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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2018年02月26日 01:20:51
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Traditional societies传统社会No beating about the bush不绕弯子Americas best-known geographer shows what there is to learn from early man美国最为知名的地理学家认为我们应该向早期人类学习The World Until Yesterday: What Can We Learn from Traditional Societies?《昨日世界:传统社会有何借鉴之处?》1 JARED DIAMOND has made a name for himself explaining why some societies do well and others do not. In “Guns, Germs and Steel”, his 1997 bestseller, he brushed aside the arrogant view that ascribed Europes dominance to human biology, stressing instead the continents environmental advantages, notably its native wheat and barley and its easily domesticated animals. He followed this up eight years later with “Collapse”, another exhaustive study, this time about how certain societies caused their own demise by ruining the environs that sustained them. Read together, these are civilisation-scale books about survival.贾雷德戴蒙德因为分析了一些社会运行良好一些社会难以为继的原因而名声大噪。他执笔的《炮、病菌与钢铁》是1997年的畅销书。书中,他对 “欧洲社会之所以运行良好,是因为其主导了人类生物学领域” 这一自负论断不屑一顾,在他看来,欧洲大陆的昌盛是因为欧洲优越的环境特别适合种植小麦、大麦以及饲养家畜。八年后,他奉献了耗时良久的又一力作-《崩溃:社会如何选择成败兴亡》。书中主要内容是介绍一些人类社会是如何毁掉自己赖以生存的周遭环境,进而导致自己灭亡的。两本书都是文明层面上有关人类生存的书籍。But they cover only a small portion of the human story. In his new book Mr Diamond, a geographer at UCLA, points out that life on this scale is a recent phenomenon. For most of history human beings lived in small groups as hunter-gatherers. Agriculture began 11,000 years ago; state government not even half as recently.But Mr Diamond, who has spent years studying in the jungles of Papua New Guinea and learning from local tribes people, argues that mankind retains important links to its distant past and can still learn a thing or two from traditional societies.不过,这两本书中写到的只是人类故事的冰山一角。现任教于美国加州洛杉矶分校地理学系的贾雷德.戴蒙德在他的新书中写到人类今天以这种模式生存只是近代才有的一种现象。在历史的大部分时期,人们一直以类似于狩猎者一样聚居的方式生存,毕竟人类开始从事农业生产的历史也才11,000多年,国家政府也是在近代5500多年前才出现。戴蒙德教授花了八年时间呆在巴布亚新几内亚的丛林里,研究当地的部落居民,得出了这样的结论:人类仍旧与遥远的过去保持着重要的联系,传统社会有很多事情值得我们借鉴。Mr Diamond writes, for example, that most societies have held on to some form of religion as a way of maintaining social order, comforting the anxious and teaching political obedience. Tribal societies in New Guinea rarely, if ever, fight over religious matters. These societies also tend to be more multilingual, helpful for diplomacy perhaps, and as it turns out, also a way of protecting against Alzheimers. There are 1,000 different languages in New Guinea alone. Traditional societies resolve disputes by making do entirely without the state. In stark contrast to the American criminal-justice system, the leopard-skin-draped chief of Sudans Nuer people has no role in settling disputes but works to facilitate mediation and calculate traditional forms of compensation.比如,戴蒙德教授在书中就这样写到:大部分人类社会都保留了某种宗教形式,用于维持社会治安、安抚社会急躁情绪、 维持政治统治。不过, 新几内亚的部落居民却从未因为宗教事务发生过冲突。这些原始的部落使用的语言不止一种, 或许这样有助于人们交往。事实上明,使用多种语言也是防治老年痴呆症的好方法。单单在新几内亚就有1000多种语言。传统社会一般在没有国家机器的状态下,就能解决所有冲突。与美国刑事司法系统截然不同的是,苏丹身穿豹纹皮的努尔部落首领没有权力解决纠纷,但是可以采用传统的计算方法核算补偿,从中进行调停。Other things have changed, not all of them for the better. The gluttonous industrialised world could benefit from a more Palaeolithic diet. Traditional societies have hardly a trace of the Wests main non-communicable diseases, such as heart attacks, strokes, diabetes and many forms of cancer—the hallmarks of a diet rich in salt and saturated fat.Thanks to a cuisine of mainly low-sodium bananas, Brazils Yanomamo Indians consume only 50 milligrams of salt a day. One Big Mac would give them a months worth. Tribespeople who adopt a sedentary lifestyle and eat processed food show a sharp increase in the same diseases that afflict Westerners. A third of urbanised Australian aboriginals suffer from type-2 diabetes, and among the Wanigela in Port Moresby, New Guineas modern capital city, the figure is closer to 40%.很多事情已经改变,但是并不尽如人意。 生活在贪婪的工业社会的人们可以多学学旧石器时代的饮食习惯,相信会受益良多。生活在传统社会的人,几乎没人得过类似于心脏病、中风、糖尿病和多种癌症等困扰西方人的常见非传染疾病。这些疾病是食用含盐量高和脂肪饱和食物的有力明。多亏了食用含钠较低的香蕉,巴西的雅诺玛莫印度人一天食盐摄入量只有仅仅50毫克。一个大苹果,就能让他们大快朵颐。那些习惯了长时间坐着工作、食用加工食品生活方式的部落居民,患上那些困扰西方人疾病的几率聚居上升。生活在城里的澳大利亚原住民,有三分之一患上了Ⅱ型糖尿病。生活在巴布亚新几内亚的现代化首都尔贝斯港的Wanigela人,患该类糖尿病的比例将近40%。