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2017年10月23日 12:31:08来源:兰州晨报


  • Safety procedures at Virgin Galactic, whose spacecraft crashed on a test flight last week, had too few safeguards to prevent a potential catastrophe, one of the world’s leading space safety experts has said.维珍(Virgin Galactic)太空飞船上周在飞行测试中坠毁后,一位世界一流的太空安全专家表示,该公司安全程序的保障措施太少,不足以防止潜在的灾难。Tommaso Sgobba, a former head of flight safety for the European Space Agency, said industry best practice calls for operators to build in “two-failure tolerance”, or sufficient safeguards to survive two separate, unrelated failures – two human errors, two mechanical errors or one of each. He believes that SpaceShipTwo’s systems fell short of that standard.欧洲航天局(European Space Agency)前飞行安全负责人托马索#8226;斯戈巴(Tommaso Sgobba)表示,行业最佳实践要求运营商内置“双重容错”,即建立足以抵御两个不相关故障的保障措施,这两个故障可能都是人为故障,也可能都是机械故障,亦或是人为及机械故障各一个。他认为“太空船2号”(SpaceShipTwo)达不到这个标准。According to investigators, Virgin Galactic’s SpaceShipTwo disintegrated after a pilot wrongly unlocked the “feathering” mechanism – which slows the craft during its descent – too early. The mechanism then activated even though the separate lever to deploy it was not pulled. The craft’s co-pilot died in the subsequent crash.据调查,维珍太空船2号是在一位飞行员太早解锁“顺桨”装置(用于太空船降落时减速)后解体的。随后这个装置被启动,即便用于展开顺桨的另一个手柄并未被拉起。太空船随后坠毁,副驾驶死于此次事故。The feathering mechanism – which is vital to slow the aircraft but potentially deadly when it is accelerating – was typical of the safety systems that need to withstand human errors and mechanical failures, analysts said.顺桨装置对飞船减速至关重要,但在飞船加速时启动它可能是致命的。分析人士指出,顺桨装置需要承受人为失误和机械故障,形成一个典型的安全系统。Mr Sgobba said SpaceShipTwo’s systems, which required two levers to be moved before the wings went in to a “feathered” configuration, appeared to be designed to be “one-failure tolerant” – to stay safe in the event of a single pilot error or mechanical failure. But the system had not worked that way. The design would not be acceptable in other safety critical-industries, such as aeroplane manufacture, he added.斯戈巴表示,太空船2号要求在机翼进入顺桨姿势前拉动两个手柄,但其系统貌似被设计成“单重容错”,即只能在一次飞行员失误或一次机械故障的情况下保持安全。但系统并未如此发挥作用。他补充说,这种设计是不会为其他安全关键的行业(比如飞机制造)所接受的。Loren Thompson, an adviser to US aerospace companies, said other safety-critical US businesses, including suppliers to Nasa, required at least the “two-fault tolerance” Mr Sgobba described. He said it was a “significant concern” that some private space operators applied less stringent standards.美国航空航天企业的顾问劳伦#8226;汤普森(Loren Thompson)表示,美国其他安全关键企业,包括美国国家航空航天局(Nasa)的供应商在内,至少都需要达到斯戈巴所讲的“双重容错”。他说部分私人航天运营商采用较宽松标准是个“令人担忧的重大问题”。Virgin Galactic, which is part of Sir Richard Branson’s Virgin Group, said the locking mechanism for the feathers represented two separate safeguards. There was a “procedural” safeguard, as the lock was meant to stay in place until after the most dangerous, early part of the flight, and a “mechanical” safeguard, in the form of the lock itself.维珍公司隶属于理查德#8226;布兰森爵士(Sir Richard Branson)的维珍集团(Virgin Group),该公司表示顺桨装置的锁定机构代表了两个不同的保障措施。一个是“程序性”保障,锁定机构应保持不动,直到飞船度过最危险的早期飞行阶段之后,另一个是“机械式”保障,即该机构本身。Mr Sgobba said procedural rules could be seen as a safeguard in some circumstances, but “they are considered the least desirable”.斯戈巴表示,在某些情况下程序规则可以被看作保障措施,但“它们被认为是最不可取的”。 /201411/341381
  • A new Apple store scheduled to open on Saturday in Beijing will be the company#39;s largest retail store in Asia, a senior company official said today.定于周六在北京开张的一个新苹果店将是该公司在亚洲最大的专卖店,苹果公司高层今天说。John Browett, Apple#39;s senior vice president of retail, said the new store in the Wangfujing shopping district will be the company#39;s largest store in Asia, with more than 300 employees and a full range of accessories for Apple products.苹果公司零售业务高级副总裁John Browett说,在王府井购物区的新店将是该公司在亚洲最大的专卖店,拥有员工300余人,品种齐全的苹果产品配件。Browett did not say whether the company will offer the iPhone 5 to the mainland market when the Wangfujing store opens.Browett没有透露当王府井店开张时该公司是否会向中国大陆提供iPhone5。The Wangfujing store was open to the media for one hour this morning. The iPhone5 was not on display at the store, although headphones designed for the phone were on display.王府井店今天上午向媒体开放一小时。 