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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月26日 01:34:09
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Business商业报道German carmakers德国汽车生产商Stuck in third稳居第三Daimler is set to keep chugging down the Autobahn behind BMW and Audi奔驰意欲一举赶超宝马奥迪AS A corporate motto, The best or nothing has a timeless quality.作为戴姆勒公司的座右铭,唯有最好彰显着一种永恒的品质。Gottlieb Daimler pasted it on the wall as he went about inventing the modern car in the late 19th century.十九世纪晚期,当戈特利布·戴姆勒着手发明现代汽车的时候,他将这句话贴在墙上。In 2010 the firm that bears his name adopted it as a slogan.2010年,这个以其创始人名字命名的公司将这句话作为广告语。It was as badly timed as a misfiring engine. Mercedes-Benz, Daimlers car division, aly trailing BMW in terms of sales and profitability, saw another Geman premium carmaker, Audi, also start to pull away in the same year.作为一个正走下坡路的公司,这个口号来的有点晚。在销量、盈利方面,戴姆勒旗下的奔驰都已双双落后宝马。同期,德国另一高档汽车制造商奥迪也开始将奔驰甩在身后。Yet this year Daimlers shares have surged by 40%, persuading optimists that the firm is catching up.然而,今年戴姆勒公司的股价涨幅高达40%,乐观人士开始相信该公司正逐步赶上。This week it said its worldwide sales in October had risen 15% year-on-year to a new record.据说,本周戴姆勒10月份的全球销量同比增长15%,再创新高。Dieter Zetsche, Daimlers boss, is confident.对此,戴勒姆现任董事长迪特·蔡澈信心十足。At theFrankfurtmotor show in September he reiterated that his firm can become the worlds top premium carmaker by 2020, helped by the launch of a fleet of new models.9月,戴勒姆公司在法兰克福车展上发布了多款新车,藉此机会他重申到2020年戴勒姆将会成为世界上最顶级高档汽车制造商。Before this years rally, Daimlers shares were roughly where they were when Mr Zetsche took over in 2006, whereas BMWs had doubled.在此之前,戴勒姆公司的股价同蔡澈2006年刚接手时差不多,而现如今宝马股价早已翻了一番。Mr Zetsche has completed Daimlers return to its core business of making premium cars after years of costly errors.多年的错误导向让戴勒姆公司付出了惨重的代价,蔡澈让公司重新回到其核心业务,即豪华汽车上。An attempt in the 1990s to turn it into a transport conglomerate, adding planes, trains and even spaceships to the mix, had ended in failure.上世纪九十年代,戴勒姆公司尝试向运输集团转型,增加了飞机、火车、甚至宇宙飞船制造业务,但却以失败告终。Mr Zetsche presided over the demise of Daimlers stab at becoming a global car giant by merging with Chrysler and allying with Mitsubishi and Hyundai.蔡澈接任戴勒姆公司董事长后便朝着全球汽车制造巨头的方向迈进,先同克莱斯勒公司合并,后又同日本三菱及韩国现代强强合作。He sold the American carmaker at a spanking loss, the year after he took over. Fiat ofItalynow controls it.接任戴勒姆董事长后,在面临巨大损失的情况下,蔡澈于同年将克莱斯勒出售给了意大利菲亚特。These activities had distracted Daimler from the business of making classy cars.这一系列事件分散了戴勒姆公司制造高档车的精力,The entry-level A Class, introduced in 1997 and intended to induce a new generation to the Mercedes brand, was a flop; Smart, a frugal city car, was a financial disaster.公司1997年开始发布的入门级车奔驰A系列,随后尝试引入新款,却以失败告终。奔驰微型都市车Smart堪称公司的财务灾难,A dull mid-range E Class failed to meet buyers expectations of a luxury barge.毫无生气的中档E系车同样未能达到卖家对奢侈汽车的预期。Worse still, the reliability of its cars fell and its reputation for engineering excellence waned.更糟糕的是,奔驰车性能可靠性降低了,其卓越的设计能力也在减退。In the past couple of years Daimler has issued profit warnings even as pricey cars have prospered, outgrowing the market as a whole.在过去的两年,尽管高档车销量不俗,优于市场整体情况,但戴勒姆仍旧发布了盈利警告。Mercedess image as a car for the grey-haired has held it back.梅赛德斯作为老年人车型的形象阻碍了公司的发展,By concentrating its efforts on saloons, it missed out as BMW and Audi grabbed a share of the hottest new part of the market—SUVs.过分注重车展又让其错失了市场新宠—SUVs,而宝马、奥迪却抓住了这一良机。Meanwhile those competitors also stretched the definition of a premium-segment car by introducing luxurious smaller models.与此同时,通过引入豪华小型车,这两大竞争对手又拓展了高档车的定义。Daimler is now trying to put that right with its new models.现今,戴勒姆正尝试引入新款车型以扭转局面。The new GLA, launched at Frankfurt, and a GLK, set for the roads in 2015, will at last give smaller BMW X Series and Audi Q range SUVs some serious competition.今年,奔驰在法兰克福车展上发布了GLA,而GLK将于2015年面世,此举至少会为宝马X系及奥迪Q系SUVs带来巨大竞争。