Mr Diamond is at his most impressed when it comes to tribal family life. He writes of missionary children who prefer the playgroups of traditional societies that bring together children of different ages to the solitary fixation on games that are common back home. Raising children is a communal affair in which the elderly are deeply involved, unlike what happens in most Western countries. He cites studies that show that an African Aka pygmy infant, for example, is looked after by at least seven people and babies in the Efe tribe by as many as 14.At the same time, he writes, children in traditional households seem to enjoy more autonomy. In the Kalahari the !Kung do not resort to physical punishment; instead children are allowed to slap and insult their parents. And New Guinea Highlander children are encouraged to play with knives and with fire, precisely so that they are able to learn from their mistakes.最让戴蒙德教授印象深刻的是部落的家庭生活。他书中写到,比起一回到家一律死盯着电动游戏的孩子相比,传教士的孩子更喜欢在传统社会的操场上玩,在那里,不同年纪的孩子能在一起嬉闹追逐。与大部分西方国家不同的是,在部落家庭里,抚养孩子是集体的事情,老人是这个过程中绝对的主角。有研究显示,非洲地区的阿卡俾格米矮人族的婴儿由至少7人照顾,埃菲社里的婴儿至少由14个人照顾。他书中就引用了这项研究。同时,他还写到,传统家庭长大的孩子似乎想要更多的自主性。喀拉哈沙漠 the Kung人种不会体罚孩子,相反允许孩子侮辱、打骂家长。为了让孩子可以从错误中切身地汲取教训,新几内亚的高地人鼓励孩子玩火,耍刀。In all this, the authors argument is not that we should abandon our modern way of life—he certainly has not—nor does he romanticise traditional people as earth-loving peaceniks. A tribal life can, after all, be nasty and brutish. Few people live past the age of 50, mostly because of curable diseases. For the !Kung, infanticide has been permitted in order to preserve resources in lean times. Bolivias Siriono Indians abandoned their elderly once they became a burden. North American Crow Indians encouraged them to commit suicide. Tribal warfare may kill far fewer than 21st-century mechanised versions, but there is still a constant fear of raids and revenge killings. And a higher percentage of the population dies fighting.作者这么写,不是说人们应该放弃现代生活方式,他也没有这层意思。他也没有把传统社会生活的人们美化成和平分子。毕竟,部落里的生活是不文明而且残酷的。部落里的人很少有活过50的,大部分死于可以治疗的疾病。在the!kung 民族里,收成不好的时节,为了节省资源,人们可以屠杀婴儿。玻利维亚的西瑞诺娜民族会遗弃拖累族群的老人。北美的客如印第安人鼓励孩子杀人。部落争斗中丧生的人大大少于21世纪机械化战争中死亡的人数,但是部落居民一直都有遭受突袭、仇杀之类的担忧。部落人口中很大一部分死于部落斗争。Nor is subsistence living for the faint- hearted. Shortages can mean starvation. Taro, a tropical-root vegetable, is the staple food of the Kaulong people of New Britain, an island off Papua New Guinea. But in the dry season they are forced to scour the forest for insects, snails and unpalatable plants. Toxic wild nuts must be soaked in water for days to leach out the poison.书中,他也没有说胆小鬼有生存的可能。物资短缺可意味着要挨饿。巴布亚新几内亚群岛附近的一座名为新英格兰的岛生活着卡隆民族,他们的主食就是热带根茎蔬菜芋头。但是一到旱季,他们就得去森林捉昆虫,蜗牛以及不怎么美味的植物充饥。他们还会把有毒的野生坚果浸在水里数日,溶解毒性后食用。Mr Diamonds book is mostly a fascinating survey of a rapidly fading world. Only when it tries to pose as a handbook for tribal living does it fall flat. Comparing traditional strategies for maximising crop yields with modern ways of managing financial investments is more banal than original. Our forebears have been around for a lot longer than we have; learning how they did so should be lesson enough.很大程度上来说,戴蒙德教授的新书是对快速消亡世界的一次引人入胜的探寻。如果把这本书当成部落生活的手册,那么这本书就完全算不上好书。把最大程度上提高收成的传统方法与现代金融投资管理方式相比是一种没有创意而且很迂腐的行为。我们的祖先先于我们存在很久,弄明白他们是如何做到这一点就足够我们学一辈子的了。 /201406/304925

Science and technology科学技术Reusable spacecraft可重复使用的航天器Jet-set rocket-man乘喷气式火箭的乘客A small British firm is working on a nifty new jet-rocket hybrid engine英国一家小公司正在研发一款轻巧的新型喷气式火箭混合引擎ROCKETS are a spectacular way to get into space.火箭是进入太空的一种壮观的方法,But they are also inefficient.但是效率不高。Unlike jet engines, which combine atmospheric oxygen with stored fuel to obtain thrust, rockets must work in a vacuum, and so must carry their oxygen with them.它不像喷气式引擎,能将大气层中的氧和储存的燃料混合以获取推动力。火箭必须在真空中工作,因此必须携带自己的氧。That increases their weight, with the result that a large fraction of a rockets fuel is expended just lifting the rest of the fuel off the launch-pad.那就增加了它们的重量。其结果就是火箭的很大一部分燃料被用来将其余的燃料送离发射塔。Now Reaction Engines, a small British firm, reckons it has a way around the problem.现在英国的一家小公司反应引擎认为他们已经找到了解决这一问题的方法。On November 28th it said it had completed a series of tests of its SABRE engine, a high-tech hybrid of a rocket and a jet.11月28日该公司说他们已对其军刀引擎完成了一系列测试,这是一种火箭和喷气式飞机的高科技结合体。At low altitudes and speeds, SABRE would operate as a powerful, lightweight form of jet engine.在低海拔和低速度,军刀靠一架强大的轻型喷气式引擎推动。At higher speeds and altitudes, it would switch to internal oxygen and act as a rocket.