iPhone5没有在商店陈列,尽管专为在该手机设计的耳机在展示中。Apple is stepping up its efforts to expand its presence in China. Browett said a store in south China#39;s city of Shenzhen is ;just about to open; and ;more stores are coming across China.;苹果公司正加紧努力扩大其在中国的市场。Browett说,在中国南方城市深圳的商店“正要开张”以及“更多的专卖店将进入中国。”;We are looking foward to serving every Chinese customer in every city,; said Browett. ;But that#39;s going to take us some time.;“我们期盼务每一个城市的中国顾客,”Browett说。 “但是这将要花费我们一些时间。”Smartphones have overtaken desktop computers as the primary means of accessing the Internet for most Chinese, according to data from the China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC).根据中国互联网信息中心(CNNIC)的数据,智能手机已经超过台式电脑成为大多数中国人接入互联网的主要手段。CNNIC data indicates that 388 million Chinese regularly surfed the Internet via their mobile phones as of the end of June.中国互联网信息中心的数据显示,到六月底有3.88亿中国人经常使用手机上网。Apple has 390 retail stores around the world. The Wangfujing store is its third in Beijing and sixth on the Chinese mainland.苹果公司在世界各地拥有390个零售商店。王府井店是其在北京的第三家,也中国大陆的第六家店。 /201210/204501
  • If you have ever wondered how Google is able to make so much money each year, this letter offers a part explanation. The website is happy to accept and make income from adverts from companies which take advantage of the unwary.如果你曾经想知道谷歌每年如何能赚那么多的钱,这封信就提供了部分的解释。该网站乐于去接受并从那些利用网友粗心的公司发布的广告中获得收入。For example, type ;Ehic card; into Google and several companies will appear at the top of the listing – in the paid-for ads box. These official-looking sites prey on those who don#39;t know better by charging a fee (typically #163;14.99) to process their application for a European health card.例如在谷歌中输入“Ehic card”,有几家公司将出现在列表顶部——以付费广告框的形式。这些看起来很正规的网站定位在那些不怎么知道要通过付费(通常是14.99英镑)来处理他们欧洲健康卡申请的人。But the truth is that Ehic cards are issued free for UK citizens. The official government site is further down the Google page. What the other sites are doing is getting consumers to pay for a service that is free. It#39;s perfectly legal.但事实是Ehic卡是为英国公民免费发行的。官方网站越发位于谷歌页面的下方。其他网站所做的是让消费者来付一项免费的务。且这是完全合法的。The Passport Application Service works in a similar way. At the top of the website it says: ;Welcome to the UK Passport application assistance service which assists you with an online passport application service through the official Identity and Passport Service (IPS). Our service helps individuals who are entitled to complete a passport application online, to do so correctly.;护照申请务以相似的方式奏效。位于网站的顶部,写着:“欢迎来到英国护照协助申请务,通过官方身份和护照务(IPS)在线护照申请务时协助你。我们的务帮助那些有资格来完成网上护照申请的个人进行正确地操作。”It doesn#39;t claim to be the official passport site. Its fee of #163;24 is for checking your application has been filled out correctly. Nice work it you can get it, although they have to buy the expensive Google ads to enable this to operate.它并没有宣称是官方的护照网站。其24英镑的费用是为了检查您的申请是否正确填完。你可以很好地完成,尽管他们不得不付昂贵的谷歌广告来确保这个操作。 /201211/207682
  • A chocolate printer that allows sweet lovers to create their own custom-made 3D treats is to go on sale at a cost of 2,500 pounds.一款巧克力打印机将于明天上市,只要付2500英镑,甜蜜恋人们可以为爱人打造自己的3D效果巧克力甜品了。The machine squirts out chocolate and, via computer instructions, allows the user to build any shape they like out of the food. But makers Choc Edge — founded by Dr Liang Hao, from the University of Exeter — have missed the Easter rush.这款机器可以喷出巧克力,用户通过电脑下达指令把巧克力做成自己喜欢的任何形状。巧克力打印机由埃克塞特大学郝亮士创建的Choc Edge公司生产,不过它的上市错过了复活节购物狂潮。Although they hope the printer, which will go on sale on eBay, will be snapped up by retailers. Britain#39;s biggest chocolatiers Thornton#39;s have aly said they are interested.不过尽管如何,设计者们还是希望这种新产品能被零售商抢购一空,这款3D巧克力打印机将在eBay上推出。英国最大的巧克力制造商桑顿公司已明确表示对这款打印机感兴趣。Because of the eye-watering cost, however, few individuals are likely to buy one. But the device could one day allow people to design their own 3D objects after submitting their designs on a website.因为价格昂贵,个人购买巧克力打印机的可能性很小。但是在将来设计者可以通过在网上提交设计方案的方式会设计出自己的3D造型成品。Dr Hao came up with a prototype last year and has only just perfected it so that it can now go on sale.#39;We#39;ve improved and simplified the machine, so now it is really easy to use,#39; he told the B. #39;You just need to melt some chocolate, fill a syringe that is stored in the printer, and get creative printing your chocolate. #39;郝士去年研制出一台原型,但直到现在才为上市做好了充分的准备。 “我们对机器进行了改进和简化,现在它简单易用,”他在接受B采访时说。“你要做的就是溶化一些巧克力,然后将其装入打印机中的注射器,当然还需要你的创意,一帧巧克力作品就可以出炉了。”3D printing is a technology where a three dimensional object is created by building up successive layers of material.The technology is aly used in industry to produce plastic and metal products, but this is the first time the principles have been applied to chocolate.The research has presented many challenges. Chocolate is not an easy material to work with because it requires accurate heating and cooling cycles.3D打印是一种通过建立连续物体层来产生三维体的技术。这种技术已被应用于工业中生产塑料和金属制品,推广到巧克力加工却是首次。研制过程不乏挑战。巧克力不易加工,它需要精准的加热和冷却循环。Dr Hao said: ;What makes this technology special is that users will be able to design and make their own products. From reproducing the shape of a child#39;s favourite toy to a friend#39;s face, the possibilities are endless. It could be developed to help consumers custom-design many products from different materials, but we#39;ve started with chocolate as it is ily available, low cost and non-hazardous.;郝士说:“这种技术的独到之处在于,用户可以自行设计、制造产品。它可以仿制出孩子喜爱的玩具模样,还可以让巧克力看起来像你朋友的脸,可谓是创意无限。利用这款机器,用户还可以使用不同的原材料设计出不同的产品。我们以巧克力为研究的开端,因为它容易获得、成本低、无害。”;There is also no wastage as any spoilage can be eaten.#39; Dr Hao added: ‘Eventually we may see many mass-produced products replaced by unique designs created by the customer.;“既使做坏了,也照样能吃不会浪费。”郝士补充说:“最后,我们可能会看到用户的独特设计取代大批量生产的产品。”EPSRC chief executive Professor Dave Delpy said: ;This is an imaginative application of two developing technologies and a good example of how creative research can be applied to create new manufacturing and retail ideas. By combining developments in engineering with the commercial potential of the digital economy we can see a glimpse into the future of new markets — creating new jobs and, in this case, sweet business opportunities.;英国工程和自然科学研究委员会的首席执行官戴夫·德尔菲教授说:“这是对两种发展中的技术富于想像力的应用,也是如何将创造性研究用于开发新制造业和创新零售观念的好范例。通过综合利用与数字经济的商业潜力相适应的设计创新,我们看到了新的市场前景:产生新工作岗位,在巧克力打印机这个案例中我们称之为甜蜜商机。” /201204/177906
  • Since the early days of the game industry, consoles have ruled the home. Companies like Nintendo, Sega, Sony and Microsoft MSFT -1.11% thrived by building closed ecosystems that developers could creates games over the course of five to 10 years before a new, more powerful box entered the market and the cycle began all over again. But ever since the introduction of smartphones from companies like Apple AAPL -1.31% , Nokia, Samsung, LG, Google and Amazon AMZN -1.02% , game creators have flocked to these powerful mobile devices and an entire ecosystem of small and independent development studios have flourished (also in part thanks to the digital distribution networks on new consoles from Nintendo, Sony and Microsoft).自视频游戏业发展早期开始,游戏机就主宰了千家万户。像任天堂(Nintendo)、世嘉(Sega)、索尼(Sony)和微软(Microsoft)等企业都依靠打造封闭的生态系统赚得盆满钵满。开发者可以有5到10年的时间开发游戏,直到一款更强大的新游戏机进入市场,这个循环才会被重启。不过,自从苹果(Apple)、诺基亚(Nokia)、三星(Samsung)、LG、谷歌(Google)和亚马逊(Amazon)等公司推出智能手机以来,游戏开发者们就纷纷涌向这些强大的移动平台,同时,一个由小型独立开发工作室构成的完整生态系统也逐渐兴盛(这也要部分归功于任天堂、索尼和微软为新游戏机开发的数字销售网络)。In recent years, this marriage between smartphone (and tablet) and the traditional game console has resulted in micro-console devices like Ouya, Mad Catz M.O.J.O., Nvidia Shield and Amazon Fire TV. With Google’s GOOG -1.04% entry into this space this fall with Android TV, game developers will be able to create cross-platform experiences that will begin to compete more directly with the traditional console manufacturers. Chris McKillop, Android TV engineering manager, explains how this new technology could forever change the game.而近年来,智能手机(和平板电脑)与传统游戏机的联姻,造就了不少像Ouya、Mad Catz M.O.J.O.、Nvidia Shield和亚马逊Fire TV这样的小型游戏机。今年秋季,随着谷歌携其安卓电视(Android TV)挺进这一领域,游戏开发者们将能够创造跨平台的游戏体验,从而与传统游戏机厂商开始更直接地交锋。安卓电视的工程经理克里斯o麦基洛普在此为大家解读这种新技术将如何彻底颠覆游戏业。Fortune: What are your thoughts on the speed at which new technology from companies like Nvidia has impacted the gaming capabilities of Android smartphones and tablets?《财富》杂志:英伟达公司(Nvidia)这类芯片企业的新技术影响了安卓智能手机和平板电脑的游戏能力。