In small cars the CLA, a pint-size saloon, is in a niche of its own.小型车奔驰CLA级势必也会占据一席之地,The launch of new models in the range-topping S Class will also boost sales.而作为奔驰顶级的S系新车同样会促进公司业绩。Daimler is following BMW and Audi in making a broader range of vehicles to suit more tastes.戴勒姆紧随宝马、奥迪的步伐,开发更多车系以迎合更多人的需求。It should improve profitability, which has lagged the consistent 9-10% margins of its two rivals, by reducing its main platforms, the basic underpinnings of its vehicles, from four to two.鉴于戴勒姆的盈利能力已经持续落后其两大竞争对手九到十个百分点,因此该公司真正需要是将平台板—汽车的基础结构—从四个减少到两个,以此提升其盈利能力。More standardisation and common parts, and faster development times for new models, should lower costs.采用更多标准化及通用部件,缩短研发新车时间,同样有助于降低成本。But BMW and Audi have similar plans and may well do a better job.但是,宝马、奥迪也有着类似盘算,或许会比戴勒姆做的更好。Both of Daimlers German rivals have a more efficient workforce that toils for lower pay.根斯坦利称,宝马、奥迪生产效率高于奔驰,且工资水平更低;BMW sells 30% more cars with the same number of workers, says Morgan Stanley, a bank.在相同的劳动力情况下,宝马的销量超过奔驰30%。In China, the worlds biggest market for cars of all price brackets, Daimler arrived late and entered a joint venture with a local firm on unfavourable terms.中国是世界上各档车最大的市场,戴勒姆打入该市场晚于其对手,且在不利的条件下同当地公司开办了合资公司。BMW outsells Mercedes by 70%; Audi sells twice as many cars.宝马在中国的销量超过奔驰70%,而奥迪的销量是奔驰的两倍。But Daimler has now tidied up a messy dealership network in which outlets selling imports and ones selling locally made cars had competed with each other.但是,现在戴勒姆正逐步理顺同当地经销商的关系,中国部分经销商销售国外进口奔驰车,部分经销商则销售中国国内制造的奔驰车,这也就导致了二者之间相互竞争。Now it needs to speed up the opening of new showrooms in smaller inland cities.现在,奔驰需要加快在中国内陆中小城市开设展示厅的部分。Daimlers technology, the key to meeting increasingly strict emissions targets, also lags its rivals.戴勒姆的技术同样落后于两大竞争对手,而这又是满足日益严格排放标准的关键。BMW has left it standing with the launch of its new range of electric cars. Catching up will be hard.宝马的电动汽车系列发布指日可待,迎头赶上势必困难重重。BMW, controlled by the Quandt family, has steady leadership that can back long-term research and development.由科万特家族控制的宝马领导团队稳固,这有利于公司的长期研发。Audi can draw on the vast resources of its parent, VW.奥迪则可依靠其母公司大众旗下的广袤资源。Harald Hendrikse of Nomura, a bank, sees Mercedes, more sensitive to the whims of investors and the quarterly reporting cycle, as more short-termist and conservative.野村券的亨德里克斯认为奔驰更为依赖投资者的兴趣,对季度报告也很敏感,只顾短期利益,且顽固保守。Despite its bumpy ride Daimler still has a strong brand and decent revenues from cars as well as a solid truck, van and bus business.尽管戴勒姆公司遭遇不顺,但其扔有着强势的品牌,而且旗下轿车、卡车、货车及公共汽车带来的收入也不错。And compared with the rest of the global car industry it is nicely profitable.此外,同全球其他车商相比,戴勒姆的盈利能力更好。Critics say that Daimlers bosses are a little disconnected from reality in claiming that the firm will one day lead the pack again.戴勒姆老总称公司有朝一日将会领先群雄,批评人士指责其不切实际。But it is probably a better management ploy than sticking up a sign saying Third-best or nothing.但是,比起死守着唯有第三的口号,这或许是个更好的管理策略。 /201311/264386

  Like a science fiction time traveler, an arctic plant of the late Pleistocene age, over 31 thousand years old, is growing again after a long frozen sleep.就像科幻小说中的时间旅行者一样,一株晚更新世时期的北极植物,在历经了31,000年的冰冻休眠后,现在又开始重新生长了。Narrow leafed campion (Silene stenophylla) is a small plant whose modern relatives are found in eastern Russia and northern Japan. Its a perennial species that grows on stony cliffs or sandy shores. Once a year, it produces five-petalled flowers that range in color from white to pink to lilac.窄叶剪秋萝(柳叶蝇子草)是一种小型植物,它们的近亲目前依然在俄罗斯东部和日本北部地区生长。它是一种在陡峭石崖上与沙地上生长的多年生植物。这种植物每年一次会开出五个花瓣的花朵,颜色有白色、粉红和淡紫色。Russian scientists examining an ancient arctic squirrel burrow recovered ancient campion fruits from the sediments. Curious to see if the fruits seeds might germinate, they planted them. The seeds didnt grow, but the scientists werent discouraged.俄罗斯科学家们通过仔细研究一个古北极的鼠洞,在沉积物中找到了这种植物的果实。科学家们非常好奇种子能否发芽,于是把它们种了起来。种子并未发芽,但科学家们并不气馁。