在更高的速度和高度时,它将切换使用内部携带的氧,像火箭一样工作。By cutting the amount of oxygen a spacecraft needs to carry, this engine may at last allow aerospace firms to build a truly reusable winged space-plane that can fly into orbit and then glide back to land on an ordinary runway.通过减少航天器需要携带的用氧量,这种引擎最终或许可以让航天公司建造一种真正可以重复使用的有翼航天飞机,它既能飞入太空,又能滑回地面,在普通跑道上着陆。That would be a big advantage: all modern rockets are single-use machines. Reaction Engines reckon that its Skylon concept vehicle could, by contrast, undertake a flight every couple of days, slashing the cost of space flight.这将会是一个巨大的进步:所有的现代火箭都是单次使用的机械,而反应引擎认为自己的天龙概念航天器与此不同,它们可以每隔几天飞行一次,大大降低了太空飞行的费用。The key to the engines performance is a small, light and powerful heat exchanger, designed to cool incoming air, which, at high speeds, will be heated by friction to around 1,000.这种引擎的关键在于一个小型、轻质而强大的热交换器,用来将进入的空气冷却。在高速状态下,这些空气由于擦温度会升高到1000左右。The heat exchanger will bring the air down to around 150.这种热交换器将把这些空气的温度降到零下150度左右。Among other benefits, that removes the need for the sort of heavy-duty construction that would otherwise be required to stop the engine from melting, helping to save precious weight.这会带来很多好处,其中包括不再需要建造用来防止引擎熔化的高负荷结构,从而减轻了重量,而重量对一个航天器来说非常关键。Space cadets may object that they have heard this all before.航天新手们也许会反驳说他们之前已经听说过这些。Spaceplanes are a long-held dream of aeronautical engineers, and the SABRE engine is a development of an abortive British spaceplane project called HOTOL, undertaken in the 1980s by Rolls-Royce and British Aerospace.航天飞机很久以来就是航天工程师们的一个梦想,而军刀引擎是从被放弃了的英国航飞天机项目HOTOL发展而来。该项目1980年代由劳斯莱斯和英国航天承担。But SABRE has survived close scrutiny by the European Space Agency, which could find no show-stopping problems, and has performed well in extensive ground tests.但是军刀已经通过了欧洲航天局的严格审查,他们并未发现任何大问题,并且在更多的地面测试中表现良好。Nor is space travel the only possible application: the firm talks of the military and civilian uses of a Mach five air-breathing aircraft, as well as the potential usefulness of its compact, ultra-light heat exchangers for earthbound applications.太空旅行并不是唯一可能的应用:该公司谈到对一种5马赫喷气式飞机的军事和民事应用,以及小型的、超轻型的热交换器在地面项目中的应用。 /201312/270270

Its one of the most painful aspects of starvation to witness: the stomachs of children who are dying appear ridiculously swollen. 饿死看起来最痛苦的一点是:即将死去的孩子的胃竟然是肿的。Its as if the body plays an unbelievably cruel joke on itself, causing the starved to resemble people whose bellies are large from over-eating. 就好像是身体在和自己开了一个难以置信的又残酷的玩笑,将那些饥饿的人与暴饮暴食将肚皮撑大的人作类比。Is there a connection? In fact the two instances -- starvation and overeating -- only resemble each other in a superficial way. 这有联系吗?事实上,这两个实例——饥饿和暴饮暴食——表面上看起来是平等的。The belly of an over-eater looks the way it does due to a build-up of fat cells, also present on other areas of the body. 一个暴饮暴食者的肚皮看起来就像是由脂肪细胞撑起来的,而且也会显现在身体的其他部位。The starvation belly stands out in painful relief against emaciated arms, legs, and face, and will appear more taut and inflexible. 而饥饿者则表现出痛苦的体态特征,瘦弱的胳膊,腿和脸,而且会显得紧绷又呆板。Thats because the belly on a starving person has nothing to do with fat. Rather, it is often the result of Protein Calorie Malnutrition, or PCM. 那是因为饥饿者的胃与脂肪无关,相反,那通常是热能营养不良所导致的,或者说叫PCM。PCM means a healthy number of calories are being eaten -- say in the form of rice -- but with a severe deficiency in protein. PCM意味着被吸入的有益于身体健康的卡路里含量——只以大米为食——但严重缺乏蛋白质。This is often the case in third-world countries where meat and fish are rare or too expensive for many. 在第三世界经常会出现这种情况,在那里肉和鱼是很少见的或者说对很多人来说都是负担不起的。Even in a healthy state, the blood vessels and organs leak fluids a little. 甚至在身体健康的时候,血管和器官也是会泄露一点点液体的。This is generally no problem, as the lymphatic system removes the excess, and a little fluid cushioning the organs is a good thing. 这通常是没有问题的。因为淋巴系统会将剩余部分移除,而且器官中含有一点缓冲液是有好处的。In PCM, however, the lymphatic system cant keep up with the leakage, and the stomach area begins to bloat with its own waste fluids. 热能营养不良的时候,通常是淋巴系统的补救速度赶不上排泄速度,从而胃里会残留废弃液体并开始肿胀。Add to this the likelihood of a swollen liver, which is another result of PCM, and you wind up with the terrible irony of a person on the verge of starvation looking weirdly similar to an overeater. 再加上肝脏肿大的可能性,那是导致热能营养不良的另一个因素,而你最终会感觉那是一个处饥饿边缘的可怕的具有讽刺性的一个人,而他看起来又像是一个暴饮暴食者。201308/253344

