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2017年12月12日 23:50:21来源:天极滚动

LONDON — One arm of the European Union is looking into whether Facebook and other tech companies unfairly favor their own services over those of rivals. At least five data protection watchdogs across the region are questioning Facebook’s privacy settings.伦敦——欧盟的一个分机构正在对Facebook等科技公司进行调查,看它们是否让旗下的务获得了相对于竞争对手的不正当优势。该地区有至少五家数据保护监管机构正在对Facebook的隐私条款提出质疑。And in a case that could have broad implications for many tech companies, the region’s top court will issue a preliminary decision next month on whether Facebook can continue transferring user data between Europe and the ed States.这个案子可能对许多科技公司产生广泛影响。欧盟的最高法院将于下个月公布关于Facebook能否继续在欧洲和美国之间传输用户数据的初步裁决。Move over, Google. Facebook is the latest American tech giant that Europeans love to hate.靠边站吧,谷歌(Google)。Facebook才是欧洲向美国科技巨头发难的最新目标。For decades, European policy makers have taken aim at America’s giant tech businesses, trying to force them to play by European rules. In the past, Microsoft and Intel were found guilty of abusing their dominant positions to shut out rivals. Google has most recently been under the microscope, and it now faces accusations that it unfairly promoted some of its search products over those of competitors.数十年来,欧洲的决策者一直把矛头指向美国的大型科技公司,试图强迫他们按照欧洲的规则行事。过去,微软(Microsoft)和英特尔(Intel)曾被判定利用自身的垄断地位打压对手。到了近期,是谷歌在接受严格的审查,眼下还面临着以不正当手段盖过对手来推广自己的搜索产品的指责。In recent months, though, regulators’ gazes have turned to Facebook, raising questions about whether the social network has learned from the past mistakes of companies like Intel, Microsoft and Google when dealing with Europe’s policy makers and its legal system. And as Facebook runs into an increasing number of regulatory hurdles here, the scrutiny could potentially distract the company from its ambitions of becoming a one-stop shop for Internet messaging, online publishing and digital advertising.然而最近几个月,监管机构把视线转向了Facebook,对这家社交网络提出了质疑:在面对欧洲的决策部门和法律体系时,它是否从英特尔、微软和谷歌等公司过去的错误中吸取了教训?随着Facebook在欧洲遭遇越来越多来自监管方面的障碍,这些严密审视可能会分散公司对提供包括网络即时通讯、在线出版和数字广告在内的一站式务的注意力。“Platforms like Facebook have grown quickly to become global forces,” said Serafino Abate, a director at the Center on Regulation in Europe, a research organization in Brussels. “But with that size comes responsibility.”“Facebook这样的平台已经迅速成长为全球性力量,”布鲁塞尔研究机构欧洲监管中心(Center on Regulation in Europe)的一名主管塞诺·阿巴特(Serafino Abate)说。“但是规模越大,责任也越大。”The scrutiny is mounting as the company’s messaging and digital advertising services sp globally. More than 1.4 billion people now use Facebook, and hundreds of millions of people also rely on the company’s mobile messaging services, WhatsApp and Facebook Messenger, and its photo-sharing service, Instagram.Facebook的即时通讯和数字广告务在全球范围扩张的同时,它遭遇的监管也在不断加强。目前有超过14亿人使用Facebook,还有数亿人使用这家公司的移动即时通讯务WhatsApp和Facebook Messenger,以及照片分享务Instagram。Facebook’s core business, its social networking service, is especially popular in Europe. The company has almost doubled its number of European users to the service, to around 260 million, since 2010. Facebook also has more users in Europe than in the ed States, according to eMarketer, a research company.Facebook的核心业务——社交网络务——在欧洲尤其受欢迎。自2010年以来,该公司在欧洲的用户人数几乎翻了一番,达到2.6亿左右。根据调研公司eMarketer的数据,Facebook在欧洲的用户人数要多于美国。Regulators in Europe, however, are especially focused on how the company collects and handles those users’ data. The region has some of the world’s toughest data protection rules, and policy makers from France, Germany and Belgium are investigating whether Facebook broke Europe’s laws after the company announced a new privacy policy this year.然而,欧洲的监管机构主要关注的是这家公司搜集和处理用户数据的方式。该地区拥有世界上最严苛的一些数据保护规定。在Facebook今年宣布了一项新的隐私政策之后,法国、德国和比利时的决策机构正在调查它是否违反了欧洲的法律。