They knew an ancient sacred lotus dating back 1200 years had been restored. Why not the campion? They decided to try growing a new plant from fruit tissue. It had been frozen all those years, so some cells might be viable.科学家们知道一株距今一千两百年的圣莲都可以发芽,为什么剪秋萝就不可以呢?于是他们决定尝试从果肉组织中培育一株新的植物。因为几万年来剪秋萝一直处于冷冻状态,因此就可能有一些细胞存活下来。By bathing the fruit tissue in a culture solution with growth hormones, similar to a technique commonly used to start plants from cuttings, the scientists were able to restart cell division and get several plants to grow.通过将该果实组织浸入在含有生长激素的培养液中,类似于从一株植物上分离出一部分进行培养,科学家能够重新启动细胞分裂,培育出多个新植物。The plants not only flourished, they produced flowers. The flowers went on to produce fruit and seeds that were viable and germinated into a second generation of plants. The ancient campion was given a second chance at life.实验结果是,种子不但发芽长成了一株茂盛的植物,并且还开了花。这些花凋零之后育出的果实和种子能够继续发芽生长出第二代植物。这株远古时期的剪秋萝得到了二次生命。As the earth warms and more and more arctic permafrost melts, larger numbers of ancient plants will be exposed, giving us a chance to bring plants of the ancient past back to life. And who knows, one day we might resurrect a mammoth to eat them.随着地球变暖,越来越多的北极冰冻土壤开始融化,越来越多的远古时期的植物暴露在外,使我们有机会让这些植物重新在现代生长。谁知道呢,也许有一天我们需要复活一头猛犸象,并把他们当做盘中餐呢。201305/241759

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  German politics德国政治The Alternatives astonishing ascent新选项党的崛起As the large centrist parties become more alike, the radical fringe gets stronger大部分中立派议员趋同,激进派边缘增强SINCE reunification in 1990, Saxony has been the former East Germanys biggest success story. As one of Germanys 16 federal states since then, it has been governed continuously by the centre-right Christian Democrats (CDU). Its education system is considered Germanys best. Its economy is thriving, with world-class regional clusters in high-tech and carmaking. So there was never any question that Stanislaw Tillich, the states understated and popular CDU premier, would stay in power after Saxonys election on August 31st. His party won more votes than the three leftist parties combined. With 39.4% of votes, Mr Tillich claimed victory.自从1990年德国重新统一以后,萨克森州已经变成了前东德地区最成功的故事。自那时开始,作为联邦十六州之一的萨克森一直处在中右派的基督民主党统治之下。它的教育制度被认为是德国最好的,高科技与汽车制造业的地域集聚也使得它的经济情况日趋繁荣。毋庸置疑,低调行事且广受赞誉的基民党州长斯塔尼斯拉夫·提里希将在8月31日的大选后继续执政。基民党获得了超过三个左翼政党联盟的持率,34.9%的得票率宣告了提里希的胜利。And yet that result was the CDUs worst ever in Saxony, causing worries as the party approaches elections on September 14th in Thuringia and Brandenburg, also in former East Germany. The left-leaning Social Democrats (SPD) and ecology-minded Greens have reason to fret, too. They all did worse than they had hoped, largely because they lost votes to a populist party to the right of the CDU: the Alternative for Germany, led by Frauke Petry.但这是基民党在萨克森选举历史上最糟糕的结果,导致了他们对同样归属前东德地区的图林根州与勃兰登堡在9月14日政党换届大选的担忧。而左翼党派德国社会民主党与生态主义绿党也有同样的烦恼。他们比预期中做的更糟,很大程度上因为他们票选输给了一个比基民党作风更为保守的民粹新政党—由弗劳克·佩特里领导的新选项党。Founded last year, the Alternative began with only one policy: a call for the orderly unravelling of the euro as a currency zone. To this it has since added other conservative positions, such as opposition to public deficits and gay marriage. In some ways it resembles Americas Tea Party. In Saxony, where it is strongest, it has increasingly emphasised tougher controls on immigration and border crime, often with xenophobic innuendo.去年开始,新选项党遵循的唯一政策:呼吁有序解散欧元经济区。为此,党内开始增加其他保守立场,例如反对财政赤字与同性婚姻。在某种程度上它类似美国的茶党。在新选项党势力最强的萨克森州,它加强了对外来移民与边境犯罪的严格管控,并经常伴有排外情绪。Though still chaotic in its party organisation and evolving in its views—for example, the party is squabbling over whether to criticise Vladimir Putin or coddle him—the Alternative has been rising stunningly fast. It came close to entering the federal parliament last September and succeeded in entering the European one in May. With 9.7% of the vote in Saxony, it now enters its first state parliament. It hopes to do so in Thuringia and Brandenburg, too.