  Lexington莱克星顿Dreamy footsoldiers of the Left左派步兵,如痴如梦Some Democrats havent noticed that the next election is this year, not 2016一些民主党忽视下一场选举近在今年,而不是2016ELECTION fever grips the American Left. A mood of scrappy, let-us-at-em impatience unites such gatherings as Netroots Nation, an annual shindig which this year drew thousands of activists, organisers, bloggers and candidates to Detroit from July 17th-19th. Unfortunately for the broader Democratic Party, the election that inspires the grassroots is the 2016 presidential race. The mid-term congressional elections, which will happen much sooner (in November this year), provoke a more muted response, even though there is a good chance that Republicans will seize the Senate and cripple the rest of Barack Obamas presidency.选举的风潮波及美国左派。但像网根国民大会这样的组织已经躁动不安,火急火燎,它每年纵情狂欢,今年7月17日到19日更是吸引了成百上千的激进分子,组织者,部落格和竞选者至底特律,然而对于包揽更广的民主党来说,真正让草根阶层精神抖擞的却是2016年的总统选举,即使11月的国会中期选举在即,共和党很有可能纵览大局,其余民主党席位也岌岌可危,他们却是缄默不语。The kind of people who attend Netroots Nation are passionately and uncompromisingly left wing. Their champion is Senator Elizabeth Warren of Massachusetts, a former professor who crusades against “big banks”, “powerful corporations” and their enablers on the Right. “The game is rigged,” thundered Ms Warren, whose demands include more generous Social Security benefits (pensions) for the old (paid for with steep tax hikes), cheaper student loans, a higher minimum wage and other forms of redistribution. Not for her the business-friendly centrism of the Clinton clan. Hillary Clinton did not attend Netroots Nation, instead giving a TV interview in which she suggested that a bit of economic growth might make it easier to curb inequality.网根国民议会的参与者热情高涨,是不进油盐的左翼人士,他们拥护马塞诸塞州议员伊丽莎白沃伦,她是前任教授,反对大,有权势的的企业以及他们右派的柱,她怒喝道:”这种竞争无异于徇私舞弊。她要求给予老年人更优厚的社会保险(给老年人的养老补贴通过赋税急剧增长来买单),更便宜的学生贷款,更高的最低工资标准和其他形式的重新分配,对克林顿集团亲商界的温和主义路线嗤之以鼻,希拉里克林顿并未加入网根国民议会,她在电视访谈中说,经济一点点的增长,会使得缓解社会不公的工作更易进行Sweet dreams are made of this美梦何所在Ms Warrens warm-up act was Gary Peters, a local congressman who, unlike Ms Warren, is running for election this year. Mr Peters, a moderate ex-banker, is trying to win a Senate seat that Democrats desperately need to win but might not. He could use some grassroots support, but the crowd barely noticed him. They were too happy chanting “Run Liz, Run!” or waving “Elizabeth Warren for President” boater-style hats (“theyre fun, theyre old-timey,” said a hipster handing them out). Ms Warren says she is not running for the White House. No matter. Some 100 days from an election that could condemn Mr Obama to near-impotence, some progressives prefer to daydream about President Warren, “who wont stand for all the Wall Street bullshit”, to e a new (endearingly terrible) folk song by her supporters.沃伦小试牛刀的对手是加里比德斯,与沃伦不同,这位地区议员今年参加选举,他是一位温和的前家,尝试赢得一个民主党亟需的席位但可能不会成功,他能依赖一些草根阶层的持,但基本为大众所忽视,他们乐意高呼:冲吧,利兹,向前冲!或者挥舞着硬草帽,上面标着“伊丽莎白沃伦竞选总统”的字样,(一个赶时髦的人说“这种复古的帽子十分有趣”)沃伦说她不打算竞争入驻白宫,这并无大碍,距离100天的中期选举,足以将奥巴马贬到一文不值,一些进步人士梦想着总统沃伦,她的持者在新的民谣中唱道“她不会持华尔街的所有扯谈。”The Democrats footsoldiers can ill afford to daydream in 2014. Even as digital technology transforms elections, recent research shows that flesh-and-blood volunteers tend to trump paid advertising. Candidates need supporters to sway their friends and neighbours. This “ground war” is most crucial, for both sides, in the half-dozen swing states where Senate races could go either way. The trouble is, these states are quite conservative. So the Democrats running for office there often have views on guns, coal or fracking that appal progressives, who are therefore reluctant to knock on doors for them.民主党派没有在2014年做白日梦的资本,最近调查显示,即使在电子科技引领大选变革的今天,这些有血有肉的志愿者仍出资在广告上浓墨重,竞选者需要持者说他们的邻居朋友,这场“地面战”对于双方尤其重要,因为6个摇摆州的竞选走势难以预测,问题是,这些州趋于保守,而民主党人通常在,煤,水力压裂法等进步问题上持有一家之言,很难打开这些州选民的心扉。Like the Republicans with their Tea Party zealots, the Left must choose between purity and pragmatism. MoveOn, a lefty campaign behemoth which claims 8m members, has endorsed only nine Senate candidates so far in this election cycle, conspicuously excluding centrists in tight races in Georgia, Kentucky and Louisiana. The group will “sit out” some races; its members have drawn a “bright line” against endorsing senators who voted against increased background checks for gun-owners, for instance. In 2014 that rules out Mark Begich in Alaska and Mark Pryor in Arkansas.