内蒙古医学院附属医院激光祛斑多少钱腾讯问答

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 内蒙古医学院附属医院激光祛斑多少钱和讯学术
Spains economy西班牙经济The worst may be over最糟的情况即将结束Mariano Rajoy predicts economic joy, but Spain still has a long way to go马里亚诺·拉霍伊预测经济形势可喜,但是西班牙仍然任重道远。THE Prado museum, lined with works by Goya, Velázquez and El Greco, is a sanctuary of peace in busy centralMadrid. When the museum advertised for eleven gallery attendants recently, it also seemed the perfect refuge fromSpains job-starved economy: 18,700 people applied.陈列着戈雅,委拉兹开斯,格列柯等人作品的普拉多物馆无疑是喧闹的马德里市中心最宁静的天堂。尤其是当18700人申请它登出的11个画廊务员招聘广告时,在导致西班牙大面积失业的经济危机中它似乎也成为了完美的避难所。 AsSpaintimidly emerges from a double-dip recession that has ripped 7% out of GDP over five years, job-seekers remain desperate. Unemployment is stuck at 26% and emigration is picking up. So will the recovery create jobs and sendSpaininto a virtuous cycle of increased domestic consumption, a higher tax take, healthy public finances and more jobs?由于在过去5年的双底衰退中“胆怯”的西班牙国内生产总值已经降低了7%,求职者们仍然显得非常绝望。失业率达到了26%,而且移民的人数也在持续增长。所以经济复苏是否会带来更多工作并且将西班牙送入一个良性循环?——持续增长的国内消费,更高的税收,公共医疗资金和更多的工作岗位。Presenting next years budget on September 30th, Cristobal Montoro, the budget minister, did not offer rapid relief. Projected growth of 0.7% next year falls short of the governments own estimates for job creation. And with a planned deficit of 5.8% of GDP adding to an aly worrying debt pile, stimulus spending is impossible.9月30日在报告第二年财政预算时,预算部长克里斯托 瓦尔蒙托罗并没有送出让人迅速解脱的消息。预期的0.7%的增长将会低于政府自身对明年增加就业机会的估计。而且随着一个有计划的占GDP5.8%的财政赤字增添到一堆已经很让人担忧的债务上,刺激消费已经是不可能的了。Civil-service pay is being frozen for a fourth year in a row and pensions will not keep up with inflation, yet the public debt will still reach almost 100% of GDP. Spanish companies and households are busy trying to pay off their own debts. After taking a 41 billion (.6 billion) bail-out last year,Spains banks find it safer to lend to the government than to business.公务员薪金已经连续第四年被冻结而且养老金即将跟不上通货膨胀的势头,但是国债仍然将接近国内生产总值的100%。西班牙企业家和民众都忙着还清他们自己的债务。在去年得到了410亿欧元(556亿美元)的经济援助之后,西班牙的发现借钱给政府比借钱给商人更安全。Even so,Spains story is now one of hope. Mariano Rajoy, the prime minister, says the third quarter will show a return to growth. Deep in the real economy, exciting things are happening. Car plants are humming, taking work from less competitive factories inEurope. Retail sales figures are improving elsewhere. Even consumer credit has crept up in recent months. Recession inflicted a brutal cull on businesses, but those still standing are more efficient and productive than ever. Exports, spurred bySpains new competitiveness, should grow more than 5% both this year and next, doubling their pre-recession weight in the economy. With exports booming, the current account has swung into surplus.即使是这样,西班牙的形势现在仍然是存在希望的。首相拉霍伊表示第三季度将会呈现出恢复增长的态势。深入到现实经济中,一些令人激动的事正在发生。汽车工厂都是非常活跃的,并且正从欧洲那些缺少竞争力的工厂手中争得业务。在其它方面零售数据也正在改善。甚至是贷款消费在最近几个月也在缓慢增长。经济衰退对企业进行了一次残酷的淘汰,但是那些依然坚挺的企业比以往任何时候都更有效率和创造力。由于西班牙新的竞争环境的鞭策,它的出口业在今明两年会得到超过5%的增长——这是经济衰退前的两倍数值。随着出口业的蓬勃发展,往来账户已经开始变得有盈余。Recovery in the European Union,Spains main export market, will help further. The stockmarket is soaring, with the Ibex-35 indicator gaining 11% in September. After a bruising 21 months in office, Mr Rajoy predicts economic happiness next year. His Popular Party (PP) has even seen a bounce in opinion polls.