即使政党内部观点开展的混乱不堪——比如为了要批评还是要优待普京而争吵——新选项党的依然在迅速成长。在去年九月它尝试进入联邦议院,并在五月份成功进入欧盟接替了一个席位。凭借在萨克森州9.7%的持率,它首次进入州议院并希望在图林根州与勃兰登堡市也能取得同样的结果。The new partys success is causing upheaval in the German political landscape, accelerating the implosion of its only liberal party, the Free Democrats (FDP). With just 3.8% of votes in Saxony, the FDP failed to clear the 5% threshold to enter parliament and was ejected, as it has been from seven other state parliaments since 2011 and the Bundestag last year. For the first time since 1946, the FDP does not participate in any state or federal government. This eliminates the liberals as the CDUs coalition partner, perhaps permanently.新政党的成功引起了德国政坛格局的转变,也加速了德国唯一一个自由党派—自由民主党的分裂。自2011年起它已经相继被其他7个州议院与去年的联邦议会大选“除名”,而今年萨克森选举中,3.8%的得票率让自民党又一次在议院5%持率的门槛前止步。这也是自1946年以来自民党首次未能进入任何州立或联邦政府,这种情况对于基民党的盟友—自民党的消除也许是永久性的。A more positive side-effect of the Alternatives ascent is its cannibalisation of the NPD, a neo-Nazi party.About 13,000 of its voters migrated to the Alternative, causing the NPD to fall 809 votes short of re-entering the Saxon parliament. After that loss, it has seats in only one other state and could fade away, with or without a ban.新选项党的成长带来的积极作用是与民粹政党—德国国家民主党的同类相残。约有1.3万名该党的持者转向了新选项党,缺少809个持票也直接导致了民主党无法重回议会。失败以后,无论同类相残是否被禁止,它在另一个州保留的仅有席位也可能消失。The CDU so far refuses to contemplate a coalition with the Alternative. Led nationally by the chancellor, Angela Merkel, the CDU is pro-European and pro-euro, and so moderate as to be increasingly indistinguishable to many voters from the SPD, with which it governs in a “grand coalition” in the Bundestag. On September 1st Mrs Merkel, Mr Tillich and the CDU leaders in Thuringia and Brandenburg said again that discussions with the Alternative are taboo. Mr Tillich will try to form a coalition with the SPD or the Greens.基民党至今拒绝考虑与新选项党联盟。在德国总理默克尔领导下的基民党是亲欧盟亲欧元的,如此温和的作风让人们越来越难以区分基民党与社民党,同时基民党还在西德联邦议会中掌管着大联盟。9月1日,默克尔、提里希和基民党其他领导人在图林根州与勃兰登堡市再一次表示,与新选项党讨论是被禁止的。提里希将会尝试与社民党或绿党建立联盟。Ignoring the Alternative will not remove it as a problem for the CDU. In effect, the Alternative has in one year become on the far right what The Left is on the left. Descended from East Germanys Communist Party and unreconciled to Germanys capitalist system and its Western alliances, The Left remains strong in the eastern states. In Saxony it came in second with 18.9% of the vote. The comparatively moderate SPD has so far ruled out The Left as a partner in the Bundestag. But their competition splits the left vote and often leads to unproductive ideological bidding wars.基民党的联盟问题不会因为忽视新选项党而解决。事实上,新选项党已经在一年以内成为了极右派,如同左派党是左翼倾向。起源于东德共产党的新选项党,虽然没有与德国资本主义系统以及西部联盟达成一致,但在东部各州实力依然强大。它在萨克森州公投中以18.9%的持率位居第二。相对温和的社民党已经排除了基民党在西联邦议院的左党伙伴。但是他们的竞争使得左派选票分裂,并且经常带来无意义的竞投战。The Alternative will increasingly play the same role on the right vis-a-vis the CDU. On September 1st, Mrs Merkel suggested that, short of negotiating with the Alternative, the CDU must begin dealing with the concerns, rational or not, of its supporters. These range from fears about crime in the regions along the borders with the Czech Republic and Poland, to hysteria about “welfare tourism” by foreigners. The Alternative will be at its shrillest and strongest every time the euro crisis returns to the headlines. This will restrict Mrs Merkels leeway to agree to new rescue packages, or even to ease her austerity drive.新选项党将逐渐与基民党扮演同样重要的角色。九月一日,默克尔建议,由于缺少与新选项党磋商,基民党必须开始解决来自它的持者们关心的问题,无论问题合理与否。持者们关心的范围从对捷克和波兰接壤的边境地区犯罪的担忧,到对外国人“公益旅行”的歇斯底里。新选项党在欧元危机重回一线的每时每刻都表现出尖利强硬的一面。这将限制默克尔的回旋余地,被迫同意新计划,甚至缓和她的紧缩计划 /201409/327426

  

  