If found to have breached the privacy rules, Facebook may face fines or demands that it change how the company handles people’s data, though the company says it complies with the region’s data protection laws.如果被认定违反了隐私方面的规定,Facebook可能面临罚款,或是接到更改公司处理用户数据的方式的指令。不过公司表示,自己遵守了欧盟的数据保护规定。“Obviously, there are privacy issues,” said Mathias Moulin, deputy director of enforcement at the French data protection regulator, who is overseeing the watchdog’s review of the company’s activities and who will meet other regulators at the end of May to discuss the investigations. “This is a global company. Facebook affects millions of people across Europe.”“显然,Facebook存在隐私方面的问题,”法国数据保护监管机构的执法副主任马蒂亚斯·穆兰(Mathias Moulin)说。他正在负责这家机构对Facebook行为的审核,并将在5月底与其他监管机构的人员见面,讨论调查结果。“这是一家全球性的公司。Facebook影响着欧洲的上亿人。”Taking a page from the playbooks of other American tech companies, Facebook has not stood idle as regulators steadily lined up against it.在监管机构纷纷发难之际,Facebook并未坐以待毙,而是借鉴了其他美国科技公司的经验。The company has hired a number of prominent former lawmakers and regulators, including Erika Mann, a former German member of the European Parliament. This month, the company also chose Kevin Martin, a former chairman of the Federal Communications Commission, to champion its cause in Washington, Brussels and beyond.Facebook聘请了多位重量级的前任议员和监管者,包括曾在欧洲议会代表德国的议员埃丽卡·曼(Erika Mann)。本月,Facebook还挑选了美国联邦通讯委员会(Federal Communications Commission)前主席凯文·马丁(Kevin Martin)来为公司在华盛顿和布鲁塞尔等地方游说。To get a sense of the European backlash against Facebook, you do not have to look much further than the experiences of Max Schrems, an Austrian law student who has led a vocal opposition to how the company collects and uses people’s data from around the world.要想了解欧洲对Facebook的强烈不满,看看马克斯·施雷姆斯(Max Schrems)的经历就够了。施雷姆斯是奥地利的一名法学系学生,一直带头反对这家公司搜集和使用全世界用户数据的做法。Mr. Schrems, 27, recently said his concern about online data traces back at least to 2011 and a college class in California. In the class, he said, employees of several West Coast tech companies expressed open disdain for Europe’s tough data protection rules, which enshrine a person’s right to privacy as a fundamental human right.27岁的施雷姆斯最近表示,他对网络数据的担忧至少要追溯到2011年,在加州的一个大学课堂上。他说,在那门课上,几家美国西海岸科技公司的雇员公开嘲笑了欧洲严苛的数据保护规定。这些规定郑重其事地表示,隐私权是一项基本人权。After returning to Europe, he began a lengthy campaign against the type of data that Facebook collected on its users, including information on their physical locations.回到欧洲之后,他开始了一项长期活动,抗议Facebook搜集某些类型的数据,比如地理位置信息。To rein in the company’s efforts, Mr. Schrems filed multiple complaints with the Irish data protection watchdog, which is responsible for policing Facebook’s activities in its international headquarters in Dublin. That led to a three-month audit of how Facebook collected data, and changes to the way the company obtained and used people’s online information.为了限制Facebook的做法,施雷姆斯多次向爱尔兰的数据保护监管机构投诉。后者负责监管Facebook设在都柏林的国际总部的活动。这引发了对Facebook数据搜集方式的长达三个月的审核,并且迫使Facebook改变了一些获取和使用用户网上信息的操作。Unhappy with how Ireland’s regulator managed his case, Mr. Schrems intensified his campaign.施雷姆斯对爱尔兰监管机构处理该案的手法并不满意,此后加大了自身行动的力度。He appealed to the country’s highest court, which referred the case to the European Court of Justice, the region’s top court. A preliminary decision is expected by the end of June on whether Facebook and other companies can continue transferring data between Europe and the ed States.他向爱尔兰的最高法院提出了上诉,后者将案子转交给了欧盟地区的最高法院——欧洲法院(European Court of Justice)。该院关于Facebook等公司能否继续在欧洲和美国之间传输用户数据的最初裁决,预计将于6月底做出。Many American tech giants rely on moving online information between the regions to feed their business models, like personalized digital advertising. If the European court rules in favor of Mr. Schrems, those practices could be drastically curtailed.许多美国科技巨头依靠在不同地区之间传输网络信息来撑其商业模式,比如个性化的数字广告业务。如果欧洲法院的裁决持施雷姆斯,那么这些操作或将大大受限。