正如共和党与茶党狂热者意气相投,左派也必须在纯洁和实用主义之间作出选择,左派竞选巨头MoveOn声称说8m成员在竞选中只认可了9名议员竞选者,很明显让乔治利亚,肯塔基和路易斯安娜州激烈竞选中的温和派吃了闭门羹,这一组织在部分竞争中坐看好戏,例如与那些拒绝增加背景调查的议员划清界限,2014年,阿拉斯加的马克贝吉奇和阿肯色的马克普瑞被列入这一黑名单内。Another group, the Progressive Change Campaign Committee (PCCC), whose members raised over .7m for 2012 candidates, calls itself “the Elizabeth Warren wing of the Democratic Party”. Its leaders can sound Tea Party-ish, declaring that “ideology” matters as much as finding candidates who can win. The PCCC has invested in such hopeless causes as the Senate race in South Dakota to demonstrate the power of “anti-corporate” messages delivered by the Democratic candidate there. Several leftish groups think the mid-terms are a chance to show that economic populism is the best way to woo unhappy voters, nationwide.另一组织名叫渐进式改变运动委员会,该组织成员在2012年为竞选者募集了超过270万美元,自称是“民主党伊丽莎白沃伦之翼”,其领导者论调听起来有些茶党化,声称意识形态和找到必胜的候选人一样重要,这一组织也曾做了些无用功,如通过投资南达科他州的议员选举,以彰显该地民主党候选者抵制大企业声音高亢,一些左派组织认为中期选举是展示经济民粹主义在取悦全国选民方面,不失为最佳方式。Yet Tea Party parallels are imperfect. Flinty conservatives often scoff that moderate Republicans are no better than Democrats. Progressives are different: many think that Republicans are wicked. That pushes their leaders, at least, towards pragmatism. “We may have to compromise on some things [to beat the Republicans],” says a boss at Democracy For America (DFA), a group founded by Howard Dean, a former Vermont governor and presidential hopeful who claimed to represent “the Democratic wing of the Democratic Party”. Take Alaskas embattled senator. To DFA, Mr Begich has been “terrible” on oil and gas and “not good” on guns. But he is “fantastic” on inequality. In Louisiana local DFA members are holding their noses and helping a pro-oil Democrat, Senator Mary Landrieu. Ultimately, DFA vows to be “all over” any race that might decide the fate of the Senate. Should Democrats lose in 2014, blame candidates “who didnt run on expanding Social Security or [raising] the minimum wage,” insists Charles Chamberlain, DFAs executive director.但茶党也不尽完美,强硬的保守党人常责备温和的共和党人比民主党人好不到哪儿去,但进步人士的观点不同,他们的很多认为共和党人十分邪恶,这至少驱使他们的领导者倾向于实用主义,一位领导者在民主美国组织上说,我们必须在部分问题上做出妥协以打败共和党人,这一组织是由前佛蒙特州长哈沃德迪安创立的,他可能会成为“民主党民主翼”的代表,击败阿拉斯加州四面楚歌的议员。对民主美国组织而言,贝吉奇在问题上的表现糟糕,在石油天然气上尤差,却在社会不公问题上异想天开。路易斯安娜州地区组织成员极不情愿的帮了一位持石油使用的民主党人玛丽朗德里厄,但最终他们还是发誓将在任何决定其命运的竞选中取得压倒性优势。该组织行政官查尔斯张伯伦说,如果民主党派在2014年大选中铩羽而归,责任就在那些不愿增加社会保险和最低工资的竞选者身上。Both DFA and the PCCC plan to use digital wizardry to help members place campaign calls to districts across the country: a nifty trick in places where members despise their own partys local candidates. MoveOn tells activists that saving the Senate is the “most important priority” of 2014, reminding them that Mr Obamas ability to nominate judges is in the balance. Over on the centre-ground, Ready for Hillary, a group working to rally a volunteer army for Mrs Clintons use (should she choose to run in 2016), will “amplify” any 2014 endorsements made by their heroine, instantly urging supporters to lend a hand to that campaign.民主美国和渐进式改变运动委员会计划使用数据技术将竞选推及全国各区,但对于那些对本区竞选者嗤之以鼻的人来说,这种伎俩口惠而实不至,MoveOn告诫激进分子保留议员席位是2014年的当务之急,提醒他们说奥巴马提名法官的能力已被架空。在中部阵营,一组织正在为克林顿招兵买马,一旦她决定参加2016年大选,便为之所用,他们将大肆宣扬这位“巾帼”在2014年所作出的任何承诺,不断要求持者助竞选一臂之力。On current showing, many will ignore such calls to arms in 2014. Despair with Mr Obama and this Congress may be part of the explanation. Progressive footsoldiers are waiting for the scrap that really interests them: a fight to drag the Democratic Party leftwards to victory in 2016. Republicans, who have plenty of problems of their own, cannot believe their luck.当下局势是,很多人都忽视了2014年为自身阵营添砖加瓦的号召,对于奥巴马和本届国会不屑一顾是原因之一,进步人士循其兴趣伺机而动,等待2016年将奥巴马和民主党一举拿下的完胜。共和党人自身弊病颇多,不敢靠运气行事。 /201408/317300

  Veins are pretty important.血管相当的重要。After all, they carry blood fromvarious parts of the body to the heart.毕竟,它们从身体的各个部分向心脏运输血液。But for all their significance, veins are modest, too.虽然很重要,但血管也很谦逊。Yoursare probably content to work behind the scenes, tucked away beneath the skin.血管甘愿在幕后工作,在皮肤下默默运输血液。Sometimes, however, veins take center-stage and become visible as blue lines on the skin, oftenresembling an unmarked roadmap.然而,有时候血管成为主角,在皮肤上可以看到蓝色的线,很像未被标记的地图。If you havent guessed by now, were talking about varicoseveins.如果你还没有猜到,我们讨论的正是静脉曲张的血管。Have you ever wondered what are they are and how they form?你是否想知道它们是什么并怎样形成的?Basically, a varicose vein is one that is twisted and filled with backed-up blood.