您如何看待这种影响力的速度?McKillop:It’s incredible. The latest generation of GPUs in Mobile SoCs are now at or exceeding those of the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360. When the PS3 originally launched, Android was still nearly two years away from a 1.0. It’s not going to take long for the mobile chipsets to catch up with the current fourth-generation systems (PlayStation 4 and Xbox One).麦基洛普:简直难以置信。现在最新一代手机系统级芯片(SoC)的图形芯片(GPU)速度已经达到或超过PlayStation 3和 Xbox 360了。当PS3刚推出时,安卓1.0还要近两年后才发布。用不了多久,手机芯片的速度就能赶上当前的第四代系统(PlayStation 4和Xbox One)。How have you seen mobile game experiences advance over the years on Google Play?您认为这些年来Google Play的游戏体验有提升吗?Mobile game experiences have made big strides on Google Play. Android is all about the ecosystem, and moving an ecosystem forward happens over time. It started with the NDK in 2009 and now with the upcoming Android Extension Pack for PC class gaming in L release. I don’t see any limit to what game developers can bring to Android. As the broader handset and tablet space start having CPUs and GPUs that can provide great high definition gaming, there is a big incentive for developers to be on Google Play.Google Play上的手机游戏体验已有很大进步。安卓就是一套纯粹的生态系统,要想让一套生态系统阔步前行是需要时间的。它始于2009年的一个开发包(NDK),马上要进行的L轮发布,将推出专为PC级游戏打造的安卓扩展包。我不认为游戏开发者为安卓系统开发新游戏时会受到任何限制。随着更多手机和平板设备开始装备能持高清分辨率游戏的处理器和图形芯片,开发者将有更大动力入驻Google Play。What opportunities has Android opened up for game developers, especially smaller teams?安卓为游戏开发者、尤其是那些小团队开放了哪些机会?There are a lot of small shops (sometimes just one developer) doing great work. Since Google Play Store has such a quick turnaround time for developers to publish updates and new games, it makes it easier for smaller shops to have a bigger impact. Another element is free-to-play gaming.有很多小团队(有时候仅有一个开发者)都做得很棒。由于Google Play商店为开发者发布更新及新游戏提供极快的周转时间,那些小团队更容易获得更大的影响力。另一个机会则是免费游戏。How do you see Android TV impacting the current game ecosystem, which is tiered separately (for the most part) across mobile, console and PC games?目前的游戏生态系统(很大程度上)分布于手机、游戏机和PC游戏中,您认为安卓电视对这一系统有何影响?Over the past year, I’ve had the opportunity to discuss this with game developers across all three of these spaces. Mobile developers are excited to have more screens running Android. I don’t think we know yet exactly how the console players will come to the space but, as Android TV grows, it’s a question that will have to be answered. We have some ideas, and I’m excited about the next couple of years as they come to life.过去一年中,我有机会和来自这三个领域的游戏开发者都做过深入探讨。手机开发者对更多屏幕开始运行安卓感到非常振奋。尽管目前我们还无法确切知道游戏机玩家会如何进入这个领域,但随着安卓电视的发展,这个问题的必然会揭晓。我们已经有些创意了,在接下来的几年中,这些想法将成为现实,对此我十分憧憬。What differentiates the big-screen gaming experience from the mobile experience today?今天,是什么使大屏游戏体验和手机游戏体验有所不同?Input system and power. Mobile experiences are almost always touchscreen-based and battery operated. Once you hit the living room, developers are going to see gamepads and remote controls, and the systems will be plugged into a wall so the chipset can run faster for longer. For some developers, it will be the first time they have had to think about non-touch gaming. For others, it will be like going back in time. Prior to the upcoming L release, Android hadn’t set down a standard for button mappings and how Gamepads should work. This made it really hard for developers to target controllers, so they either did one-off development for a single brand or just ignored controllers altogether. Android TV will give them a reason to get controllers working, and this will translate directly to controller gaming on phones and tablets. That’s the power of a single platform across all form factors.输入系统和耗电问题。手机游戏基本上都是基于触摸屏的,要靠电池驱动。但一旦来到客厅,开发者就会看到手柄和遥控器,系统也将用上交流电,这样芯片运行速度就更快也更持久。对有些开发者来说,这将是他们首次必须考虑没有触控的游戏型态。而对另一些人来说,这种场景又犹如时光倒流。在即将到来的L轮发布前,安卓还没有确定键盘布局和手柄生效方面的标准。这就使开发者很难针对控制器做开发,于是他们要么为某个品牌做一次性开发,要么干脆不考虑控制器。而安卓电视将让他们有理由使控制器生效,而这会直接导致手机和平板设备出现控制器游戏。这就是跨形态单一平台的力量。How do you see micro-consoles like Android TV changing that?