harvard),再加上不同寻常的教学方式,都使这所学校看上去魔力四射。 /201405/300442

  

  The modern maraschino cherry is “a real cherry with the cherry flavor removed,” explains Darcy O’Neil, a chemist and the author of “Fix the Pumps,” a history of the soda fountain. The original version, by contrast, was a marasca cherry — a sour, dark variety cultivated on the coast of Dalmatia (now part of Croatia) beginning in the mid-19th century. It was brined in ocean water, then preserved in a liqueur made from its own juices, as well as leaves and ground-up pits.现代的酒渍马拉斯奇诺樱桃(maraschino cherry,特指冰淇淋、鸡尾酒,奶油蛋糕等物上的装饰性红樱桃——译注)是一种“去掉了樱桃味的樱桃”,化学家达西·奥尼尔(Darcy O’Neil)说,他曾出版讲述冷饮机历史的《修好水泵》(Fix the Pumps)一书。马拉斯奇诺樱桃是用欧洲酸樱桃制成的,二者截然相反。欧洲酸樱桃又酸又黑,是19世纪中期在达尔马提亚(今克罗地亚境内)培育出来的。制作方法是将它用海水浸泡,之后用同一种樱桃的汁液、叶子和碾碎的籽制成的甜酒腌渍。The fruit first arrived on American shores as a luxury import around the turn of the century, along with a cheaper version made primarily in France using sugar and dyes. Large shipments of European cherries that had been preserved but not fully transformed into maraschinos were also sent to the ed States — American cherries were considered unacceptable because of their mushier texture — where they, too, were made into less rarefied versions of the Croatian original.在19世纪与20世纪之交,这种果子作为一种奢侈的进口物品来到美国大洋两岸,此外还有一种较为便宜的法国制造品种,用糖和颜料浸渍而成。美国樱桃被认为质地较软,无法用来制作马拉斯奇诺樱桃,于是大量欧洲半成品樱桃也被运往美国,在美国本土加工制作,但没有克罗地亚的原产品那么正宗。Americans happily gobbled up imitation marascas, usually flavored with vanilla or almond. But when information about how they were made was leaked, outraged articles followed. “Maraschino Cherries Violate Pure Food Law,” ran one 1907 headline. According to another report, the fruit was smoked in sulfur and packed in a noxious chemical brine before shipping; once in the factory, it was soaked in sugar syrup, flavored and dyed red with aniline, a toxic colorant made of coal-tar byproducts. So many maraschino impostors — some alcoholic and some not — hit the market that in 1912, the Food and Drug Administration issued an official statement on the difference between a real maraschino and an imitation.美国人开心地吃着这些仿制樱桃,通常是配香草和杏仁一起吃。但是当制作过程泄露后,开始出现愤怒的抨击文章,1907年,一篇文章题为“马拉斯奇诺樱桃触犯纯净食品法”。另一篇报道写道,这些樱桃经过硫磺烟熏,在运输前被浸泡在一种臭名昭著的化学制剂里。在工厂,它们被浸入糖浆,用苯胺调味和染上红色——苯胺是一种有毒的着色剂,由煤焦油的副产品制成。大量冒牌马拉斯奇诺樱桃涌入市场(有些是酒渍的,有些不是),1912年,美国食品和药物发表了一份官方声明,澄清真假马拉斯奇诺樱桃的不同之处。None of these alarming findings stopped people from eating the candied treats. It wasn’t long before American cherry growers, particularly in Oregon, where there were vast orchards, looked for ways to break into the market. Ernest Wiegand, a horticulturist at Oregon Agricultural College (now Oregon State University), focused on figuring out how best to preserve the shape and structure of local cherries to the standards Americans expected. “Preserving them with alcohol causes them to shrink,” O’Neil explains. “They become hard and wrinkled, and they don’t look like a plump, beautiful cherry.” In 1925, Wiegand discovered that adding calcium salts to the preserving brine firmed up the fruit. With a few modifications, this is still the method used to make maraschinos today. And while the maraschino we know has long been a kind of Frankenstein’s monster of the fruit world, in a Manhattan or on a sundae it offers a certain reliable comfort. “It’s got this burst of sweetness and sugar and childhood in it,” O’Neil says. “And those are good associations.”这些警告并没有阻止人们继续食用这种甜品。不久后,美国樱桃种植者,特别是拥有大片果园的俄勒冈州的种植者们找到办法打入这个市场。厄内斯特·维甘德是俄勒冈农业学院(今俄勒冈州立大学)的园艺学家,他致力于让本土樱桃的形状和质地在腌渍过程能够达到美国人期待的标准。“用酒精腌渍会让它们缩水,”奥尼尔说,“会让它们变硬起皱,看上去就不像美丽丰满的樱桃了。”1925年,维甘德发现,在腌渍液中加入钙盐,会让樱桃变得质地坚实。经过若干调整,这个方法如今仍应用在制作马拉斯奇诺樱桃的工序中。我们熟悉的马拉斯奇诺樱桃早已成为水果界的弗兰肯斯坦怪物,但当它随曼哈顿鸡尾酒和圣代冰淇淋一起端上来的时候,还是让人有种安心的舒适感。“它包含了关于甜蜜、糖果和童年的感觉,”奥尼尔说。“这些都是美妙的联想。” /201410/338308

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