通常,静脉曲张的血管充满回流的血液并因此扭曲。Although they mostcommonly occur in the legs, varicose veins can also happen in the esophagus, testes and theurinary bladder.它们不仅多见于腿部,也会表现在食管、睾丸、膀胱上。Varicose veins in the legs occur when the valves in a vein near the surface of the skin malfunction.当皮肤表面下的血管的阀门不起作用时,腿上的静脉曲张开始显现。Valves usually keep blood from flowing backwards in the vein once its been pumped towards theheart.阀门的作用是防止有心脏送出的血液回流。When the valves dont work properly, blood gets stuck, causing the vein to swell and kink.当阀门不正常工作时,血液不能流动,导致血管膨胀和扭结。Although varicose veins are usually associated with senior citizens, not every older person hasthem.虽然静脉曲张多发生在老年人身上,但是不是每个老年人都患有这种病。Weak valves are often inherited, and can also be caused by wearing clothing that squeezesthe legs and veins too tightly.脆弱的阀门通常是遗传的,或者身上的衣把腿和血管勒的太紧导致的。Varicose veins may seem unsightly, but theyre not usually a cause for major concern.静脉曲张是很难看的,但是它们通常不会引起强烈的关注。Still, if youhave them and want to do something about it, talk to your doctor.然而,如果你有这种病并想要治疗,和你的医生聊聊。Treatments range fromwearing strong support stockings to surgery.治疗方法包括从穿修复性的长筒袜到做外科手术。 201403/279990。

  Business商业报道Ad space for equity为股票做广告Air for shares股票时间Could an unusual venture-capital model be taking off?一项不同寻常的风险投资模式能够起飞吗?IN AMERICA, venture capital is plentiful.美国风险资金十分丰富,Not so elsewhere.但是并非所有地方都是这样。In Europe, a handful of companies are helping struggling start-ups with an unusual model:在欧洲,一些公司正以非同寻常的模式帮助那些挣扎的新成立的公司:investing advertising space in them instead of money.投资广告版面而非直接投钱。Start-ups usually get their initial seed funding—a few tens or hundreds of thousands of dollars—from family or friends.新成立的公司通常从家人或朋友那里获得初始的种子资金,通常是数万或数十万美元。A venture-capital firm wont step in until the firm is y to raise maybe ten times that amount.只有公司筹集到了数百万的资金时,风险投资才会介入。In America, intermediate sums tend to come from informal angel investors,在美国,过渡的资金通常来自于非正式的天使投资者,typically entrepreneurs who have made a decent bit of money from their own start-ups and want to invest some in projects they like.特别是由新成立的公司发家且希望投资一些中意项目的企业家。But outside Americas technology hubs, such people are rare.但是在美国科技中心之外,这样的人少之又少。However, start-ups of that size are often making their first baby steps into the market and need publicity.然而,这样规模的新成立的公司通常会迈着婴儿步进入市场并需要广告宣传。Aggregate Media Funds, a Swedish firm started in 2002,2002年成立的瑞典媒体公司媒体公基金集合了15家瑞典媒体提供的广告版面,pools excess advertising space provided by 15 Swedish media companies that are shareholders in the fund,并且以交换股权的形式给予新成立的公司。and gives it to start-ups in return for an equity stake.这15家媒体都是该基金的股东。If the firms do well, they buy back the equity in cash, which goes to the shareholders, with a cut for the fund.如果公司运作良好,他们就会用现金买回股权给予股东,并给基金一份利润。Patrik Rosen, Aggregates boss, says it has made some 120 investments—in both start-ups and established firms that want to advertise a new product or a stock offering—and completed around 80 exits,公基金的老板帕特里克·罗森表示给公司已经做大约120笔投资,都是投在需要为新产品或发行股票的新成立的公司或已成型的公司,并完成了大概80个公司的退市,though he wont disclose how much money has been made.但是他并不会透露赚了多少钱。Similar models have taken hold in Germany.德国也兴起了同样的模式。ProSiebenSat.1, a television company, has been offering other firms advertising in return for equity or revenue shares since , and reported making more than 40m in the past year.德国卫星电视频道ProSieben卫星一台在年就开始以交换股权或股份的形式为公司提供广告,去年盈利超过4千万欧元。A newer fund, German Media Pool, founded a year ago, combines a range of shareholders,成立于一年前的德国媒体基金像媒体公基金一样联合了一批股东。as Aggregate does, so it can offer its start-ups ads anywhere from billboards to TV.从广告牌到电视的任何地方,它都能够为新成立的公司投放广告。基金创始人尼科·华思车的目标是使投资者的钱翻倍。So why is the model not more widesp?为什么这个模式并没有更广泛的应用呢?It may have a bad reputation.可能是这个模式名声不好。Media firms that negotiate barter deals directly dont always do well:协商直接易货交易的媒体公司通常盈利状况不佳:they tend to lack the expertise to invest in start-ups, and the deals may not be transparent.他们通常缺乏投资新成立的公司的专业知识,并且协议可能不透明。Indias largest media firm, the Times Group, which publishes papers such as the Times of India, also owns a media-for-equity firm called Brand Capital, with stakes in around 400 companies.印度最大媒体公司时代集团在发行诸如印度时报之类的报纸的同时也拥有一家媒体换股权的公司,名叫品牌资金,该公司拥有大概400家公司的股份。In , under the name Times Private Treatie s, it got embroiled in controversy after Indias stockmarket regulator censured a group of people for conspiring to bump up the share price of one of its portfolio companies, and a Times Group journalist for midwifing media coverage.