同时随着西班牙主要出口市场——欧盟的经济好转,将进一步地帮助西班牙经济复苏。股市也在疯涨,9月Ibex-35指数上涨了11%。在办公室中度过了21个月“难熬”的日子之后,拉霍伊预测明年经济将大为好转。民意调查显示他的人民党持率甚至出现反弹。But Javier Díaz-Giménez, of the IESE business school, warns that the recovery is anaemic, fragile and unlikely to create jobs. Average GDP growth of 1%, he points out, would not seeSpainreturn to pre-recession levels until 2021. The IMF sees 25% unemployment through to 2018.但是IESE商学院的哈维尔·迪亚斯—希门尼斯警告说这种复苏是无力的和脆弱的并且不太可能去创造更多工作。他指出平均国内生产总值只增长了1%,不太可能在2021年之前看到西班牙经济恢复到经济衰退前的水平。国际货币基金组织(IMF)认为25%的失业率将持续到2018年。The danger, warns Angel Laborda of the Funcas think-tank, is relaxation. Aly he worries that this years 6.5% deficit target will be missed. Overall fiscal pressure is relatively low for a country that wants a sophisticated welfare system. Structural reforms are still needed, he says, butSpainenters a two-year period of elections in 2014, sapping political courage. Overconfidence threatens to slow the fall in house prices, making it even harder to sell the 700,000 new homes left by the housing bubble that pitchedSpaininto recession. Fitch, a ratings agency, warns that at current rates of selling it will take six years to clear the overhang. Prices have fallen 30% or more from the peak, but Jesús Encinar of idealista.com, a property portal, sees a further 20% drop.智库储蓄联合会的安格列 拉发出警告说政府的松懈是危险的。他已经开始担心今年6.5%的财政赤字会被人们所忽视。总的来说一个国家的财政压力与它复杂的福利体系相比相对较低。他表示体制改革仍然是有必要的,但是西班牙在2014年即将进入一个为期2年的选举阶段,这有可能会削弱政府的勇气。过分的自负预示着房价下调将会变慢,这让由房地产泡沫遗留下来的70万余套房屋更难售出,这也是导致西班牙经济衰退的主要原因。来自评价机构的菲奇警告说以当前的水平要将房屋的过剩量全部售出将需要6年。房价比顶峰时期已经下降了30%,但是来自idealista网站的房地产专家Jesús Encinar认为将来还会有20%的降价。The next test for Mr Rajoy is pensions. A diet rich in olive oil, wine and fresh vegetables helps make Spaniards among the longest-living people inEurope. The baby-boomers will retire over the coming decade. By 2050, the number of pensioners will have leapt from just over 9m to 15m; and the social-security system aly loses the equivalent of 1.4% of GDP. The previous government hiked the retirement age to 67, but that is not enough. “To claim that the current system is sustainable is like saying smoking does not cause cancer,” says Mr Díaz-Giménez. The government has made bold proposals to calculate pensions according to life expectancy and the size of the state pension pot. But Mr Rajoy is under pressure to backtrack. Even the employers federation has warned of pensioners lost spending power.对于拉霍伊的下一个考验就是养老金。既节制的又富有的包含着橄榄油,酒和新鲜蔬菜的饮食习惯帮助西班牙人民成为欧洲最长寿的人之一。在接下来10年生育高峰期即将过去。到2050年,领取养老金的人数将从900万猛增到1500万;但同时社保体系却已经失去了相当于1.4%的国内生产总值的资金。早先政府将退休年龄提高到67岁,但这并不足以解决问题。吉姆表示“如果宣称现行体系是可维系下去的就像宣称吸烟不会导致癌症一样可笑。”政府已经开始根据平均寿命和国家养老金的余额去分配养老金了。但是拉霍伊依然承担着走老路的压力。即使雇主联合会已经警告过已经丧失消费能力的养老金领取者。Labour reforms have helped to boost productivity, allowing employers and unions to opt for wage moderation rather than sackings. More may be needed if jobs are to be created. Lowering, or scrapping, the minimum wage might help. Taxes could also be cut, but only if public spending is cut. Luis de Guindos, the finance minister, says jobs will come when growth reaches 1%. Until then, the Prado museum remains a safe harbour.劳务改革确实对提高生产效率有帮助,允许雇主们和公会去自行调整工资水平而不是一刀切。但如果有可能还是需要更多地工作机会。降低或者废除最低工资标准可能会有效果。税收也应该降低,但仅仅在公共花销也降低的情况下。财政部长Luis de Guindos 表示当经济增长达到1%时将会有更多地工作。在那之前,普拉多物馆依然是一个安全的港湾。译者:曾擎禹 校对:周雨晴 译文属译生译世 /201511/412328