Mr. Schrems also filed a separate Austrian class-action lawsuit against Facebook after collecting more than 75,000 online signatures. He said that the company had violated Europe’s privacy rules — accusations Facebook strongly denies — and that his side could receive up to million if he wins the case. A decision is not expected until at least early 2016.在征集了逾7.5万个网上签名之后,施雷姆斯还在奥地利发起了另一桩集体诉讼。他说,这家公司违反了欧洲的隐私规定——Facebook强烈否认这些指控——如果胜诉,他这一方可以获得至多1400万美元的赔偿。此案至少要等到2016年初才会有裁决。“This is about limiting what Facebook can do with Europeans’ data,” said Mr. Schrems, who remains active on the service despite his legal disputes. “How much should they be allowed to dig into the souls of their users? That’s what we’re fighting for.”“这是为了限制Facebook可以对欧洲用户的数据进行的操作,”施雷姆斯说。尽管与Facebook存在法律纠纷,他仍然是该网站的活跃用户。“应该允许他们在多大程度上挖掘用户的灵魂?这就是我们在努力抗争的问题。”Big European companies are also pushing for stronger oversight of Facebook, including the region’s well-connected telecom industry.欧洲的大型企业也要求对Facebook实行更加严格的监督。这其中包括在该地区颇具影响力的电信行业。After Facebook bought WhatsApp, the Internet messaging service, last year for billion, many of Europe’s cellphone carriers lobbied hard for the region’s antitrust regulators to review the deal. Carriers say that by combining WhatsApp with Facebook’s own messaging service, the company has a virtual monopoly over how people send messages on their smartphones.在Facebook去年以190亿美元收购了网络即时通讯工具WhatsApp之后,许多欧洲的手机运营商进行了大力游说,要求欧盟的反垄断机构对这笔交易进行审核。这些运营商们提出,把WhatsApp与Facebook自身的即时通讯务合起来考虑之后,Facebook基本垄断了用智能手机发送即时讯息的业务。Europe’s antitrust authorities, however, eventually approved the takeover, and Facebook contends there are other Internet messaging services that compete with its offerings.然而,欧洲的反垄断部门最终还是批准了这笔交易。Facebook也坚称,还有其他一些互联网即时通讯务在与自己竞争。Yet lawmakers are now looking into whether Facebook’s messaging services should be regulated like those offered by traditional carriers. And industry executives say that as the social network starts to offer other services like phone calls through the company’s many smartphone applications, Facebook should play by the same rules that now apply to traditional mobile operators.然而,欧洲的议员们目前正在研究Facebook的即时通讯务是否应该受到与传统运营商同样的监管。通讯行业的高管称,由于Facebook已经开始通过自身的许多智能手机应用来提供手机通话等务,这家社交网络公司也应该遵守适用于传统移动运营商的规定。“We can’t forever be living in a world where we compete with one arm tied behind our backs and they don’t,” Pierre Louette, deputy chief executive at Orange, the former French telecom monopoly, said in reference to Facebook. “Our two worlds are colliding. Now that the worlds have met, we’re all competing for people’s attention.”“在竞争中我们的一只手被绑在身后,而他们却不受束缚。我们不能永远生活在这样的世界里,”曾垄断了法国电信行业的Orange公司的副执行官皮埃尔·卢埃特(Pierre Louette)提到Facebook时说。“我们的两个世界正在发生碰撞。既然世界已经相遇,那我们就都在争夺人们的关注。” /201505/377715。

  • Stewart Butterfield, co-founder of Slack, the communication app for office workers that has been growing like a weed, does not mince his words when he discusses the changes to working life caused by smartphones and the sp of cloud software.近来发展迅猛的办公聊天工具Slack的联合创始人斯图尔特巴特菲尔德(Stewart Butterfield),在谈到智能手机和云软件的广泛传播给办公生活带来的变化时,并没有拐弯抹角。Slack represents one response to this trend. It is a chronological flow of team conversation akin to a group chat, or a Facebook news feed. Workers post their contributions — messages, links to websites or files — into this searchable repository, organised into channels.Slack是顺应这股潮流的一个代表。它是一款类似群组聊天或者Facebook信息流功能的群聊时间流应用。员工们将自己贡献的内容——信息、网页链接或者文件——放入这个可搜索的、按频道分类的信息库中。A rival vision is represented by Dropbox, a cloud storage system which also claims to be seeing wide adoption in offices but which puts files, not a stream of chatter, at the centre.而Dropbox——一个同样号称在办公室广为使用的云端存储系统——则代表着相反的观点。不同于Slack,Dropbox的关注点不是聊天信息流,而是文件本身。