  Business商业报道Manufacturing in Serbia塞尔维亚的制造业Balkan legacy巴尔干遗产Fiat goes east to lower costs菲亚特东迁降低成本MASS-MARKET carmakers in western Europe are enduring car sales at their lowest since 1993.畅销的汽车制造商在西欧正忍受着自1993年以来的最低销量。They are losing money on their assembly plants in their home countries, yet politics makes it hard to close them.他们在本国组装厂赔钱,但政策又使得很难将它们关闭。That has encouraged them to seek ways of manufacturing more cheaply in emerging-market states on Europes periphery, to drive down their average costs.这鼓励他们在欧洲国家寻找更便宜的新兴市场的方式来压低他们的平均成本。Take Fiat, which lost 247m in the third quarter of this year.菲亚特在今年第三季度亏损2.47亿。Some 5,700 workers have been put on extended leave in Italy, and even in Poland Fiat has had to shed 1,450 jobs.在意大利约5,700名工人休长假,在波兰菲亚特甚至不得不裁员1,450个工作岗位。But its Serbian operation is expanding, and in just over a year has gone from zero to becoming the countrys largest exporter.但在塞尔维亚业务却不断扩大,并在短短一年多时间已经从零到成为其最大的出口商。Since March, Fiat has taken on 600 new workers and now employs 3,800 at its plant at Kragujevac, a town in central Serbia.自三月以来,菲亚特在塞尔维亚中部的一个小镇的工厂招聘了600名新工人,现在已拥有员工3,800名。Local suppliers to the plant have taken on a further 1,200 recruits.本地供应商的工厂也新招聘了1,200名新员工。Fiat has invested 1.2 billion in the plant, which now turns out 600 of the companys chunky, family-friendly 500L small cars each day.菲亚特已经在这个厂投资1.2亿美元,每天产出600辆耐用的、适合家用的500L小型车。The region was so badly hit in the 1990s by the collapse of Yugoslavia, followed by sanctions and war that it became known as hunger valley.上世纪90年代南斯拉夫解体对该地区造成了严重的打击,再加上制裁和战争使它成为饥饿的山谷。But it had an industrial legacy in Zastava, maker of Yugo cars and Kalashnikov rifles.但它在扎斯塔瓦有一个工业遗产,优吾车和卡拉什尼科夫步的制造商。In 1989, the last full year of the old Yugoslavia, 180,950 cars rolled off the production lines. In 2004 Zastava produced only 13,300 of its ropy models.1989年,老南斯拉夫全年有180,950辆汽车从生产线下线。在2004年却只生产了13,300辆它的ropy型号。What saved Zastava from oblivion was its links to Fiat, which dated back to 1954.与菲亚特的关系使扎斯塔瓦免于被遗忘,这个关系可追溯到1954年。In 2008 the assets of Zastava were transferred to a new company, Fiat Automobili Srbija, owned 67% by the Italian firm.2008年扎斯塔瓦的资产被转移到一个新的公司,位于意大利的菲亚特汽车有限公司SRBIJA拥有67%的股权。Since then, the old Zastava plant has been demolished. In the new one, workers with an average age of 30 move around silently, tapping instructions into computer terminals that control the plants robots.从那时起老扎斯塔瓦厂就被拆毁了。在平均年龄为30岁的新厂里工人在默默地将指令输入计算机终端控制工厂的机器人。The rationale for producing in Serbia is cost: the wage Fiat pays there is a fifth of what it pays in Italy, and a third of what it pays in Poland.在塞尔维亚生产的理由是成本:菲亚特付的工资只有在意大利的五分之一,是在波兰的三分之一。Last November, however, protests from disgruntled workers forced Fiat to increase wages in Kragujevac by 13%.然而去年11月不满的工人迫使菲亚特在克拉古耶瓦茨增加13%工资。The Serbian government subsequently agreed to compensate Fiat for this by paying it 10,000 for each employee it took on—not the first time a government has had its arm twisted by a carmaker into providing subsidies.随后塞尔维亚政府同意为每一位员工补偿菲亚特10000欧元,这不是政府第一次由汽车制造商拧着胳膊为其提供补贴。It also promised Fiat a further 3,000 per car to make cheaper 500Ls for the Serbian market.它还承诺每辆车补贴菲亚特3,000欧元降低塞尔维亚市场500Ls车的价格。France and rival car importers cried foul, and the European Commission ruled that Serbia, a candidate for European Union membership, had indeed violated state-aid rules.法国和竞争对手的汽车进口商哭诉违反规则,欧盟委员会裁定塞尔维亚的确触犯了国家援助规则,而其是加入欧盟的候选国。The car-price subsidy was abandoned but the cash-for-workers one was not.汽车价格补贴被放弃,但工人现金补贴没有。The plant could make 200,000 cars a year but its production will be lower.工厂一年可以生产200,000辆汽车,但其产量将会降低。One reason is that Serbia failed to persuade Russia to include cars in a free-trade agreement struck in 2011.原因之一是2011年塞尔维亚未能说俄罗斯将汽车列入自由贸易协定。Kragujevac has good transport links and is close to Fiats main European markets.克拉古耶瓦茨拥有良好的交通是菲亚特在欧洲的主要市场。The government would like to encourage more such investment, because too much of Serbias measly economic growth since 2008 has been achieved without creating jobs.政府希望有更多的投资,因为自2008年以来塞尔维亚可怜的经济增长创造不了多少就业机会。How annoying, then, that one of the advertisements made to publicise the 500L in America shows the cars arriving as women strip off their outer garments to the cry of: The Italians are coming!讨厌的是在美国做广告宣传500L汽车时妇女脱掉外衣喊叫:意大利人都来了!If only potential American investors knew that these Italians are really Serbs.假如只有潜在的美国投资者知道这些意大利实际上是塞尔维亚的。 /201311/264838。