As the siege tower rose, it claimed lives of many Guge slaves.随着高塔越建越高,许多战俘也因此牺牲生命。Ancient stories tell how the slaves were beaten so mercilessly, through their organ show to their flesh.传说这些战俘,因受到残忍的拷打,而使器官破裂露出体外。But building a 100-meter structure of this kind would have been a near impossible engineering feat for its time.但要兴建一百公尺的高塔,在当时几乎是不可能的工程。Instead, experts believe the Ladahki siege tower was a psychological rather a physical gambit.学者相信这座拉达克高塔打的是心理战。How long could King Khri bKra shis Grags pa lde bear to watch the daily torture and suffering of his captured subjects?赤扎西扎巴德国王可以忍受多久,眼睁睁看着他的人民日夜受到折磨?As legend has it, the last king, Khri bKra shis Grags pa lde, seeing the great suffering that his people were enduring building this wall without food and as a, died and succumbed to the pressures of construction.传说当中提到那位末代君王赤扎西扎巴德眼睁睁看着他的人民历经挨饿死于建墙的庞大压力之下。He saw the great suffering that his people were undergoing.亲眼目睹他的子民蒙受巨大的痛苦。And he had a great pity, the king of Guge, and he decided, it must have been a difficult decision, but he decided, in the end, to surrender.这让他心如刀割,这位古格国王最后做出了决定,在当时一定是个相当为难的打算,但他还是决定以投降结束这一切。According to legend, in the final hour of Guge, King Khri Kra shis Grags pa lde and his retinue made their poignant descent from summit to base, even bearing gifts of gold and silver to appease the invaders.传说赤扎西扎巴德及他的大臣悲痛从山顶步向山下,甚至带着金银财宝讨好入侵者。But the reception they received from the Ladahkis is surrounded in controversy.但拉达克人却将他们团团围住。In one fell swoop, the 700-year-old kingdom of Guge had been conquered.七百年之久的古格王朝终于被征。But what happened after the king surrender is still shrouded in mystery.但国王投降后发生什么仍笼罩着谜团。 译文属201605/442055The Coast Guard is investigating a leak from a 78-year-old tank barge in western Lake Erie thats believed to be the Argo.It sank in a storm in 1937.Records show it was carrying about 100,000 gallons of crude oil when it sank. No one knows yet what exactly is still on board.A dive team with the Cleveland Underwater Explorers reported a leak of an unknown substance from the barge on Friday night. The Coast Guard confirmed the leak on Saturday, and that triggered the emergency response.A dive team is on Lake Erie today to try to find the leak.Lieutenant Greg Scweitzer is with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Hes helping the Coast Guard with its response effort.;Whether or not theyre successful in identifying the leak depends on whether or not the leak is still active. If its not, itll probably be very difficult for the divers to determine where that source is.;He says the wreck is covered in zebra mussels. That makes it hard to tell if there are cracks in the hull.The Coast Guard says theres no immediate risk to human health.A trip out to the wreck siteI got a chance to visit the wreck site last week, before anyone discovered it was leaking.Now, the Coast Guard has set up a restricted zone around the wreck site. But last Thursday, when I took a ride