年,该公司以时代财产转让契约的名义卷入了一场争议。这场争议源于印度股票市场管理机构严厉指责一帮人串通抬高其中一家成员企业的股价和一位时代集团记者为媒体报道推波助澜。Critics say it is still hard to tell when Indian papers have financial links to firms they write about.批评者称目前仍然很难确定事情根底,因为印度报纸和其报道的公司有经济联系。Hence, Mr Rosen argues, the need for independent, diversified media funds to act as middlemen.所以罗森先生主张独立多样的媒体基金作为中间人。Even then, not all start-ups need ads—some are happy with social media—and many others would rather have cash instead.即使是那是也不是所有新成立的公司都需要广告,有些公司乐意使用社交媒体,而许多公司宁愿获得资金。Still, for some it is just what they need.然而对于一些公司来说这正是他们所需要的。And for the media firms, since the ads would otherwise go unfilled, any return is pure profit.对于一些媒体公司来说,若不投给新成立的公司,一些广告版面也会空白,所以一切收益都是纯利润。 /201306/243323

  Financial data金融讯息Seconds out当!时间到!Is it a crime to give people an early peek at data?将金融讯息提早透露给他人是否违法?Jul 13th 20132013年7月13日MORE than a half century ago the University of Michigan Institute for Social Research created a well-received monthly index tracking American consumer sentiment. Until 2007 it was funded by more than 100 “supporters” who got an advanced look at the results. No one got overly upset by this. Such sangfroid is emblematic of a different era.早在大半个世纪以前,美国密歇根大学社会研究所就曾按月发布“美国消费者信心指数”的跟踪报告,人们反响不错。直到2007年,共有100多位“持者”出钱持这份报告进行下去,回报即是提前得知报告结论。没有人因此太过担忧,人们镇定的表象的原因实则是另一时代的特有标志。In 2007 Thomson Reuters agreed to pay in excess of m for distribution rights to the University of Michigan index. In 2008 the information provider began sending the results out in three bursts—one a general distribution via press release; another five minutes earlier through all its terminals (which means it was reported by Reuters as well as other subscribers); and another a mere two seconds earlier but plenty long enough to be of use to a small coterie of fee-paying high-speed traders.2007年,汤森路透同意花100多万美元,用来拿到密歇根大学指数报告的发布权。2008年,密歇根大学发布报告结果的方式可以称得上是“广、频、快”:一是通过新闻发布作为一般经销渠道;二是提前5分钟发送给其所有的终端接受者(也就是包括汤森路透在内的其他订购者);第三种,仅仅提前2秒发布:别小看这两秒钟,这对一小部分付了钱的快速投资者来说已经不算短了。。Thomson Reuters suspended this third feed on July 8th in response to demands by Eric Schneiderman, New York’s attorney-general, who is conducting an investigation into the distribution of sensitive financial information. “The securities markets should be a level playing-field for all investors and the early release of market-moving survey data undermines fair play,” he said.纽约总检察长埃里克施奈德曼一直在调查敏感性金融讯息的发布情况。7月8日,应他的要求,汤森路透撤去了第三种“小灶”灶台。埃里克说:“券市场应当为所有投资者提供一个公平公正的“游戏”场所,提早泄露市场动态的调查讯息明显破坏了游戏的公正性。”Mr Schneiderman’s definition of “fair play” remains unclear. Why draw the line at the feed for high-frequency traders but not the one to paying subscribers, for example? Thomson Reuters says it uses the same multi-tiered distribution strategy in only one other area, the European release of a purchasing managers’ survey in conjunction with Markit, a financial-information firm. But staggered releases are common enough. The Chicago Business Barometer, another purchasing managers’ index, is distributed by Deutsche B#246;rse, an exchange operator, to paying subscribers three minutes earlier than to the wider world, for example.埃里克对于“游戏公正性”的定义尚不明确。这样说吧,为什么对提前发布给高频交易者设限却对提前发布给订购者却未加干涉?另一个且是唯一的运用了相同多层分销战略的地区位于欧洲,即森路透与金融信息公司麦盖提针对采购经理人调查发布报告协同合作。但是,错时发布是很常见的做法。比如,德意志交易所散发的另一个采购经理人指数——芝加哥商业景气指数,就为付费订购者提供先于外部3分钟的讯息。The involvement of the University of Michigan raises another set of issues: you could argue that information provided by public entities like a state university should be distributed broadly to the public. The university itself contends that the consumer-sentiment survey is just one of many forms of sponsored research that would never be done at all were there not outsiders willing to subsidise it, and that its wide distribution does provide a public benefit.由于事件涉及密歇根大学,这也引发了另外一组问题:人们认为诸如像公立大学这样的公共实体提供的讯息应该更广泛的告知给公众。密歇根大学解释说消费者信心调查只不过是众多接受赞助研究的一项;并且谈到假如没有外部参与订购,这些研究根本完成不了。密歇根大学又声称自己广泛播撒式的发布讯息也的的确确照顾到了公众利益。 /201307/248437Yes,eating organic foods is a great way to reduce the amount of pollutants in your body,选择有机食物大大减少了污染物进入体内,but you cant entirely escapepollution, no matter where you live.但是无论你身在何处都无法一点不受污染的侵害。Persistent organic pollutants, or POPs, are everywhere-in ourfood, soil, air, and water.