  But even on its own, a mammoth was still highly dangerous and an attack required stealth and teamwork. Oneof the hunters may have acted as a decoy, distracting the animal while others surrounded it. These huntershad another trick up their sleeve. Using a specially crafted wooden stick called an atlatl, they were able to launch sharp pointed darts more than 40 meters. So we know these people were efficient hunters, but could they really have wiped out all the mammoths of the North American continent?但是就其本身而言,一直猛犸象还是及其危险的,因此猎人们需要偷袭,同时也要进行配合。一个猎人可能作为一直诱饵来分散猛犸象的注意力,而其他人则趁机包围。这些猎人的手里还有另一种武器。他们使用一种称作“梭标投射器”的特殊制作的手工木,这种尖利飞的射程可达40米以上。因此我们知道这些猎人们极具效率,但是他们这能够杀光北美大陆所有的猛犸象吗?Today the remains of mammoths, in particular their tusks, may help answer that question. To the clues contained within these tusks, you need to look at the mammoths’ closest living relative, the elephant.如今猛犸象们的化石,尤其是它们的象牙,可能帮助我们回答这个问题。想要读懂这些遗留在象牙化石中的线索,你需要观察一个猛犸象的近亲——大象。Elephant tusks grow throughout their lives, with the tip being the oldest part. Mammoth tusks show the same pattern of growth as modern elephants. Each year of life is represented by a ring, just like tree rings.大象的象牙一生都在不停生长,尖端的最早生长的部分。猛犸象的象牙和现代大象象牙的生长方式相同。每年增加一环,就像树木的年轮一样。But tusks can also be a record of the most stressful period in an elephant’s life. As bulls mature, they are forced out of the family group and have to fight to survive. During this stressful time, they don’t have so much energy for growth, so the space between each ring is narrower.然而象牙同样也可以反映一头大象生命中的最艰难的时期。当它们成熟后,它们会被强迫离开家庭群体,并且自立谋生。在这样的时期里,它们没有足够的能量维持生长,因此象牙每一环的间距都相对较窄。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201310/262271

  Finance and economics Inflation财经商业 通货膨胀The price is a blight价格是一块心病The rich world, and especially the euro zone, risks harmfully low inflation欧元区,富人世界,正遭受低通胀率的困袭WHEN central banks adopted quantitative easing and other unorthodox means to buoy economies holed by the financial crisis, many feared that the result would be out-of-control inflation.当央行采取了量化宽松政策并采取其他的非常规手段去刺激被经融危机滞涩的经济时,很多人担心这结果会是失控的通货膨胀。Asset prices have certainly soared.金融资产的价格会随之飙升。But consumer prices have not.但消费价格不会。Indeed, the growing fear is that rich countries may be entering a twilight zone of ultra-low inflation.确切地说,这是人们逐渐害怕富裕国家的经济进入一个介于高通胀和低通胀之间的模糊区域。A downward lurch has been most notable in the euro area, where annual inflation dropped from an aly low 1.1% in September to 0.7% in October; a year ago it stood at 2.5%.最显著的下降发生在欧元区,那里年通胀率由一年前的2.5%在9月份掉到1.1%,在10月份掉到0.7%。It is now a percentage point lower than the European Central Banks inflation target of below but close to 2%.现在它的通胀率还是地狱欧洲央行的通胀目标值略低于2%。The ECB lowered its main policy rate to 0.5% in May; on November 7th its governing council, responding to the weak inflation figures, reduced the interest rate further, to 0.25%.欧洲央行在五月份削弱了整体税率政策到0.5%;在11月7号,管理委员会进一步减少利率到0.25%。这个委员会专门负责弱势通胀情况。Elsewhere, too, inflation is low and falling.在别处也是一样,通胀率很低而且持续下滑。Almost five years after the Federal Reserve led the way with quantitative easing, inflation is well below the Feds 2% target.美联储实行量化宽松政策后大约五年时间,通胀率已经很稳定的保持在2%以下的目标。In August this wider measure stood at little more than 1%. Across the G7 economies, inflation has been weak this year and has recently fallen back to 1.3%; a year ago it was 1.8%.8月,这项更宽广的措施让通胀率维持在略高于1%。纵观七国集团的经济,通货膨胀在今年持续弱势并且最近掉到1.3%;一年前是1.8%。Even inBritain, which has the highest inflation in both the G7 and the European Union, the rate has been broadly stable this year.