您认为像安卓电视这样的小型游戏机会如何改变这种情况?Android TV is much more than just a system for micro-consoles, it’s all about bringing Android to the big screen in your living room — either built into your TV, cable STB, media streamer or micro-console. Having a standard platform for all of these devices is going to have the same impact in the living room that having a standard platform for mobile devices has had on the mobile industry since 2008. It’s going to be a big win for developers and consumers and raise the overall expectations of everyone involved.安卓电视绝不只是供小型游戏机使用的系统,它的使命是将安卓系统带到客厅的大屏幕上——植入电视、有线机顶盒、流媒体播放器或是小型游戏机。自2008年以来,手机的标准平台对手机业产生了深远影响,现在为所有这些设备提供一个标准平台也会对客厅产生同样重大的影响。这将为开发者和消费者带来巨大的双赢局面,同时也将提高所有参与者的期望值。How have you worked with Nvidia on Android TV?你们与英伟达公司在安卓电视项目的合作是如何进行的?We have worked very closely with Nvidia (they are at the heart of the ADT-1). The folks at Nvidia really “get” gaming and gamers — it’s in their DNA. They have helped us work with game developers, as well as optimize graphics performance on the developer devices we gave away at Google IO. We also work with GPU vendors across the industry, including Qualcomm ARM, Intel, etc.我们一直与英伟达密切合作(他们是ADT-1的核心)。英伟达的人确实很“懂”游戏和玩家——这就是他们的DNA。他们一直帮我们与游戏开发者开展合作,还帮着优化我们在谷歌开发者大会(Google IO)发布的开发者样机的图像性能。我们还和图像芯片业内的多家供应商合作,包括高通公司(Qualcomm)、ARM公司、英特尔公司(Intel)等。What does Tegra K1 technology open up for game experiences?英伟达“图睿”(Tegra)K1技术为游戏机玩家带来哪些体验?It brings third-generation console and PC-class gaming to mobile and small living room devices. We did a demo with Nvidia and the folks at Epic Games with Unreal Engine 4 at Google IO to show off what’s going to be possible.它使手机和小型游戏机也能享有第三代游戏机和PC级游戏的性能。我们与英伟达开发了一台样机。在谷歌开发者大会上,Epic Games公司的人用“虚幻引擎4”(Unreal Engine 4)在这台样机上展示了玩家将享有的体验。How do you see game developers creating titles across mobile devices and Android TV when it comes to the touchscreen versus physical controller?当需要在触屏和实体手柄之间做出选择时,游戏开发者就会开发手机和安卓电视都适合的游戏,您怎么看这种现象?In an ideal world a game should operate both ways equally. Since the physical controllers for Android TV devices will also work with phones and tablets, the investment for developers will be across all devices. Most of the games on the Preview Play Store for Android TV are the same ones you install on your phone or tablet. I can see a lot of kids carrying a tablet and two gamepads to school next year.理想情况下,一款游戏应该在这两个平台上都能玩。由于安卓电视游戏机的实体手柄也适用于手机和平板,因此开发者投资打造的游戏也适用于所有设备。在Preview Play Store,适用于安卓电视的绝大多数游戏和你安装在手机和平板上的游戏是一模一样的。明年我就会看到很多孩子带着平板和两个手柄去学校了。How does technology like Unreal Engine 4 open up new opportunities for cross-device and cross-platform gaming experiences?“虚幻引擎4”这样的技术会如何给跨设备及跨平台的游戏体验带来新机遇?When a game developer invests in something like Unreal Engine 4 for the core of their experience, it broadens the market they can address with a lower incremental cost. Couple this with a system like Google Play Games Services, and you can really do some fun things with cross-platform, multi-device and multi-user gaming.当游戏开发者投资打造“虚幻引擎4”这样的技术后,它就能以更低的增量成本开拓更大的市场。将其与Google PlayGames Services这类系统结合后,就能真正通过跨平台、跨设备和多用户游戏来做些有趣的事了。How do you see the actual gameplay experiences evolving with the ability to play on the road and then continue on the big screen at home?随着玩家具备先在路上玩,回到家又继续在大屏幕上玩的能力,您怎么看待他们的游戏体验由此获得的提升?Most games have a cloud-based solution, like Play Games Services, for save game state so you don’t lose your progress if you get a new phone. Since we are using the same core platform for Android TV, all the same technologies continue to work. Developers love that if you buy a game on your TV, it’s installable on your phone and vice-versa. You will see us investing heavily in these sort of cross-device experiences going forward.大多数游戏都有云端的解决方案,比如Play Games Services,这样当玩家买了新手机后,就能保留游戏状态,不会失去通关进程。由于我们在安卓电视上也用了同样的核心平台,因此所有同类技术还是管用的。开发者非常乐见的情景是,玩家买了一款电视上玩的游戏,同时又把它装在手机上,反之亦然。大家会发现,我们会继续在这类跨设备体验的开发上投入重金。One of the current challenges facing game developers on Android is the sheer number of different devices. How do you see a unified platform like Android TV making things easier for developers to focus on creativity versus ports?目前安卓平台的游戏开发者面临的主要挑战之一是不同设备的数量问题。