This view holds that workers will congregate around more static repositories of information, communicating inside or alongside the files.该观点认为,员工们将以更为静态的信息库为核心,在文件内部或者围绕着文件展开交流。Mr Butterfield does not hesitate before delivering a characteristically curt put-down of Dropbox: “They’re probably just wrong.”对于Dropbox的观点,巴特菲尔德没有犹豫,以他特有的不客气简洁回击:“或许他们错了。”If the boss of the hottest new app to enter office life has flaws, a lack of certainty is not one of them.如果这位当前最炙手可热的办公应用软件的老板有什么缺点的话,缺乏确定信心绝不会是其中之一。Slack’s headlong growth suggests he has hit on something, though at less than two years old it is still early. Mr Butterfield says the service has been growing exponentially, adding new users at a rate of about 5 per cent a week. Slack says 1.1m people use its service each day and that it has 300,000 users covered by subscriptions.Slack的急速增长说明巴特菲尔德的观点有一定道理——尽管对于创建不足两年的Slack来说,这样的结论还为时尚早。巴特菲尔德称,Slack的业务呈指数增长,用户量每周增长5%。Slack称每日有110万人使用其务,并有30万名订阅用户。“It’s a much more profound change than people realise,” Mr Butterfield says of the way mobile and cloud technologies are affecting work. “The endpoints are people — not documents, or files, or content, or ‘stuff’ in the generic sense. The number of people for whom data stored in the form of a file is the most important thing is getting smaller and smaller all the time.”“这是比人们意识到的更加深刻的改变,”巴特菲尔德谈到手机和云技术对工作方式的影响时说。“它们的端点是人,而不是文本、文件、内容或者普遍意义上的‘东西’。以文件为主要形式来存储数据的人越来越少。”Thoughtful and intense, as well as flip and dismissive, Mr Butterfield is acerbic at one moment and liable to dive into an extended technical explanation the next.巴特菲尔德言语犀利,傲慢无礼,却又富有见地和热情。他往往这一刻还尖刻地着什么,下一刻却又投入地向人详细阐明一项技术。If devising the formula for a successful viral internet service is like catching lightning in a bottle, he has the distinction of now having done it twice: Flickr, the photo-sharing site he co-founded in 2004 and sold to Yahoo the next year, was one of the first signs of the social media wave that followed.如果说成功设计出一款广受欢迎的互联网务就像用瓶子捕捉闪电一样困难,那么他已经两次完成了这近乎不可能的事:他于2004年与人合伙创建了照片共享网站Flickr,并于次年将其卖给雅虎(Yahoo)。Flickr是后来的社交媒体浪潮的最早萌芽之一。Slack takes its own cue from social networking. But getting the formula correct involves much more than an aptitude for finding the right social chemistry, its boss says.巴特菲尔德说,Slack本身是受社交网络的启发,不过找到正确配方,所需要的远远不止发现正确的社交“化学反应”的能力。It is also about making use of what he calls the “profusion of software” inside companies. With more corporate functions being automated through cloud services — from keeping track of customer orders to monitoring IT systems — Slack is designed to integrate their output into a single stream of communication: a notification could be posted to the stream, for instance, each time a new order comes in or a customer tweets about a product.Slack的成功还在于利用他所称的公司内部“丰富的软件资源”。当前,越来越多的企业职能——从追踪客户订单到监控IT系统——通过云务实现了自动化。Slack的设计意图就是整合企业信息输出,将其汇总为单一的信息流:例如,每当产生新订单或者客户针对产品发tweet时,信息流中都可以发通知。That makes Slack a digital spine for a business, with a single search box for tracking both human- and machine-generated data.这就使得Slack成为了企业中的信息柱。不论是人还是机器产生的数据,都共用一个搜索框,以供追踪。The aim is to create “a positive feedback loop, where the more attention you pay to it, the more it becomes something that saves time in switching between multiple obligations”.Slack的目标是建立“一个正反馈环,你越重视它,它就越能在切换不同职能中节省时间”。The formula has been a hit with venture capital investors as much as with users. Slack has aly raised 0m in its short life, with the most recent funding round putting a valuation on it of .8bn — notable even in the current buoyant funding environment in Silicon Valley.该软件不仅广受用户欢迎,还是风投家们竞相追逐的对象。创立时间不长,Slack的筹资额却已达到3.4亿美元。在最新一轮融资中,它的估值达到28亿美元——即便是在当前融资环境一片大好的硅谷,这也是个了不起的数字。Asked why Slack has raised so much, Mr Butterfield says: “Because we could.” With more than a quarter of its users paying for the service, Slack is “pretty much even on a cash-flow basis aly,” he says.