on Tom Kowalczks shipwreck searching boat Dragonfly, the barge was not known to pose any kind of risk.Kowalczk is the guy who found the tank barge in late August. Hes retired from his career working for an automotive supplier. For the past 40 years, hes spent his weekends looking for shipwrecks.He dials up the GPS coordinates, we pull away from the marina at Lakeside, Ohio, and motor out into Lake Erie.Were about an hour away from shore when he flips on the depth finder and points out a big peak that pops up on the screen.;There it is right there – we just went over top of the wreck.;Kowalczk says the Argo was not built for the open waters of Lake Erie.;As you can tell, were rocking pretty good right now and you could imagine a tugboat pulling a fully loaded barge that only had two foot of freeboard. It was only sticking out of the water two feet and these huge, big waves crashing down on it and it didnt survive the storm,; he says.Kowalczk says he just happened upon this wreck. He was pulling a side scan sonar device that uses sound waves to map the bottom of the lake to look for a different shipwreck - a wooden sailing ship called the Lexington - and there it was, a steel oil tanker on the bottom of Lake Erie.;All of the historic records for the sinking said that it was a considerable distance, many miles, five or six miles north of where we are right now. When it showed up on the screen I was really surprised, because I wasnt expecting to see anything here,; he says.CLUE looks for shipwrecks in cooperation with the National Museum of the Great Lakes, which provides funding for the fuel costs for the long days of methodical searching out on the lake.Christopher Gillcrist is the museums executive director. He says their shipwreck budget for Lake Erie runs about ,000 to ,000 a year.;If the federal or state government hired a cultural resource management firm to go out and look for these wrecks, the cost would be tremendous. Here, were doing it with volunteers, who are not paid, to go out and look with side scan sonar. Its a great model to go out and find shipwrecks,; he says.He says the story of the Argos discovery will appear in the museums journal Inland Seas this winter.A fortuitous discoveryIt turns out the Argo was aly on a list of hazardous shipwrecks, but no one knew exactly where it was.In 2013, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration published a risk assessment of shipwrecks that could be pollution hazards.The Argo is considered the biggest pollution threat from a shipwreck in the Great Lakes.Lisa Symons is with NOAAs Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. She wrote the risk assessment.She says the barges records indicate it was carrying close to 200,000 gallons of two petroleum products: a product called benzol, and crude oil.;Our assumption is that it was half and half cargo but we have no way of knowing for sure.;She says they only modeled the pollution threat for the crude oil.;We didnt model it for the benzol because we believe the benzol probably volatilized at the time of the incident. Its a much lighter fuel and that wouldve been more likely to be able to get out of the wreck more