持久性污染物无处无在—我们的食物、土壤、空气、水。They can travel far distances, so thateven if you live in an area relatively free of the use of pesticidesor industrial processes, pollutants will find their way to you.持久性污染物“跋山涉水”也会靠近你,即使你生存的地方没有使用杀虫剂或工业生产。In many instances, the levels of POPs found far from a source of pollution are significantly lowerthan the levels near the source.远离污染源的污染程度明显比污染源低很多。However, for some POPs, even low levels can be dangerousbecause they resist break down.但是,即使是相对低的污染浓度也可能是安全隐患,因为污染物无法分解,When they get into your body, they stick around, accumulatingin fatty tissues.当进入体内,滞留体内,堆积在脂肪组织。There is a global movement, involving over 150 countries, to eliminate some of the mostdangerous of these POPs, which include pesticides,全球超过150个国家发起运动,坚决杜绝使用一些危害甚大的持久性污染物:包括杀虫剂、industrial chemicals, and their byproducts.Some of them have aly been banned in the U.S.工业化学剂及相关副产品。美国禁止使用其中的一些。201405/300573

  

  

  If you follow football, hockey, soccer, or boxing, then youknow that athletes in these and other contact sports are at constant risk for a concussion.如果你喜欢橄榄球、橄榄球、足球或是拳击运动,那么你就会很清楚这些以及其他接触性运动中的运动员常处于脑震荡的危险境地。Everyseason several football players miss a number of games after absorbing vicious blows to the head.每个赛季都有数名橄榄球运动员由于头部遭受剧烈冲击而缺席接下来的一系列赛事。A concussion is a blow to the head that can result in temporary confusion,amnesia, nausea,dizziness, blurred vision, and loss of consciousness.脑震荡是头部受到撞击而导致的,可能造成暂时性思维混乱,失忆,呕吐,眩晕,视觉模糊以及失去意识。Although a single concussion does not appear to result in structural brain damage or swelling ofthe brain, repeated concussions can cause both.尽管一次脑震荡不会导致大脑结构性损伤或导致脑水肿,但是数次脑震荡可能引起上述两种情况同时出现。Concussions are caused in one of two ways: either by the head hitting a hard surface, or by thehead spinning suddenly.造成脑震荡的原因不外乎是这两种中的一种:头部撞到硬物,或者头部突然旋转。Take, for example, a common incident during a football game.以橄榄球赛比较普遍的事件为例,Thequarterback is hit, falls backwards, and bangs his head on the turf.四分卫触地得分,朝后方倒下,其头部就会猛烈撞击到草坪上。Although his skull stops suddenly upon impact, his brain, floating in cerebral fluid, keeps movingand hits the skull.尽管他的头骨在受到冲击时瞬间会保持不动,但是他大脑内的脑脊液仍然在晃动并不断撞击头骨。Similarly, when a boxer gets hit in the head with a right hook, his head twistsviolently.同样的,当一名拳击手头部受到一记右勾拳时,他的脑袋瞬间剧烈扭转。The skull stops moving, but the brain keeps shaking for a few moments and may brushthe skull.头骨停止移动,但是脑浆却还会震动一会儿,并有可能擦到头骨。The result is a chemical imbalance in the brain.结果是脑部化学失衡。All the neurotransmitters in the damaged area firesimultaneously, causing an overload of chemicals that impair receptors involved in learning andmemory.所有受损区域的神经传递素同时作用,造成脑内化学物质超负荷运转,从而损坏学习与记忆的神经元。The flood of chemicals also constricts arteries, making it difficult for the damaged cells toget the nutrients they need to recover.化学物质过多也会引起动脉收缩,导致大脑受损细胞难以吸收到利于复原的营养物质。Because the brain can take as long as several weeks to recover from a concussion, its a good ideato take a break from contact sports if youve had one.由于脑部需要长达数周的时间来恢复脑震荡带来的损伤,如果你脑部受到撞击最好还是休息一段时间再继续参加此类接触性运动。 201402/277100。

  

  

  This may look like a safari through the African savanna. In fact its a theme park in Florida. And it allows people to experience a world outside their own. In some ways, they are visiting a land from another time. 这可能看起来像穿越非洲大草原的远征队。但事实上,这是在佛罗里达的一个主题公园。在这里,人们可以感受他们生活圈子外面的世界。换言之,他们在参观一片异界大陆。 14 thousand years ago, large parts of North Americas landscape and wildlife were just like the savanna of modern Africa. 14000年前,北美大陆的大部分地区和野生生物就想是如今的非洲大草原With the stretch our imagination, we can still put ourselves in the shoes of the first people who explored that vast dramatic landscape and encountered giants never seen before.随着我们移民的扩张,我们还可以继我们先人的路来继续探索大片未发现的大陆,并会发现很多以前没发现的大型动物。 In this series we have seen how fossil bones and other evidence can provide clues to that distant past, and that evidence has helped to recreate a continent no longer exists, a lost wild new world. 在本系列中,我们已经知道了如何用化石等线索探索哦我们遥远的过去,通过这些线索,我们重新创造在了一个早已不复存在的大陆——一个遗失的野生动物世界。And you can find out more about the wild new world and the wildlife of prehistoric North America right now. Put your questions to the programmes producers, live at www.bbc.co.UK/nature.现在,你可以找到更多有关野生动物新世界以及史前北美野生动物的信息。将你的问题发给我们节目的主编,请登录www.bbc.co.UK/nature。英文文本来自普特英语,译文属未经许可不得转载。201401/273844

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