当被问到Slack为什么能筹到这么多款项时,巴特菲尔德答道:“因为我们有能力。”当前用户中有超过四分之一的人付费,“Slack可以说已经建立在现金流的基础上了,”他说道。But stashing away money in the good times could become a competitive advantage in a bust. “I wouldn’t wish a crash on anybody, but the best-case scenario for us is that money becomes harder to get,” he says.不过要趁着日子好过时把钱存好,这样到了日子不好过的时候,这笔钱就会成为竞争优势。“我倒不是希望哪家公司垮掉,不过对我们来说,最有利的情况就是,筹资环境变难,”他说道。To justify the sky-high expectations, Mr Butterfield will have to prove that Slack is more than just the latest faddish office-messaging system. The challenge now is the one that faces all new enterprise software companies with a bright idea: to move fast enough to keep ahead of the copycats, while finding a way to steer between giant competitors that might see Slack as a rival and try to crush it.为了达到外界高企的预期,巴特菲尔德必须要明,Slack不仅仅是一个风靡一时的办公聊天系统而已。Slack所面临的问题也是当前所有新兴的、有着优秀创意的软件公司都要面临的问题:既要快速创新把模仿者甩在后面,又要找到办法在可能视Slack为对手、试图将之摧毁的同行巨头之间周旋。The race to keep Slack’s user numbers growing exponentially turns on overcoming barriers to its adoption. A key product enhancement planned for later this year, for instance, would greatly simplify things for corporate IT departments that want to control the many different Slack group chats that may have sprung up inside their businesses. Slack is also adapting its service to meet different international sensitivities.为保持用户数量呈指数增长的态势,Slack着手破除阻碍用户使用的障碍。例如,Slack计划于今年晚些时候进行一次关键的产品升级。升级后的Slack将大大简化企业IT部的工作,方便其控制企业内同时进行的不同群组聊天。Slack还在调整务以满足不同的国际需求。Avoiding head-on confrontation with the giants of the software industry, meanwhile, means not challenging their own businesses directly. “In this moment now, we have effectively no competition and we’re young and new enough that no one hates us yet,” Mr Butterfield says.同时,要避免与软件行业巨头产生正面冲突,就意味着不要直接向其业务发起挑战。“此时此刻,我们实际上还没有竞争者。我们是年轻的新面孔,还没有人怨恨我们,”巴特菲尔德说道。His plan for keeping it that way is to go broad rather than deep: find millions more users for the existing service, rather than add many new functions that suck in more and more of its users’ attention.为保持当前局面,他的计划是拓宽覆盖面,而不是深化产品功能:发掘更多的客户使用现有产品,而不是增加许多新功能吸引现有客户的注意力。“People are paying us between and 0 a year [per user]. If we can get 100m people to do that, that looks like a pretty good business,” he says.“(每名)用户每年向我们付80到100美元。如果我们能拥有1亿名付费用户,那将是一笔相当不错的生意,”他说道。The biggest danger of all, though, is that some new piece of software will do to Slack what it is trying to do to more established software companies: offer a service that is even more basic and easy to use, and that starts to generate network effects as groups of workers find it slots almost unnoticeably into their office lives.然而,当前最大的风险是出现某种新的软件,用Slack对付那些更老牌软件公司的方法来对付Slack:为用户提供一种更基础、更便于使用的软件,当员工群体发现该软件潜移默化地改变了他们的办公生活时,就会产生网络效应。“The thing I worry about most is someone coming up with something that is much, much simpler but delivers most of the value — like they find the magic formula so that you can get 80 per cent of the value of Slack but with only 20 per cent of the complexity.”“我最担心的是有人设计出一款简单得多,却能实现Slack多数价值的应用程序——好比他们找到了某种魔法配方,其复杂程度只有Slack的20%,却能实现Slack 80%的价值。” /201508/389950。
  • Most mothers and fathers will have wondered what their children will grow up to look like and now a new app could take all the guess work out of the equation.大多数父母都好奇自己孩子长大以后会是什么样子,现在就有一款新的应用软件能够解开这个谜题。The revolutionary software, which was originally designed to identify potential terrorists in busy crowds, has aly been used to predict the future appearance of celebrity offspring including Prince George, Princess Charlotte and Harper Beckham.开发这款革命性软件最初目的是为了识别人群中潜在的恐怖分子,改进之后可以用于预测明星后代长大的样子,比如乔治王子,夏洛特公主和哈珀·贝克汉姆。Now the creator, Professor Hassan Ugail, head of Bradford University#39;s Centre for Visual Computing, has announced plans for it to be developed into an app available for the general public.