easily,; she says.Symons says the barge had been loaded with its cargo not long before it sank. Now, everyone is wondering how much of that oil is still on the barge.First, the Coast Guard has to investigate the leak. Then, itll look into how to deal with whats still on board.201510/406256and so through the stories they can connect to the animals所以通过这些故事他们便能和动物们在情感上建立联系and be inspired by the animals,cuz the animals have healed so to coney同时也受到动物们的激励 因为动物们都能痊愈得那么快amazing job you are doing and the story is a great story how you got started你的工作是一个很棒的工作 你怎么起步的故事也是一个很棒的故事and your fiance is working with you Jay and hi Jay而你的未婚夫也陪你一起干 杰 嘿 杰Its really a cool thing so we want to help you out because they need money这确实是一件很酷的事 所以我们想要帮助你走出困境 因为 他们需要钱and they are helping so many animals that need to be taken out of horrible situations他们正在帮助一些急需 被带离困境的动物们So we have friends at Tonic.com who have been so extraordinarily generous with us for any occasion when they know somebody needs money在Tonic.com上我们有一些朋友 无论何时当他们得知有人需要经济资助的时候 他们都表现的异常的大方I know you are trying to raise 100 thousands dollars to rescue some dairy cows我知道你正在筹集10万美元 来救助奶牛场的一些奶牛们there give you 50 thousand dollars right now,OMG现在给你5万美元 天啊alright and we can help,everything you donate helps是的 我们可以伸出援手 你所捐赠的任何一样东西都有用please log on to our website to learn,how you can help the Gentle Barn reach their goal of raising 100 thousand dollars请打开电脑登陆我们的网看看你能为“温柔之乡” 的筹集10万美元的梦想做些什么and go to our website and you have to log on to the Gentle Barn来到我们的网站 你得先打开电脑来到“温柔之乡”because when you see the stories and when you see everything they are doing for these amazing animals因为你会了解到那些故事 你会看到他们为这些可爱的动物们所付出的一切and go visit if you can its an amazing experience and bring your kids to learn more about that如果有可能去参观一下那里吧 那确实是一个美妙的地方 带上你的孩子让他们也有更多的了解any way congratulations.Simon Cowell will be here after this无论如何 恭喜 西蒙·考威尔马上就会来到这里 /201606/448497

Weirdly,I never had any problems with bullies in school.Lacrosse players and football players were nice to me in school.奇怪的是 在学校没有恶霸欺负我 学校的长曲棍球手和橄榄球员对我都很好But when I went to art camp,I got bullied at arts camp,which但是我去艺术夏令营时 我在那里被欺负了 那不该的No one get bullied at arts camp.Not true.One guy in particular,没人在艺术夏令营被欺负 不是的 特别是一个人This little guy,who is probably like 43,his name was Jared and he was,he played magic the gathering.一个小矮子 大概1米29 他叫杰瑞德 他玩万智牌He was a violist.So even in the world of string instruments,thats a nerd.他是个中提琴手 就算在弦乐器的世界里 那也算是个书呆Violist is just like want to be violinist.He wasnt even cool in the ork extra.中提琴手就是想成为小提琴手的人 他在管弦乐队里都不算酷And he was a ceramics enthusiast,so he was like a nerd in every conceivable way you could be a nerd.Hes like the James Franco of nerds.Right.他是个陶瓷爱好者 所以他在各方面都是个书呆 像是书呆中的詹姆斯·佛兰科 嗯And he would bully me.He would like kick me and call me names.He would be like,all right,got to go finish my vase for the kill and or whatever.他会欺负我 他会踢我 骂我 他会说 好了 我得完成花瓶了 之后好杀人Why would you put up with that?Fight back.I think he is confidence.I couldnt.你为什么要忍受啊 反抗啊 我觉得他很自信 我不能He was so confident.He had no cause for confident but he had limitless supplies.他非常自信 他没有自信的原因 但他相当自信So he would literally go after me and then be like,all right,time to play Schubert or whatever.