就是英国,通胀今年保持总体稳定,在7国集团和欧盟里,有着最高的通胀率达到2.7%。Slack energy prices have contributed to recent declines in overall inflation.下滑的能源价格对最近整体通胀下滑也有一定影响。That is a welcome development, boosting the purchasing power of both businesses and households.这是一个受欢迎的进展,刺激了购买力,不管是对于商业还是房产。But core inflation, which by excluding the more volatile elements of energy and food offers a surer guide to underlying price pressures, tells a less heartening story.但是核心通胀,它排除了更多的挥发元素,如能源、食品,给物价压力垫定了更厚实的基础,这无疑是令人不那么振奋的消息。Across the G7 core consumer-price inflation has been stuck over the past year at 1.4%.纵观七国集团的核心消费者价格,去年通胀持续卡在1.4%。On the Feds measure it is just 1.2%.在联邦储备系统的调控下,它只有1.2%。And in the euro zone, core inflation has fallen over the past year from 1.5% to 0.8%, matching the record low of early 2010.并且在欧元区,核心通胀率已经由去年的1.5%降到0.8%,与2010年的低纪录一致。One bright spot that has helped to keep G7 inflation from falling further isJapan, where the reflationary drive of Shinzo Abe, the prime minister, is stoking hopes that the past decade and a half of deflation may at last be coming to an end.日本帮助七国集团只住通胀下滑趋势是一大亮点,它的通货再膨胀的驱动者,安倍晋三首相,正使人们燃起希望,过去十五年的通货紧缩可能最终结束。Overall inflation has risen to 1.1%—higher than in the euro area—and core inflation is now at zero.整体的通胀会升到1.1%—比欧元区高—并且核心通胀现在处于0。But the immense difficulty that successive Japanese governments have encountered in trying to escape the shackles of deflation serves as a warning of the danger of letting inflation fall too low.但是历任日本政府所面临的巨大困难是,在尝试避免通货紧缩的桎梏时,不想充当危险警报器,让通胀降得太低。Once people start to anticipate declining rather than rising prices, it can be very hard to reverse their expectations.但一度人们开始预期价格下跌而不是升高,所以很难扭转人们的预期。Abandoning reserve撤销储备金That danger is less acute in Americathan in the euro area largely because the Fed is more proactive than the ECB.与欧元区相比,在美国没有那么严重的危机,很大程度上因为美联储比欧洲央行更有前瞻性。It surprised the markets in September by sustaining quantitative easing at its present pace of 85 billion of asset-purchases a month, rather than starting to curb it.9月,它延续量化宽松政策,也就是每个月不去限制资产购买而是用850亿美元购买资产的步幅,让市场振奋起来。A study by economists at the Federal Reserve, published this week, has fuelled speculation that it may keep interest rates at rock bottom even longer by lowering the level of unemployment at which it will consider rate increases from the current 6.5%.这星期出版的美联储经济学家们的研究结论使投资充满动力,它可能会更久地保持低利率在一个最低点,措施是降低失业率,因为失业会将利率从现行的6.5%提高。By contrast, the euro area looks increasingly vulnerable to a slide into deflation.相比而言,欧元区的经济看起来更容易受通货紧缩的冲击。Although the region emerged this spring from a painfully protracted double-dip recession, the recovery is expected to be a feeble one.尽管,欧元区在经历痛苦而蛮长的双底衰退之后迎来了复苏,复苏的程度仍被预期很微弱无力。GDP will fall by 0.4% this year and rise by only 1.1% in 2014, according to forecasts from the European Commission published on November 5th.根据欧洲委员会在11月5号的展望,今年GDP会降到0.4%,在2014年也只能上涨1.1%。Such weak growth is unlikely to overcome the forces pushing inflation down.这样缓慢的增长不可能扭转让通胀率下滑的颓势。Output will remain well below its full potential next year, estimates the commission; all that idle capacity acts as a drag on prices.委员会分析明年的出口量将很可能持续低迷;所有闲置的生产力将会对价格起到副作用。Unemployment across the euro area will stay stuck at a woefully high 12.2%, which will keep wages down.整个欧元区的失业率会持续卡在令人痛苦的12.2%上,这无疑会让工资水平下降。The strength of the euro will also exert a downward pull.欧洲整体的购买力将会下滑。It has been trading this week at 1.35, more than 5% higher than a year ago; on a trade-weighted basis it is 8% higher.本周它与美元的汇率处在1比1.35,比去年高5%;从贸易加权上看高了8%。Very low inflation in the euro zone makes it much more difficult for uncompetitive countries, predominantly in southernEurope, to regain lost ground.欧元区的极低通胀使无竞争力的国家更加艰难回复兴盛,尤其是南欧的国家们。Workers tend to resist nominal cuts in pay more fiercely than they do the subtler erosion of their income through inflation.工人们怀有抵制心态,他们需要名义上付更多的钱,这样就很微妙地侵蚀了工资额度。