软件的研发者哈桑·尤格里,也是布拉德福德大学视觉计算中心的主任。近日他宣布,会让这款软件为普通大众所用。It means this innovative technology, which works by blending the child#39;s face with that of their parents, could predict the appearance of the next generation decades in advance.这意味着,这项创新技术可以通过融合孩子和父母的外貌,从而提前预知孩子未来几十年以后的模样。Ugail, who claims the software has an 80 percent success rate, will reveal his future plans at this week#39;s meeting of the British Science Association in Bradford.尤格里称这个软件的成功率有80%。本周在布拉德福德大学举行的英国科学协会上,他将进一步阐述其未来计划。As a way of demonstrating the app#39;s capabilities, Ugail has released some examples for several celebrity youngsters as they will look in years to come. Prince George, Princess Charlotte and Harper Beckham are all imagined at ages two, seven, 20, 40 and 60.在演示该软件功能时,尤格里列举了一些预测星二代外貌的例子。包括乔治王子,夏洛特公主和哈珀·贝克汉姆都被预测了2岁、7岁、20岁、40岁以及60岁的长相。The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge will be glad to see that two-year-old Prince George will still have the same plump cheeks and almond-shaped blue eyes aged seven. He also bears a striking resemblance to his father William - and the software predicts he will maintain his youthful looks well into middle age. However, the royal is anticipated to begin showing his age with wrinkled skin and greying hair as he reaches the age of 60.剑桥公爵夫妇能够开心的看到,他们现在两岁的小王子乔治在七岁的时候依然拥有婴儿肥的脸颊和杏仁状的蓝色双眼,同时他会和他的父亲威廉王子长得很像。软件还预测出他中年时的外貌还会和少年一样年轻富有朝气,然而等他步入60岁,岁月的痕迹越来越明显,这位王子会出现皱纹,头发花白。Meanwhile his sister Charlotte, now six months, will look young and fresh-faced well into her sixties - if these images are anything to go by.与此同时,小王子六个月大的夏洛特直到60岁都会保持年轻的面庞(如果这些预测图片具有参考价值的话)。The Beckham#39;s youngest child Harper, who is four, looks set to inherit her mother Victoria#39;s age-defying complexion as she remains wrinkle-free into middle age.贝克汉姆的小女儿哈珀今年四岁,据软件预测,她继承了妈妈维多利亚的抗衰老肤质,中年的时候依然没有任何皱纹。However with this set of photographs it will be decades, of course, before we can judge the results for ourselves.然而,这些照片展现的都是几十年后的样子,我们现在也无从考。To tackle that issue Ugail said he reversed the process, #39;de-ageing#39; celebrities including Hollywood actress Angelina Jolie, and comparing them with photographs from their childhood. The results, he claims, were #39;striking#39;.尤格里说,为了解决这一问题他会逆推这个过程。他宣称,以那些年纪大的名人为例,包括好莱坞明星安吉丽娜·朱莉,将逆推出的照片与儿时照片对比,发现非常准确。Eventually the smartphone app will mean that parents can predict how their children will look right into middle age, presumably with just the click of a button.最终,这个智能手机软件可以让家长仅仅单击一个按钮,就能看到自己孩子中年时候的模样。 /201509/399250。
  • What a difference two years makes. Back in 2013, Samsung was riding high in China’s smartphone market. According to data from China Confidential, a research service from the Financial Times, a third of prospective smartphone buyers (out of 1,500 surveyed by China Confidential in Q2 2013) planned to purchase a Samsung device, ahead of Apple and other domestic and multinational competitors.两年的变化真大!回首2013年,三星(Samsung)还在傲然驰骋中国智能手机市场。根据英国《金融时报》研究务机构《中国投资参考》(China Confidential)的数据,当时三分之一的潜在智能手机购买者(《中国投资参考》在2013年第二季度针对1500人进行了调查)计划购买三星手机,领先于苹果(Apple)以及其他中国国内和跨国竞争对手。Since then, however, the Korean handset maker’s popularity has suffered a dramatic decline, as it has found itself squeezed from above and below. Its popularity more than halved between Q2 2013 and Q2 2014, and has halved again since, with just 7.4 per cent of prospective buyers in China Confidential’s most recent survey planning to buy a Samsung phone.然而,此后,这家韩国手机制造商的受欢迎程度大幅下滑,该公司发现自己腹背受敌。2013年第二季度至2014年第二季度,三星受欢迎程度下降逾一半,此后再次下降一半,在《中国投资参考》的最新调查中,只有7.4%的中国潜在手机购买者计划购买三星手机。