所以他会欺负我 然后说 好了 该演奏舒伯特了Thats how every bully should finish their beating.what were you like in high school?每个恶霸都该这样结束欺凌 你高中时是什么样子I was pretty much like this,but I was 30 pounds lighter.Oh,my god.Yeah,like picture like a claimation giraffe.跟现在差不多 但是轻30磅 天啊 是啊 像是泥塑动画里的长颈鹿201608/460984If you look up at the sky tonight, youll experience a rare celestial phenomenon: a solstice full moon. 如果你今晚仰望天空,你会发现一个罕见的天体现象, 至日满月。Depending on your timezone, this may be the first of its kind since 1948. 根据你所在的时区,这可能是自1948以来的首次。Full moons are known to cause fitful nights of sleep, so beware! 众所周知,满月会引起夜间睡眠间断,所以要小心!In 2013, the jorunal Current Biology published a study where researchers found that on the night of a full moon participants had lower levels of the sleep hormone melatonin. 2013年,现代生物学期刊发表一项研究,发现在满月的夜晚参与者有较低水平的睡眠荷尔蒙褪黑素。Participants in the study slept 20 minutes less on average and deep sleep brain activity decreased by 30 percent. 研究对象比平均少睡20分钟,深度睡眠脑活动减少百分之30。Whether you get as much sleep or not, researchers have also found that the days around summer solstice are the happiest days of the year.无论你睡眠足够与否,研究人员还发现夏至前后是一年中最快乐的日子。译文属。201606/450352A Kim in his counting house一位在账房的朝鲜领导人The regime suffers none of the consequences of its misrule朝鲜政权没有受到暴政所带来的恶果A powerful army usually depends on a strong economy. Not in North Korea. Per head, the country has more soldiers than any other: 1.2m out of a population of 25m. As well as a huge conventional arsenal, it also has a dozen nuclear warheads and spends perhaps billion a year on a nuclear programme that involves rocket launches and nuclear tests—the latest took place last week, the fourth since 2006. Yet the performance of the economy over the past four decades has been little sprightlier than that of the Great Leader, Kim Il Sung, since he was embalmed in 1994.一强大的军队通常依赖于经济繁荣。但在朝鲜却不是这样。如果算人均军人数,朝鲜比任何一个国家军人数量都要多:2500万的人口中有120万名军人。除了常规的大批军械外,朝鲜还拥有12枚核弹头,每年花费大约30亿美元在核项目上,其中包括导弹发射和核武器测试—就在上周朝鲜进行了最新一次测试,这是自2006年来的第四次测试。但是在过去的四十年里,朝鲜经济仅仅比1994年被防腐处理的“伟大领袖”金日成在位时稍稍富有生机一点点。North Korea suppresses most economic data. But as far as we know, from the 1950s to the 1970s its economy outgrew capitalist South Korea, as a Stalinist state marshalled all resources towards production. Today the Norths per capita GDP is only one-40th of the Souths—a wretched 0 a year or so, by UN estimates. The blame rests squarely with the Kim dynastys ruinous policies. Yet the regime of Kim Jong Un, the third Kim on the throne, pays no penalty for the peoples suffering. Rather, it funnels money to itself, the elites and the nuclear programme.朝鲜封锁了其大部分经济数据,但就我们了解,从上世纪50年代一直到70年代朝鲜的经济增长速度要快于资本主义国家韩国。这是因为作为一个斯大林主义国家,朝鲜那时将全国的资源都投入到了生产当中。如今朝鲜的人均GDP只有韩国的四十分之一。据联合国估计,其人均GDP大约只有可怜的600美元每年。这直接归咎于金王朝毁灭性的政策。。但是金王朝的第三代当权者金正恩的政权却没有为人民所受的苦痛付出任何代价。甚至,它还在为自己,为朝鲜精英层,为其核项目敛财。In a recent paper for South Koreas Asan Institute, Nicholas Eberstadt of the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, DC tries to estimate the scale of North Koreas economic catastrophe. Given the paucity of data, Mr Eberstadt used “mirror statistics”: estimates of the countrys trade divined from other countries records. He then made adjustments for population growth and inflation. It is no straight proxy for output, but useful nonetheless.