据称像安卓电视这样的统一平台可以让开发者更容易关注创意而不是与大量端口适配,对此您怎么看?We have CPU and GPU performance requirement built into the Android TV spec. We want game developers to know that even on the low-end devices they are going to have room to play. There will always be devices that perform well beyond these specs, and there will always be game developers that want to take advantage of those capabilities when they are present. This looks a lot like the PC gaming space, and it is a model that has worked well for years. I think game developers are going to be pretty happy with this approach.在安卓电视的技术规范中,我们规定了CPU和GPU的性能要求。我们希望开发者了解,就算在低端设备上他们也有施展的空间。总会有一些设备的性能远超这些规范,也总会有开发者希望能利用好这些性能。这种情况和PC游戏领域很像,这也是多年来一直运作良好的模式。我想游戏开发者会十分喜欢这种方法的。Given the speed at which we’ve seen technology, including the Tegra line of chips, advance over the last few years, how do you see more advanced and complex games impacting the traditional console business dominated by Sony, Microsoft and Nintendo?过去几年来,像“图睿”系列芯片这样的技术突飞猛进,在此背景下,您认为更先进也更复杂的游戏会对一直由索尼、微软和任天堂这些巨头统治的传统游戏机领域产生何种影响?Technology always ends up disrupting existing industries. You just need to look at the mobile space and compare the big players in 2006 with the big players in 2014 to see this in action. I don’t think that the living room will be any different, but it’s impossible to predict the winners and losers. Let’s look back in five to six years.技术最终总会颠覆现有产业。只需要看看手机领域,对比一下2006年大卖的机型和2014年的大卖机型就能看出这一点。我不认为客厅这个领域会有所不同,但也不可能预测最终谁赢谁输。等过了五六年后再回头看吧。How have you worked with actual game developers in creating Android TV?在打造安卓电视时,你们和游戏开发者们到底是如何合作的?We started reaching out to select game developers almost a year ago and disclosed our plans with close partners. We also worked closely with Nvidia and their existing Nvidia Shield developers to get their apps y for a non-touch world. Probably one of the best parts of building Android TV has been how positive and supportive the various game developers have been around our efforts. Android has an incredible Developer Relations team that is filled with avid gamers.几乎一年以前我们就开始遴选游戏开发者了,并向密切合作伙伴透露了自己的计划。我们还与英伟达公司及其Nvidia Shield目前的开发者们密切合作,使其应用能适用于非触控领域。在打造安卓电视的过程中最好的一部分可能就是,围绕着我们的努力,不同的游戏开发者是那么积极乐观、全力持。安卓有一令人难以置信的开发者关系团队,它是由许多充满活力的玩家组成的。 /201410/337918
  • Having grabbed a big chunk of the profitable smartphone business from Apple Inc. and others, Samsung Electronics Co. now faces a new, enviable Apple-like challenge: a mammoth pile of unspent, accumulated cash.三星电子(Samsung Electronics Co.)从苹果(Apple Inc.)和其他公司那里夺走了大量利润丰厚的智能手机业务,如今,三星电子面临着一个与苹果类似的惹人嫉妒的新挑战:公司积累的大量闲置现金。After a first quarter marked by a 42% rise in net profit, Samsung said its cash and cash equivalents grew to nearly billion at the end of March. After stripping out debt, Samsung#39;s net cash position is 31.2 trillion won, or .5 billion. Aly one of the biggest in Asia, Samsung#39;s cash pile is building at an eye-popping rate. Its net cash has nearly tripled over the last year alone.在第一季度录得42%的净利润增长之后,三星电子说,该公司的现金和现金等价物3月底时已经增长到了将近400亿美元。剔除债务后,三星电子的净现金头寸为31.2万亿韩圆,即285亿美元。三星电子的现金规模在亚洲已经处于最高水平,目前仍以令人瞠目的速度增长。仅过去一年,三星电子的净现金就几乎增长了两倍。Analysts expect Samsung to use that money for acquisitions that will allow the company to beef up in certain areas like software and medical equipment. Shareholders are likely to start seeking higher returns, either through a boost in its dividend -- currently less than 1% of its share price -- or a share buyback. And while there is no sign yet of the market pressure that forced Apple to announce last month both such steps, investors are starting to notice.分析人士预计,三星电子将使用这些钱进行收购,从而增强公司在软件和医疗设备等领域的实力。股东们可能会开始寻求更高的回报,方法是增加派息──目前不到股价的1%──或是股票回购。尽管目前对于三星电子来说,还没有出现迫使苹果上个月宣布采取这两种措施的市场压力,投资者正在开始予以关注。#39;We will be asking them if they plan to keep all that cash,#39; said Willis Tsai, a San Francisco-based director in the equity research division at TIAA-CREF, which manages more than 0 million of Samsung shares, according to shareholder data from Samp;P Capital IQ. #39;When I see the company, it#39;ll probably be the first question I ask.#39;主流智能手机大比拼TIAA-CREF驻旧金山的股票研究部门的经理Willis Tsai说,我们将询问他们是否打算留下所有现金。根据标普资本智商公司(Samp;P Capital IQ)的股东数据,TIAA-CREF管理着市值超过4亿美元的三星电子股票。他说,如果我看到这家公司,这可能是我要问的第一个问题。