Apple’s popularity, by contrast, has surged over the same period, buoyed first by the launch of lower-priced iPhone models and more recently by the release of the large-screen iPhone6 and 6 Plus models last October — the large screen-size of many Samsung models had been a major reason for their previous popularity in China. Ahead of the iPhone 6 launch, a record 48.5 per cent of phone buyers said they planned to buy an Apple phone in China Confidential’s Q3 2014 survey. While Apple buying intentions moderated slightly in the immediate aftermath of the launch, they have remained strong, with Chinese buyers continuing to be attracted by Apple’s strong brand and the good reputation of its handsets.相比之下,苹果的受欢迎程度同期一直飙升,首先得益于价格较低iPhone机型的推出,而后又受益于去年10月iPhone 6和iPhone 6 Plus大屏手机系列的推出——很多三星手机配备的大屏幕一直是三星之前在中国广受欢迎的一个主要原因。在《中国投资参考》2014年第三季度的调查中,在iPhone 6推出之前,创纪录的48.5%的手机购买者表示,计划购买苹果手机。尽管在iPhone 6推出后不久,消费者购买苹果手机的愿望略有下滑,但苹果手机的需求仍一直强劲,中国消费者继续被苹果的强大品牌以及手机质量的良好声誉所吸引。This has driven stellar China sales growth for the US company, with China iPhone sales soaring 72 per cent year on year during the first quarter of 2015, outstripping sales of the handset in the US for the first time. Strong buying intentions for Apple in China Confidential’s most recent survey suggest that this strong sales picture likely persisted into Q2 2015. By contrast, the fact that Samsung buying intentions continued to fall in despite the imminent launch of its heavily promoted Galaxy S6 and S6 Edge models does not bode well; the contrast with the surge in buying intentions ahead of Apple’s iPhone 6 launch was marked.这推动苹果在华销量强劲增长,2015年第一季度,iPhone在华销量同比飙升72%,首次超过在美国的销量。在《中国投资参考》最新调查中,对苹果手机的强劲购买意愿表明,这种强劲销量趋势可能会持续到今年第二季度。相比之下,尽管三星即将推出其大力宣传的Galaxy S6和Galaxy S6 Edge系列,但消费者购买三星手机的兴趣继续降温,这不是个好兆头;这与在苹果推出iPhone 6之前消费者购买iPhone兴趣飙升形成鲜明对比。Meanwhile, at the lower end, Samsung has found itself increasingly outplayed by lower-cost Chinese smartphone makers such as Huawei and Xiaomi, both of which make and sell feature-rich handsets using the same Android operating system as Samsung phones but at significantly lower prices. The cheapest model in Samsung’s popular Galaxy series retails in China for around Rmb2,000 (2), whereas both Xiaomi and Huawei sell smartphone handsets for about half this price. In China Confidential’s most recent survey, 20.8 per cent of respondents said they planned to buy a Huawei phone, up more than 100 per cent year on year, while 10.1 per cent planned to buy a Xiaomi handset, ranking it ahead of Samsung for the first time in the survey.与此同时,在较低端智能手机领域,三星发现自己正日益被华为(Huawei)和小米(Xiaomi)等中国成本较低的手机制造商赶超,华为和小米生产和销售功能丰富的智能手机,都采用与三星手机一样的安卓(Android)操作系统,但价格却低得多。在颇受欢迎的三星Galaxy系列手机中,价格最低的机型在中国的零售价在2000元人民币(合322美元)左右,而小米和华为销售的智能手机价格为三星价格的一半左右。在《中国投资参考》的最新调查中,20.8%的受访者表示,他们计划购买华为手机,同比增加逾一倍,10.1%的受访者计划购买小米手机,这是《中国投资参考》开始此项调查以来小米排名首次超过三星。Samsung is taking measures to address this slide in its popularity, including the development of its own operating system and new product launches. Yet it faces an uphill task to win back lost market share in China, especially as smartphone sales begin to slow as the market matures.三星正采取措施应对人气下滑局面,包括开发自己的操作系统以及推出新产品。然而,该公司面临着夺回在中国丧失的市场份额的艰巨任务,特别是随着市场的成熟,智能手机销量开始放缓。Apple remains overwhelmingly the smartphone brand of choice among high-end consumers and is aiming to expand its appeal among lower-income consumers and those in lower-tier cities, where Samsung has previously enjoyed stronger popularity than its US rival.苹果仍然是高端消费者智能手机品牌的不二选择,苹果还计划增强其在较低收入人群以及二三线城市消费者中的吸引力,在这部分人群,三星以前的受欢迎程度要超过苹果。Meanwhile Huawei and Xiaomi, and emerging challengers such as Oppo and Meizu, in which Alibaba purchased a minority stake in February, continue to release new handsets and are investing heavily in research and development and marketing.与此同时,华为和小米,以及Oppo和魅族(Meizu)等新兴竞争对手,正继续发布新款手机,并在研发和市场营销方面投入巨资。今年2月,阿里巴巴(Alibaba)购入魅族少数股权。