来自华盛顿特区美国企业研究所(the American Enterprise Institute in Washington, DC)的尼古拉斯·埃伯施塔特(Nicholas Eberstadt)在其最近为韩国峨山研究院(South Koreas Asan Institute)撰写的一篇报告中试图估计出北朝鲜的经济灾难的规模。由于缺乏数据,他使用“镜像统计数据”:也就是用与他国的贸易记录来估计朝鲜的贸易量。然后他再根据国家的人口和通胀情况对估计出来的数据做出调整。得出的结果虽然不是朝鲜产出的直接指标,但是却是有用的。Mr Eberstadt found that North Koreas per-capita exports last year were no higher than at their peak in the late 1970s, while per-capita imports were two-fifths lower. North Koreas economic underperformance is remarkable for a country that is neither a failed state nor at war, he says.埃伯施塔特发现,朝鲜去年的人均出口没有上世纪70年代达到贸易顶峰的时候高,人均进口则下降了五分之二。他还说:朝鲜经济既没处在动荡中,也没处于战乱中,但经济却萎靡不振,这实在太不寻常。What went wrong? The collapse of the Soviet Union, upon which the North had long relied for cheap machinery and oil, certainly hit it hard in the 1990s. Weakened by bad weather, centrally run agricultural production collapsed in the 1990s, leading to a famine in which hundreds of thousands of people died. International sanctions in response to North Koreas nuclear bomb-testing have also hurt.究竟哪里出错了呢?朝鲜过去长期依赖前苏联低价进口给他们的机器与石油,上世纪90年代苏联解体对它造成了严重打击。在同一时期,糟糕的天气使由朝鲜中央领导运营的农业生产产量猛降,饥荒袭来,致使成千上万人丧生。由于朝鲜进行核弹实验,国际社会对其进行制裁,这对其经济低迷也有影响。But the biggest problem, Mr Eberstadt argues, is that North Korea has the worst business environment of any functioning state: worse even than Cuba, Venezuela or Zimbabwe. It has no property rights or rule of law, no legal private trade and a currency prone to confiscation: in the government wiped out small traders savings by declaring old banknotes invalid and swapping only a few for new ones.但是埃伯施塔特认为,朝鲜最大的问题在于该国的商业环境是所有运作正常的国家中最糟糕的,甚至比古巴,委内瑞拉和津巴布韦还不如。在朝鲜没有产权,没有法制,没有合法私营贸易,而且你的钱还很有可能遭到充公。年,朝鲜政府宣布旧钞作废,进而没收了小型贸易商的积蓄,并只交换了少量的新钞。A striking feature of the Norths economic decline is the quantities of foreign aid that accompanied it. North Korea has a long history of shaking down donors—first the Soviet Union, then, after 1991, America and South Korea, and most recently China. The total amount of transfers is impossible to quantify. But Mr Eberstadt estimates the sum from the Norths two biggest historical backers, Russia and China, by taking its balance of trade deficits with each of them as an approximation of net resource flows into the North—assuming that the surplus is a debt that will not be repaid. That surplus amounts to billion, in todays money, between 1960 and 2013.北朝鲜经济下滑的一个很明显的特征就是伴随着经济下滑而增长的外国援助量。北朝鲜在敲诈援助者方面可谓是经验老道了。它第一次敲诈的是前苏联,然后在1991年之后依次敲诈了美国,韩国,最近一次则是中国。朝鲜接受的援助总量无法量化估计。但是埃伯施塔特将俄罗斯和中国(两个历史上朝鲜最大的靠山)与朝鲜的贸易逆差看成是流入朝鲜净资源的近似值,从而估计出俄中对朝鲜的援助总量。这一方法的假设条件是将差额部分视作一项不用偿还的负债。从1960到2013,这一数据换算成现值总计达450亿美元。The money seems to have helped the Kims live like god-kings and still have enough left over to pay the army, the secret police and various suppliers of nuclear materials. Yet Rüdiger Frank, an economist at the University of Vienna, thinks that increased supplies of hard currency may also have helped the informal markets for food and basic supplies that burgeoned as a response to the famine. These black markets are the single most benign transformation in North Korea in the past few years. Most North Koreans now depend on them for their livelihoods. The state usually turns a blind eye, since its central planning system, which is supposed to apportion goods, has broken down. Besides, the elites demand their cut.