In response to a Wall Street Journal question about its cash strategy, Samsung issued a statement last week saying its cash reserves will be managed in a way that prioritizes #39;investments sustainable for areas like facilities, Ramp;D, and marketing that will help the company solidify or boost competitiveness#39; in respective business areas. The company declined to comment on any specific dividend payout, share buyback or acquisition plans in the future.三星电子上周发表了一份声明回应《华尔街日报》关于其现金策略的质疑,声明说,其现金管理方式是重点对设施、研发和营销等领域进行可持续的投资,从而巩固和提高公司在这些领域的竞争力。三星电子拒绝谈论任何具体的股息派发、股票回购或收购计划。The growth in Samsung#39;s cash reflects a dramatic shift in how it generates its profit. In the past, Samsung#39;s chip and components divisions -- underpinned by years of massive capital spending -- propelled the company#39;s earnings. Now, its huge profit comes largely from smartphones, which generate more cash because they don#39;t require as much capital investment.三星电子的现金增长反映了其利润产生方式的明显变化。过去,三星电子的芯片和零件部门推动了公司的盈利增长,这些部门多年以来受到了大规模资本出的持。如今,三星电子的大量利润主要来自智能手机,由于智能手机不需要那么多的资本投资,它们能够制造更多现金。The division containing the mobile business accounted for 74% of Samsung#39;s operating profit, with consumer electronics -- such as TVs -- and components -- such as chips -- making up the rest in the first quarter of 2013. Three years earlier in the same quarter, the mobile-phone segment accounted for 25% of operating profit, with semiconductors and LCDs comprising 56%.2013年第一季度,手机业务所在的部门对三星电子运营利润的贡献率为74%,公司其余的利润来自消费电子产品(如电视机)和零部件(如芯片)。三年前的一季度,手机业务对三星电子运营利润的贡献率为25%,半导体和液晶显示器的利润贡献率为56%。Samsung routinely outspends rivals on capital expenditures to build newer and bigger factories. During market downturns, when competitors would scale back on investment, the world#39;s top producer of memory chips would continue to spend billions of dollars -- allowing it to extend its market-share lead and give it scale to gain more bargaining power in price negotiations.三星电子用来建设更新和更大厂房的资本出通常高于竞争对手。在市场低迷期间,竞争者纷纷削减投资,这家世界顶尖的内存芯片制造商继续斥资数十亿美元进行投资,这帮助三星电子扩大了市场份额方面的领先优势,也使公司在价格谈判中拥有了更多讨价还价的权力。But in recent years, Samsung has kept capital spending mostly flat -- albeit at levels far greater than its competition. Samsung spent 22.8 trillion won in capital expenditures in 2012. It was largely unchanged from 2011 and the company has said it would keep spending flat this year.但是最近几年,三星电子的资本出虽然仍远高于其竞争对手,但却没有太大变化。三星电子2012年的资本出为22.8万亿韩圆,与2011年基本持平。三星电子表示,今年的出仍将保持在这个水平。#39;The cash balloon never got that big because they were reinvesting it all, but now that#39;s starting to change,#39; said Mark Newman, a Hong Kong-based analyst for Sanford C. Bernstein., who estimates that Samsung#39;s cash may grow to 100 trillion won by the end of 2015. #39;It#39;s getting near the point where it#39;s more than enough.#39;美国投行Sanford C. Bernstein驻香港的分析师纽曼(Mark Newman)说,三星电子的现金规模从来没有像现在这么大,因为该公司以往会将手中的现金全部用于再投资,但是现在情况已经变了。纽曼估计,三星电子的现金储备到2015年底时可能增长到100万亿韩圆。纽曼说,它正在超出满足需要的水平。Based on the amount of cash and liquid securities sitting on its balance sheet at the end of its most recent business year, Samsung has the second-biggest cash pile in Asia behind China Mobile Ltd.#39;s billion war chest and ahead of Toyota Motor Corp.#39;s .5 billion cash reserves, according to data from Samp;P Capital IQ, which excludes financial and energy companies,标普资本智商提供的数据显示,在三星电子刚刚结束的这个财年,该公司资产负债表上的现金和易变现券规的模,在不包括金融和能源企业的亚洲公司中排名第二,仅次于中国移动(China Mobile Ltd.)640亿美元的现金规模,超过了丰田汽车(Toyota Motor Corp.)275亿美元的现金储备。The stockpile is building rapidly in part because of Samsung#39;s conservative use of cash. The company#39;s latest annual dividend of 8,000 won translates to a fairly modest yield of 0.54% relative to its share price. As a percentage of net profit, Samsung#39;s total dividend payout has decreased for five years in a row to 5% in 2012, from 15.8% in 2007.三星电子手中现金迅速增加的部分原因是该公司对现金的保守使用。三星电子最新的年度股息为每股8,000韩圆,仅相当于该公司股价的0.54%。三星付的股息总数与公司净利润的比率已经连续五年下降,从2007年的15.8%下降到2012年的5%。In addition, Samsung hasn#39;t bought back shares since 2007. Between 2004 and 2007, it bought back at least 1.8 trillion won, or .6 billion, of shares every year. The impetus for a share buyback may have diminished because Samsung#39;s stock price has nearly tripled since the start of 2008.此外,三星自2007年以来一直没有回购过股票。2004至2007年,三星每年至少回购了价值1.8万亿韩圆(合16亿美元)的股票。由于三星股价自2008年初以来上涨了近两倍,回购股票的动力可能已经减弱。