The really bad news for Samsung is that these struggles are not confined to China. Chinese handset makers such as Xiaomi and Oppo are increasingly broadening their focus beyond the home market — in particular into India and Southeast Asia, where their low-cost, feature-rich handsets have aly won them significant popularity in a short time. Samsung’s reversal of fortunes in China could well play out in other regional markets.对于三星而言,真正糟糕的消息是,这种困境并不限于中国。小米和Oppo等中国手机制造商正日益扩大其对本国市场之外领域的关注,特别是进军印度和东南亚市场,其低成本且功能丰富的手机已在短时间内让它们受到极大欢迎。三星在中国命运的逆转很有可能会在其他亚洲市场重演。 /201506/380854。
  • The Spark Program星火计划At the end of the 1970s, the reform of economic institution first started in rural areas in China.The family output related contract responsibility system was established and has aroused the farmers’ enthusiasm for getting rich through hard working and brought about a significant change to the production relations in the rural areas. Since the beginning of the 1980s, the township industries have developed rapidly and the rural economy has become unprecedented active. The specialization and commercialization of agricultural production have made the farmers more and more aware of the importance of science and technology, and hence the requirements for sciences have widely emerged in the rural areas. In March 1985 , the Chinese government started the reform of scientific and technological institution in the whole country, further clarifying the policy for the development of science and technology,“Economic construction must rely on science and technology and scientific and technological workers to be oriented toward rural economy”, extend research achievements of science and technology to rural areas and help develop the rural economy. China is a large agricultural country with the rural population occupying 80% of the national total, and to solve the problems of agricultural, rural areas and farmers is needed by realizing the modernization of China and promoting the development of rural productive force.In May 1985 , the Ministry of Science and Technology submitted to the State Council a suggestion to “implement a batch of scientific and technological projects of quick benefit so as to promote Local economy” , in which the proverb “A single spark can start a prairie fir” was ed, hence came the name of Spark Program, meaning that the spark of science and technology will extend over the vast rural areas of China. The Chinese government approved the implementation of this program in early 1986.20世纪70年代末期,中国经济体制的改革率先在农村起步。家庭联产承包责任制的建立,激发了亿万农民劳动致富的热情,使中国农村生产关系发生了一次重大变革。进入80年代以后,乡镇工业发展迅猛,农业经济空前活跃。农业生产的专业化、商品化使农民越来越认识到科学技术的重要性,从而使农村普遍产生了对科学的需求和渴望。1985年3月,中国政府在全国实行科技体制改革,进一步明确了“经济建设必须依靠科学技术,科学技术工作必须面向经济建设”的科技发展方针,为广大科研院所和科技工作者面向农村经济主战场、向农村推广科技成果、帮助农村发展经济提供了契机。中国是一个农业大国,农村人口占80%,解决农业、农村和农民问题是实现中国现代化的关键,从这个基点出发,顺应全国经济体制改革的形势和农村生产力发展的需要,1985年5月,国家科委向国务院提出了“关于抓一批短、平、快科技项目促进地方经济振兴”的请示,引用了中国的一句谚语“星星之火,可以燎原”誉名为“星火计划”。寓意为科技的星星之火,必将燃遍中国的农村大地。1986年初中国政府批准实施这项计划。The Spark Program is the first program approved by the Chinese government to promote the development of rural economy by relying on science and technology and is an important component of plans for the national economic and scientific and technological development. The purpose of the program is to introduce advanced, appropriate technologies into the rural areas and lead the farmers to rely on science and technology in the rural areas, promote rural productivity, and expedite the sustainable, rapid and healthy development of agriculture and rural economy.星火计划是经中国政府批准实施的第一个依靠科学技术促进农村经济发展的计划,是我国国民经济和科技发展计划的重要组成部分。其宗旨是:把先进适用的技术引向农村,引导亿万农民依靠科技发展农村经济,引导乡镇企业的科技进步,促进农村劳动者整体素质的提高,推动农业和农村经济持续、快速、健康发展。 /201602/422146。
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