If inflation in the countries with which the weak economies trade is high, they can improve their competitiveness simply by keeping their rate lower.如果一个国家里的通胀是建立在脆弱经济和高贸易量上,他们只要保持低税率就可以提高竞争力。That is in essence howGermanygained a big edge in the first decade of the euro.这就是前十年德国在欧洲占有重要地位的关键。But with overall inflation so low, peripheral countries must instead adjust through outright deflation or something close to it, meaning a freeze or absolute cuts in wages.但是整体的通胀率如此低下,小国家们必须作出调整,不能使经济完全通货紧缩或是接近这样。否则就意味着工资的冻结或大幅度降薪。Aly, in September, when euro-wide inflation was 1.1%, prices were falling by 1% inGreece.9月份,整个欧元区通胀率为1.1%,希腊的物价已下跌了1%。They were flat inIrelandand rising by just 0.3% inPortugal.爱尔兰保持平稳,葡萄牙升高了0.3%。A sustained period of deflation would be particularly hard on the euro zones periphery, weighed down by debt.处在欧元区边缘的国家持续的通货紧缩很难抑制,它们被债务拖累;Cyprus,Ireland,PortugalandSpainhave high public and private debt;Greece and Italyhave high public debt.塞浦路斯,爱尔兰,葡萄牙和西班牙哟很高的公共债务和私人债务。希腊和意大利有着很高的公共债务。When prices are falling, debt, which is fixed in nominal terms, becomes more onerous in real terms.当价格下跌时,债务在合约上不变,就会使它们负担更重。Higher inflation, in contrast, makes escaping heavy debt much less burdensome.更高的通胀,相反会让他们逃离沉重债务,减轻很大负担。Central banks have had to move beyond past orthodoxies in order to coax a modest recovery from the ruins of the financial crisis.央行已经超越了正统做法,目的是引导出一个温和的经济复苏,拯救被金融危机破坏的经济。Now, to avoid the blight of stagnating or falling prices, they may have to venture still further into unconventional territory.现在,要避免经济发展的滞涩或是下跌的物价他们可能必须进一步冒险,去探索非常规领域。 /201311/264216

  It’s unlike any other creature that has walked the planet. 它和这个星球上其他的生物都不相同。T-Rex is different. Something about Tyrannosaurs and Tyrannosaurus Rex itself is different than other predatory dinosaurs. “雷克斯霸王龙独具一格。霸王龙以及雷克斯霸王龙和其他的掠食性恐龙是不同的。”But for such a celebrated killer able to take on the toughest creatures of the Cretaceous, some things just don’t add up. It’s slow. With a top speed not much more than 25 kilometers per hour, a T-Rex couldn’t even outrun a fit human. It’s also unwieldy, requiring a full two seconds to make a 45-degree turn. 但是,对于这样一种能够击败白垩纪最难对付生物的著名杀手来说,有些东西也不如人意。那就是它的速度。雷克斯霸王龙的最高速度超不过每小时25公里,甚至没有一个健康的人类速度快。它同样十分笨拙,转一个45度的圈就需要整整两秒钟。If a T-Rex were to fall over while chasing a prey item, it might seriously wound itself. And its hands, with only two fingers are completely useless for gripping prey. 如果雷克斯霸王龙在追击猎物时摔倒,那它将可能受到严重的伤害。而雷克斯霸王龙的前肢仅仅两根手指,这对于抓住猎物来说完全没有作用。After its giant size and its huge teeth, the thing we most notice about T-Rex are its dinky, little arms, these tiny, little arms that can’t even reach its mouth. “研究过雷克斯霸王龙巨大的体型和牙齿后,我们接下来最容易注意到的就是雷克斯霸王龙小小的前肢,这些极小的前肢甚至不能触碰到它们自己的嘴部。”The giant T-Rex is a baffling creature. There has to be more to this killer. How did this giant mouth on legs become the ded butcher of the Cretaceous? Was its raw power, its shark-like jaws, or something else entirely?雷克斯霸王龙体型巨大并充满谜团。它身上一定还有更多的秘密。它长在腿部的大嘴又怎样成为了白垩纪最恐怖的“屠夫”呢?是因为它的强壮有力?它鲨鱼般的大口?还是完全因为其他的原因?Fossils of Tyrannosaurus Rex have been unearthed in the U.S., Canada, and even Asia. For scientists, these discoveries point to one conclusion—this carnivore has little to fear, even from the most well-armed herbivore of the Cretaceous, Triceratops. But to bring down an animal this tough takes more than just brawn, muscle, and teeth. It requires planning and strategy. 雷克斯霸王龙的化石曾在美国,加拿大,甚至亚洲被发掘出。对于科学家们来说,这些发现都引向一个结论——这种食肉恐龙基本上无所畏惧,对于白垩纪防御力最强的食草恐龙三角龙也同样如此。但是,想要击倒像三角龙防御力这样强的动物,仅仅依靠发达的肌肉,牙齿还远远不够。同样需要的是计划以及战略。The T-Rex is highly intelligent. Its cerebrum is one of the largest of the prehistoric world. It has the ability to process sophisticated sensory information.雷克斯霸王龙智商极高。它的大脑是史前世界最大的动物大脑之一。它能够处理复杂的传感信息。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201402/276410

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