With regard to acquisitions, Samsung has gone for either relatively small companies or small stakes in larger companies. The last big deal it tried to pull off -- an acquisition of flash-memory supplier SanDisk Corp. for .85 billion in 2008 -- failed because the two parties couldn#39;t agree on a price.在收购方面,三星的收购对象要么是规模相对较小的公司,要么是大公司的少数股权。该公司最后一次尝试进行的大规模收购是在2008年试图以58.5亿美元收购闪存供应商SanDisk Corp.,该交易由于双方无法就价格达成一致而失败。According to research firm Dealogic, the biggest overseas deal Samsung Electronics has ever completed is a two-part acquisition of Irvine, Calif.-based AST Research Inc. for a total of 0 million, more than a decade ago. Its most recent deal, announced in March, was an acquisition of a 3% stake in struggling Japanese electronics manufacturer Sharp Corp. for about 6 million.研究公司Dealogic的数据显示,三星电子曾经完成过的最大规模海外收购交易是十多年前分两步收购了加州尔湾(Irvine)的AST Research Inc.,该交易总计为8.4亿美元。其最新的收购交易于今年3月宣布,三星称它将以大约1.06亿美元收购陷入困境的日本电子产品生产商夏普(Sharp Corp.) 3%的股份。Bernstein#39;s Mr. Newman said it is growing more likely that Samsung may look for a larger, multibillion-dollar acquisition in the near future. He didn#39;t specify any potential targets. One area where the company has been expanding its reach through a series of smaller acquisitions is medical equipment.Bernstein的纽曼说,三星目前已更有可能在不久的将来寻求进行耗字数十亿美元的更大规模收购。他没有具体说明任何可能的目标。三星一直在通过一系列较小的收购行动来扩大影响力的一个领域是医疗设备。Mr. Newman expects the company to perform some kind of return to shareholders within the next two to three years. Based on its history, the company is more likely to do a share buyback, he said.纽曼预计,三星未来两到三年可能会以某种形式回报股东。他说,根据三星的历史,其更有可能进行股票回购。Samsung still has time before its cash pile becomes an Apple-sized issue. Apple#39;s cash, cash equivalents and marketable securities reached 4.7 billion at the end of March. Under pressure from investors to return more cash to shareholders, Apple announced last month that it plans to return more cash to investors than previously planned. In a series of moves aimed at returning 0 billion in cash to shareholders by the end of 2015, Apple increased the size of its share repurchase program and raised quarterly dividends.在三星的现金储备问题变得像苹果公司的这一问题那般严重之前,三星还有时间。苹果的现金、现金等价物和适销券在3月底达到1,447亿美元。在投资者要求向股东返还更多现金的压力下,苹果上个月宣布其计划向投资者返还超过以前计划的现金。苹果采取了一系列行动,目的是在2015年底之前向股东返还1,000亿美元现金,这些行动包括扩大股票回购计划的规模以及增加季度股息。Apple and Samsung have totally different cash needs. While Samsung#39;s memory and panel businesses may not be as critical to current earnings, they are still leading their respective industries and they will continue to require cash for capital spending to stay ahead of the competition.苹果和三星有着截然不同的现金需求。虽然三星的存储器和面板业务对该公司当前利润的贡献率可能不是那么大,但它们仍在各自的行业占据领先地位,为保持这种竞争优势,三星电子依然需要在这两项业务上投入现金以用作资本出。Also, fortunes can change quickly in the technology industry. Samsung only needs to look to its once-bigger rival Panasonic Corp.同时,在科技行业,运气也可能随时发生变化。三星只要看看曾经比自己规模更大的竞争对手松下(Panasonic Corp.)就知道了。When flat-panel televisions started to replace bulky cathode-ray tube TV models, Panasonic invested heavily in plasma displays. It built several billion-dollar factories to churn out the displays, only to see those investments suffer during a prolonged downturn.在平板电视开始取代笨重的显像管电视时,松下在等离子显示屏上投入巨资。该公司修建了耗资数十亿美元的工厂以生产显示器,但等离子显示屏行业旷日持久的不景气却使这些投资遭遇了损失。After losing more than 1.5 trillion yen, or .3 billion, over the last two years, Panasonic has seen its credit rating cut to below investment grade, or #39;junk#39; status, by rating agency Fitch in November.过去两年亏损逾1.5万亿日圆(合153亿美元)之后,松下的信用评级在去年11月被评级机构惠誉(Fitch)下调至投资级以下,跌入“垃圾”级。Christopher Wong, a Singapore-based senior investment manager at Aberdeen Asset Management, said it is #39;not a bad thing#39; for Samsung to maintain a large cash balance because of the size of Samsung#39;s annual capital expenditures and the cyclical nature of the technology industry.新加坡安本资产管理公司(Aberdeen Asset Management)的高级投资经理Christopher Wong说,由于三星年度资本开的规模和科技行业的周期性质,三星持有大量现金不是坏事。#39;We#39;re quite relaxed when it comes to the cash pile as long as it continues to find uses for the cash,#39; said Mr. Wong.他说,我们并不担心现金储备的问题,只要三星能继续为这些现金找到用途就行了。 /201305/239269
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