这一大笔援助似乎让金氏家族过上了国王般的生活,还剩下足够的钱用来付军队,秘密警察和各种核材料的供应商。但是维也纳大学的经济学家弗兰克(Rüdiger Frank)认为硬通货供应量的增加也助长了朝鲜的黑市交易。为了应对饥荒,这种供应食物和生活必需品的黑市快速发展壮大起来。在过去几年,朝鲜的黑市就是一场良性的变革。大多数朝鲜人依赖黑市来维持他们的生活。由于本来应该起到分配商品作用的中央计划系统崩溃,政府通常对此睁一只眼闭一只眼。另外,那些朝鲜精英们也想在黑市买东西时得到些折扣。Some see in such markets the seeds of deeper economic reform. And Mr Kim seems keener than his father to promise prosperity to his people, and even a modicum of leisure. North Koreas capital, Pyongyang, now boasts a dolphinarium and a water park, and even a ski resort to its east. As high rises go up, the capitals fashionable sip espressos in upmarket bars.有些人从这类市场中看到了深化经济改革的种子。并且相比于他的父亲,金正恩似乎更加热切的希望给他的人民带去繁荣昌盛甚至给他们一点休闲活动。如今平壤新建了一所海豚馆和一所水上公园,在其东边甚至建了一滑雪胜地。随着一幢幢高楼拔地而起,平壤的时尚饮品浓咖啡进入了高档酒吧。Yet the regimes old habits are unchanged. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the state is squeezing the donju, North Koreas new successful class of traders. According to DailyNK, a news source with informants in the North, donju are worried that they will be forced to hand over hard-currency savings to make up for the “massive dollar bomb”—ie, the expensive nuclear test—that was detonated last week.但是金氏政权的旧习仍未改变。民间传闻,政府正在打压donju。donju是指朝鲜新兴的成功贸易商阶层。据朝鲜新闻提供源“今日朝鲜”透露,donju担心政府会强迫他们交出硬通货储蓄以此来资助“大规模美元炸弹”——例如上周进行的花销不菲的核试验。In the absence of direction from the top, there are limits to how much can change. A new policy that seems to have been quietly rolled out from 2013 allowed farmers to retain 30% of a new production target, plus any excess over the target, to sell on informal markets. Yet local officials are not distributing the promised shares, perhaps to make up a shortfall at cooperatives, according to a report by Radio Free Asia.由于缺乏高层的指挥,改变是有限的。一项似乎从2013年悄然开始的新政策允许农民保留新产量目标的30%。另外超出目标的部分可以留下拿黑市出售。根据亚洲自由广播((Radio Free Asia))的一篇报导,地方官员并没有给农民之前所承诺的份额,这或许是为了弥补合作社产量短期下滑的影响。Meanwhile, the few foreign investors brave enough to enter North Korea must contend with an unpredictable and predatory state. In November the biggest such, Orascom, an Egyptian telecoms company that set up the Norths first 3G mobile net- work, said that it thought it had lost control of its joint venture, and has not been able to repatriate its profits.同时,少数有勇气进入朝鲜的外国投资者不得不与这个无法预测并且损人利己的国家作斗争。其中最大的一家是埃及电讯公司Orascom,该公司在朝鲜建立了首个3G移动网络。在去年11月,它宣称自己已经失去了对合资企业的控制,无法将其利润汇回埃及。China remains North Koreas lifeline. Most products for sale in the Norths informal markets are from China. Last year North Korea sold over billion of minerals to China, chiefly coal. As Chinas economy slows and the price of coal falls, the North will suffer. But the regime has a solution: putting its scant resources into military power. This serves as a “battering-ram for international extortion”, as Mr Eberstadt puts it. Alas, it seems to work.中国仍然是朝鲜的生命线。北朝鲜黑市的大部分产品都是来自中国。去年朝鲜向中国销售了总价值超过10亿美元以煤炭为主的矿物。随着中国经济的放缓,煤炭价格逐下滑,朝鲜将受到重创。但是金氏政权有一个解决方法:将其匮乏的资源用于军事武器。埃伯施塔特将这种做法看成是朝鲜对国际社会进行勒索的一种强硬手段。不幸的是,这种方法似乎起作用了。翻译:倪凌晖 校对:戴秀平 译文属译生译世201602/427424

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